Main Idea: President Jackson showed the strength of his will in his fight with the Bank of the United States



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US History

Fort Burrows

12.2 -- Jackson in the White House

READ pgs 365 – 368

Main Idea:
President Jackson showed the strength of his will in his fight with the Bank of the United States.

Vocabulary:

spoils system - practice of rewarding supporters with gov’t jobs
“kitchen cabinet” - group of unofficial advisers to Andrew Jackson who met with him in the White House kitchen
Setting the Scene:
During the 1928 election campaign, many stories about Andrew Jackson spread. One recalled his days as a judge in Tennessee. A frontiersman named Russell Bean was supposed to appear before Jackson’s court, but he refused to come inside. Jackson came roaring out of the courthouse. “Surrender, you infernal villain,” he shouted, “or I’ll blow you through.” Bean looked into Jackson’s blazing eyes and quietly surrendered. The iron will that made Russell Bean surrender also made Jackson a powerful President.
Andrew Jackson

£ A Self-made Man

¿ a friend recalled, ‘I could throw him 3 times out of 4, but he would never stay throwed’

¿ joined the Revolutionary Army at 13, was captured, disobeyed a British officer’s command, and had his face and hand slashed by the officer’s sword

¿ became a lawyer, became very wealthy by buying/selling land in Georgia, was elected to Congress while in his 20s

¿ war hero from the WAR of 1812
£ A Man of Many Qualities

¿ short temper

¿ harsh to his enemies

¿ Opponents nicknamed him ‘King Andrew’ because of his intention to expand the powers of the Presidency

¿ man of his word, champion of the common people, hated by the Creek Indians – they nicknamed him ‘Sharp Knife’ because he showed no mercy
The Spoils System

£ Reward for Victory

¿ fired 200 old employees and replaced them with his ‘own’ supporters

¿ Jackson believed that the common man could and should learn gov’t jobs, “The duties of all public officials are so plain and simple that men of intelligence may readily qualify themselves for their performance.”

¿ President Jackson rewarded supporters with gov’t jobs, from then on the

practice of giving supporters gov’t jobs was known as the ‘Spoils System’
¿¿ What was the spoils system ?

__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________.
£ The “Kitchen Cabinet”

¿ rewarding the ‘common’ man with important Gov’t Cabinet jobs proved that it does take some skills

¿ most all of Jackson’s appointees, were not qualified; with the exception of Secretary of State Martin Van Buren

¿ Jackson relied on an unofficial group of advisors; men with a good sense of the nation’s mood

¿ they held meetings in the White House’s kitchen,

thus the name ‘Kitchen Cabinet’
The Bank War



£ Mr. Biddle’s Bank

¿ very powerful Bank of the United States Government

¿ Jackson thought the Bank was undemocratic

¿ Nicholas Biddle was the President of the Bank; very qualified, though arrogant

¿ had influence of some

members of Congress


£ Mr. Biddle’s Bank

Bank controls loans made by state banks



Loan cutbacks anger farmers and merchants



Jackson condemns those who run Bank






£ The War Begins

¿ Biddle, Henry Clay, and Daniel Webster, Whigs, wanted to maintain the Bank and destroy Jackson

¿ the Bank’s charter was not due until 1836

¿ Whigs wanted to defeat Jackson

£ The War Begins

Whigs persuade Biddle to apply early

for renewal of Bank’s charter



Congress approves charter renewal bill in 1832; Jackson vetoes





£ Jackson’s Veto

¿ Jackson’s sent a message to Congress

¿ Jackson declared the Bank unconstitutional

(Supreme Court ruled it was Constitutional )

¿ His point was that the Bank only helped Aristocrats and not the common people


£ Jackson’s Veto

Whigs make Bank a major issue in election of 1832



Jackson reelected;



stops putting gov’t money in Bank





When the laws undertake…to make the rich richer and the potent more powerful, the humble members of the society – the farmers, mechanics, and laborers – who have neither the time nor means of getting like favors for themselves…have a right to complain of the injustice of their government.”

Andrew Jackson, Veto Message, July 10, 1832



¿ the common people surprised the Whigs and reelected Jackson

Electoral Votes 219 to 49

States Carried 16 to 6

Popular Vote 701,780 to 484,205



Bank closes in 1836




£ The Bank Closes

¿ without a charter the Bank would be forced to close in 1836

¿ Jackson could not wait; he deposited all Federal Money into State Banks

¿ they became known as Jackson’s ‘pet banks’

¿ the closing of the Bank contributed to the Panic of 1837

The Panic of 1837 was an economic/money panic in the United States built on a speculative fever. The bubble burst on May 10, 1837 in New York City, when every bank stopped payment in ‘specie’ (gold and silver coinage). The Panic was followed by a three-year depression. This started when Jackson forced the National Bank to close. Martin Van Buren, 8th President, was in office for only 5 weeks when the Panic happened.


  1. Andrew Jackson believed that his veto of Congresses Bank Bill would…



A. make the President stronger than the Supreme Court

B. put an end to America’s aristocracy

C. represent the rights of the common people

D. pressure Biddle to resign from President of the Bank
2. What qualities helped Andrew Jackson succeed ?

a. ______________________________________

b. ______________________________________

c. ______________________________________

d. ______________________________________

3. Why did President Jackson fight the Bank of the United States ?
a. ________________________________________________________________

b. _______________________________________________________________

4. What 3 phrases did we get from Jackson’s Presidency ?

a. _________________________

b. _________________________

c. _________________________



of 12.2 Printer Notes



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