Main Idea: In the 1850s, violence in Kansas and the Dred Scott decision inflamed tensions over slavery



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US History

Fort Burrows

16.3 – The Crisis Deepens

READ pgs 468-472

Main Idea:
In the 1850s, violence in Kansas and the Dred Scott decision inflamed tensions over slavery.
Vocabulary:
Kansas-Nebraska Act – 1854 law that established the territories of Nebraska and Kansas, giving the settlers the right of popular sovereignty to decide on the issue of slavery
Border Ruffians – proslavery bands from Missouri who often rode across the border into Kansas to battle the antislavery forces there
guerrilla warfare – the use of hit-and-run military tactics
lawsuit – legal case brought to settle a dispute between a person or group
Dred Scott v. Sandford – Supreme Court case in which a slave, Dred Scott, sued for his freedom and lost; case brought into question the federal power over slavery in the territories
Setting the Scene:
Americans had hoped that the Compromise of 1850 would end the debate over slavery in the West. Before long, though, proslavery and antislavery forces were battling for control of the territory of Kansas. An observer described election day in one Kansas district in 1855:

“On the morning of the election, before the polls were opened, some

300 or 400 Missourians and others were collected in the yard… where the election was to be held, armed with bowie-knives, revolvers, and clubs. They said they came to vote without being sworn. Some said they came to have a fight, and wanted one.”
Hearing of the events in Kansas, Abraham Lincoln, then a young lawyer in Illinois, predicted that “the contest will come to blows, and bloodshed.” Once again, the issue of slavery in the territories divided the nation.

Kansas-Nebraska Act

 January 1854, Senator Stephen Douglas introduced a bill to set up two governments for the Nebraska Territory; Kansas and Nebraska Territory

 Boundaries: South – Texas, North – Canada, East from Missouri, West Rockies

 Douglas knew white Southerners did not want another free state

 He proposed to make two territories; Kansas and Nebraska

 Each territory would decide the issue of slavery by popular sovereignty

 This bill was known as the Kansas–Nebraska Act
¿¿ What was the purpose of the Kansas-Nebraska Act ?

___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________.

 Support for the Act

Kansas–Nebraska Act seemed to be fair; let the people of the territory decide if they wanted slavery or not

Southern leaders supported the Act

They hoped Missouri slave owners would move into Kansas; thus creating another slave state

President #14, Franklin Pierce a Democrat, also supported the bill by helping it pass through Congress

In doing so, Pierce is known for ‘lighting a fire under the powder keg’


Pierce was a Democrat and a "doughface"

(a Northerner with Southern sympathies) who served in the U.S. House of Representatives and Senate. Later, Pierce took part in the Mexican-American War and became a brigadier general. His private law practice was in his home state, New Hampshire.

In the presidential election, Pierce and his running mate William R. King won by a landslide in the electoral college, defeating the Whig Party ticket of Winfield Scott and William A. Graham by a 50% to 44% margin in the popular vote and 254 to 42 in the electoral vote.


 Northern Outrage

Northerners were unhappy with the bill; they claimed the Missouri Compromise had already banned slavery in Kansas and Nebraska

The Kansas–Nebraska Act would repeal the Missouri Compromise

Northern opponents called the Act, ‘criminal betrayal of precious rights’

They felt slavery could now spread to areas that had been free for more than 30 years

Their protest openly challenged the Fugitive Slave Act
The Crisis Turns Violent
 Kansas had become a testing ground for popular sovereignty

 Proslavery and antislavery groups fought for control of the territory

 Many farmers, most without slaves, came for cheap farm land

 Abolitionists brought more than 1,000 settlers from New England

 Proslavery settlers moved into Kansas also

 Proslavery bands from neighboring Missouri, known as Border Ruffians, rode across the border to battle the antislavery forces in Kansas


In territorial Kansas' first election, some 5,000 so-called "Border Ruffians" invaded the territory from Western Missouri and forced the election of a pro-slavery legislature. Although the number of votes cast exceeded the number of eligible voters in the territory, Kansas Governor Andrew Reeder reluctantly approved the election to prevent further bloodshed.
 Two Governments

