Main Idea: After a series of Patriot defeats, an American victory at Saratoga marked a major turning point in the Revolution



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US History

Fort Burrows

6.3 - Struggles in the Middle States

READ pgs 181-186

Main Idea:

After a series of Patriot defeats, an American victory at Saratoga marked a major turning point in the Revolution.

Vocabulary:

Battle of Long Island - a 1776 battle in New York in which more than 1,400

Americans were killed, wounded, or captured

Battle of Trenton - a 1776 battle New Jersey in which George Washington’s

troops capture a Hessian encampment in a surprise attack

Battle of Saratoga - the first major American victory in the Revolution;

this ended the British threat to New England

ally - nation that works with another nation for a common purpose

cavalry - troops on horseback

Valley Forge - Pennsylvania site of Washington’s Continental Army encampment

during the winter of 1777-1778
Setting the Scene:

Early one morning in June 1776, Daniel McCurtin glanced out his window at New York harbor. He was amazed to see ‘something resembling a wood of pine trees trimmed’. He watched the forest move across the water. Then, he understood. The trees were the masts of ships!
I could not believe my eyes…the whole bay was full of shipping as ever

it could be. I declared that I thought all London was afloat.”

George F. Scheer and Hugh F. Rankin, Rebel and Redcoats
McCurtin had witnessed the arrival of a large British fleet in New York. Aboard the ships were General Howe and thousands of redcoats. Thus began a new stage in the war. Previously, most of the fighting of the American Revolution had taken place in New England. In mid- 1776, the heavy fighting shifted to the Middle States. There, the Continental Army suffered through the worst days of the war.
The British Take New York

Ï Washington led his forces from Boston to New York City

Ï British General Howe had 34,000 troops, 10,000 sailors and ships

Ï Washington had less than 20,000 poorly trained troops and no navy

Ï In August 1776, Howe’s army landed on Long Island

Ï 1,400 Americans were killed, wounded or captured in the Battle of Long Island

Ï Washington needed information about British troop movement

Ï Nathan Hale, a Connecticut officer, volunteered to go behind enemy lines

Ï He was seized by the British, given no trial and hanged
Nathan Hale declared as he walked to the gallows,

I only regret that I have but one life to lose for my country”
Washington Turns Retreat Into Victory in New Jersey

Ï In December 1776, Washington described his troops as sick, dirty and “so thinly clad as to be unfit for service”

Ï Washington wrote to his brother: “I am wearied to death. I think the game is pretty much up.”

Ï Washington made a bold move: a surprise attack on Trenton on Christmas night

Ï Americans surprised the Hessian troops (German soldiers) guarding Trenton

Ï Captured 1,408 soldiers and 39 officers in the Battle of Trenton

Ï British General Cornwallis set out to retake Trenton and capture Washington

Ï Washington fooled Cornwallis – he attacked a force moving towards Princeton

Ï Continental Army won another victory and moved to Morristown for the winter

Ï The victories at Trenton and Princeton gave the Americans new hope
A Turning Point In the War

Ï In early 1777, British General Burgoyne presented a new plan to crush the rebels

Ï If British troops cut off New England from the other colonies, the war would end

Ï Burgoyne’s Plan

Burgoyne wanted 3 British armies to march on Albany from different directions – Howe, St. Leger and Burgoyne

Burgoyne’s plan called for General Howe to march on Albany from New York City

King George III wanted Howe to capture Philadelphia first

In July 1777, Howe captured Philadelphia, defeating the Americans at the Battles of Brandywine and Germantown

Instead of moving towards Albany, he retired to comfortable quarters in Philadelphia for the winter

St. Leger was driven back from Albany by Benedict Arnold

Only Burgoyne was left to march on Albany


Ï Victory at Saratoga

‡ Burgoyne recaptured Fort Ticonderoga

Americans captured or wounded 1,000 redcoats at the Battle of Bennington

Green Mountain boys helped Americans surround the British at Saratoga

In October 1777, Burgoyne surrendered to the Americans



‡ The Battle of Saratoga was a major turning point in the war
1. It ended the British threat to New England

2. It boosted American spirits when Washington was suffering defeats

3. It convinced France to become an ally of the US
¿¿ How did the American victory at Saratoga affect the war ?

1.____________________________________________________________________________________

2.____________________________________________________________________________________

3.____________________________________________________________________________________
Ï Aid From Europe



France and Britain in conflict for many years



Conflict between France and Britain increases after the French and Indian War



American appeal to France for support during the Revolutionary War

 


 



Victory at Saratoga proves to France that Americans can win




Americans defeat British at Saratoga




France gives American rebels money and supplies but stays neutral



  


BENJAMIN FRANKLIN persuaded

FRANCE to give MILITARY AND NAVAL

SUPPORT to American Forces


The Hardships of Valley Forge

Ï The victory at Saratoga and the promise of help from Europe boosted American morale

Ï Washington’s Continental Army had to suffer through a harsh winter at a makeshift camp at Valley Forge

Ï Conditions were terrible – damp, drafty huts, frozen ground, no shoes, frostbite, disease
“I am sick – discontented – and out of humor. Poor food – hard lodging – cold weather – fatigue – nasty clothes – nasty cookery –

… a pox on my bad luck! There comes a bowl of beef soup, full of burnt leaves and dirt. … Away with it boys! – I’ll live like the chameleon upon air”

Albigence Waldo, Diary, December 14, 1777
Ï Patriots heard of the suffering at Valley Forge and women collected food,

medicine, warm clothes and ammunition; drills helped train the army to fight

with new skill

Ï By Spring of 1778, the army at Valley Forge was more hopeful

Ï Washington could not have known at the time, but the Patriot’s bleakest hour had

passed!!!!!

¿¿ Why do you think soldiers remained in the army even after the hard winter at Valley Forge ? ______________________________________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

1. What battles were fought in New York and New Jersey ?

New York – ___________________________________________________________________
New Jersey – __________________________________________________________________
2. How did the Battle of Saratoga mark a turning point in the war ?

1. ____________________________________________________________________________
2. ____________________________________________________________________________
3. ____________________________________________________________________________
3. What hardships did the Continental Army suffer at Valley Forge ?

1. _______________________________ 2. _______________________________________
3. ____________________________ ______4. ________________________________________
5. ____________________________ ______6._________ _______________________________

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