1855, Kansas does have the popular sovereignty election

With the help of the Border Ruffians crossing the border and voting illegally, a proslavery legislature came to power

Strong laws – put to death if you helped a slave runaway and 2 years hard labor for ‘speaking out’ against slavery

Antislavery settlers did not accept the laws and they created their own governor and legislature

Two rival governments means ‘chaos’ for Kansas

 “Bleeding Kansas”

Proslavery men raided Lawrence, Kansas); destroying homes and an antislavery newspaper called Free-Soil

John Brown moved his family to punish supporters of slavery

With his four sons, they rode into Pottawatomie (path uh WAHT uh mee) Creek in the middle of the night and killed 5 proslavery settlers

This attack began fighting from both sides of the slave issue; guerrilla warfare led to more violence

By 1856, more than 200 dead; newspapers started calling the territory “Bleeding Kansas”

¿¿ What was the effect of popular sovereignty in the Kansas-Nebraska territory ?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________.
Violence in the Senate
 Charles Sumner, a sharp-tongued Senator from Massachusetts, denounced the proslavery legislature of Kansas

 He continued criticizing his fellow Senators from the South

 He singled out Andrew Butler, who was not present, a proslavery Senator from South Carolina

 A few days later, Butler’s nephew, Senator Preston Brooks, entered the Senate chambers and used a walking-cane to beat Sumner until he fell to the floor – bloody and unconscious

 It took a full 3 years for Sumner to fully recover from the attack

 Many Southerners felt Sumner got what he deserved

 Hundreds of people sent ‘canes’ to Brooks to show their support

 Northerners believed the brutal act was more evidence that slavery led to violence


The Dred Scott Case

 The Supreme Court was called upon to settle the slavery issue and bring harmony back to the United States

 Dred Scott, a slave, sued for his freedom

 Scott was a slave in Missouri, his master moved to Illinois then to Wisconsin Territory – a free territory

 Scott’s owner returned them to Missouri and shortly thereafter died

 Scott’s lawsuit claimed – because he lived in a free territory, he had become a free man



 Scott was represented by antislavery lawyers
Dred Scott’s Timeline and Dred Scott v. Sandford

1800 - Dred Scott is born
1820 - Congress enacts Missouri Compromise
1831 - Dred Scott's owners, Peter and Elizabeth Blow, die; Dred Scott is sold to John Emerson
1833 - Dred Scott taken into Free State of Illinois
1836 - Dred Scott taken into free Wisconsin territory; marries Harriet Robinson
1838 - Irene Sanford marries John Emerson
1840 - Irene Emerson, with Dred and Harriet Scott, returns to the slave state of Missouri
1843 - John Emerson dies
1846 - Dred and Harriet Scott file freedom suit against Irene Emerson in Missouri state circuit court
1848 - First Missouri Supreme Court appeal
1850 - Second State Circuit Court trial; second Missouri Supreme Court appeal; Irene Emerson marries Calvin Chaffee, moves to Massachusetts, and turns her business affairs over to her brother, John Sanford
1854 - U.S. Federal Circuit Court trial of Dred Scott v. John F. A. Sandford argued before U.S. Supreme Court
1856 - Dred Scott v. John Sandford argued before U.S. Supreme Court
1857 - Dred Scott decision; Taylor Blow formally frees Dred and Harriet Scott
1858 - Dred Scott dies
1861 - Civil War begins
1863 - Emancipation Proclamation is issued
1865 - Thirteenth Amendment abolishes slavery
1868 - Fourteenth Amendment gives citizenship to former slaves


1869 - Fifteenth Amendment gives African American MEN the right to vote

13th , 14th , and 15th Amendments are known as the Civil War Amendments
 The Supreme Court’s Decision

Scott’s case did reach the Supreme Court; Dred Scott v. Sandford

The Supreme Court made many rulings in this case

1st – an enslaved person was not a United States citizen, therefore he could not file a lawsuit

2nd – slaves were to be considered as property

3rd – Congress did not have the power to outlaw slavery in any territory

The Court’s ruling meant that the Missouri Compromise was unconstitutional

United States Supreme Court of 1857




Roger B Taney

** Chief Justice


(1777 – 1864)


1836 – 1864


Ohio

Roman

Catholic

Peter V Daniel

(1784 – 1860)

1841 – 1860

Virginia

Episcopal

John McLean

(1785 – 1861)

1830 – 1861

Ohio

Methodist

John Catron

(1786 – 1865)

1837– 1865

TN

Protestant

James M Wayne

(1790 – 1867)

1835 – 1867

Georgia

Protestant

Samuel Nelson

(1792 – 1873)

1845 – 1872

New York

Protestant

Robert C Grier

(1794 – 1870)

1846 – 1870

PA

Presbyterian

John A Campbell

(1803 – 1881)

1853 – 1881

Maine

Episcopal

Benjamin Curtis

(1809 – 1874)

1851 – 1857

Mass

Episcopal


¿¿ What was the significance of the decision in the Dred Scott case ?

1.________________________________________________________________________2.________________________________________________________________________3.________________________________________________________________________4.________________________________________________________________________.
 The Nation Reacts

White southerners rejoiced; slavery would be legal in all territories

African Americans responded angrily; held public meetings to condemn the ruling

A speaker in Philadelphia hoped the ruling would lead more whites to “join with us in our efforts to recover the long lost boon of freedom”

boon – a timely benefit

White northerners were shocked; by restricting slavery to the South, they had hoped slavery would die out

A Cincinnati newspaper declared, ‘We are now one great…slave holding community’

Frederick Douglass spoke out against the decision, “This infamous decision maintains that slaves are property…That people of African descent are not and cannot be citizens of the United States.”

All I ask of the American people is that they live up to the Constitution, adopt its principles, take in its spirit, and enforce its provisions.



When this is done…liberty… will become the inheritance

of all the inhabitants of this highly favored country.” Fredrick Douglass,

Collected Speeches,

1857





1. What were the 2 goals of the Kansas-Nebraska Act ?
1.___________________________________________________________________ 2.___________________________________________________________________


2. Why did violence erupt in Kansas and in the Senate ?
Kansas_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Senate_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________.


3. What impact did the Dred Scott case have on the nation ?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________.

Scott vs. Sandford
1800 - Dred Scott is born.

1820 - Congress enacts Missouri Compromise

1831 - Dred Scott's owners, Peter and Elizabeth Blow, die; Dred Scott is sold to John Emerson.

1833 - Dred Scott taken into Free State of Illinois.

1836 - Dred Scott taken into free Wisconsin territory; marries Harriet Robinson.

1838 - Irene Sanford marries John Emerson

1840 - Irene Emerson, with Dred and Harriet Scott, returns to the slave state of Missouri.

1843 - John Emerson dies

1846 -Dred and Harriet Scott file freedom suit against Irene Emerson in Missouri state circuit court.

1848 - First Missouri Supreme Court appeal.

1850 - Second State Circuit Court trial; second Missouri Supreme Court appeal; Irene Emerson

marries Calvin Chaffee, moves to Massachusetts, and turns her business affairs over to her

brother, John Sanford.

1854 - U.S. Federal Circuit Court trial of Dred Scott v. John F. A. Sandford argued before U.S.

Supreme Court.

1856 -Dred Scott v. John Sandford argued before U.S. Supreme Court.

1857 - Dred Scott decision; Taylor Blow formally frees Dred and Harriet Scott.

1858 - Dred Scott dies.

1861 - Civil War begins.

1863 - Emancipation Proclamation is issued.

1865 - Thirteenth Amendment abolishes slavery in the United States.


1868 - Fourteenth Amendment guarantees citizenship to all persons born or naturalized in the


United States



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