Marek, József (Joseph) (Vágszerdahely, now Dolná Streda, Slovakia, 18 March 1868 - Budapest, 7 September 1952) – Veterinarian. He obtained a Veterinary Degree from the University of Budapest in 1892. From 1892 to 1894 he was Chief Veterinarian of the town of Pest, later Head of the Laboratory of the Bureau of Animal Health at Kőbánya, a suburb of Budapest. From 1897 he was an assistant lecturer of Internal Medicine at the Veterinary School of the University of Budapest. In 1898 he obtained his Ph.D. in Art, and from 1901 he was Professor of Internal Medicine. He made important contributions in connection with breeding paralysis, sheep rot, glanders and animal rachitis. He defined the chicken paralysis syndrome, to be called Marek Disease later. A number of animal medicines are linked with his name, such as Distol, used for treating the rot. The rhinolaryngoscope (nose-larynx mirror) developed by him is still an important diagnostic tool today. From 1935 to 1940 he was a member of the Upper House of Parliament. He was a member of numerous scientific societies in Hungary and abroad, such as the Hungarian National Veterinary Society (Magyar Országos Állatorvos Egyesület). His publications include Lehrbuch der klinischen Diagnostik der inneren Krankheiten der Haustiere (1912), and Specielle Pathologie und Therapie der Haustiere. vols. i,ii,iii, textbook (1905), co-authored with Ferenc (Francis) Hutÿra (7th edition in 1938), (in Hungarian: Állatorvosi belgyógyászat, (1894-1898), He and Rezső Manninger continued it until its 11th German edition in 1939. This work was an international success, translated into English, Italian, Spanish, Russian and Chinese, and several editions were translated into English, Spanish, Polish, Russian and Chinese. He was a Member of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (corresponding 1918, regular 1938, President 1940). He received the Kossuth Prize in 1949. A school and a college in Mohács are named after him. – B: 1730, 1105, T: 7456.→ HutÿraFerenc;Manninger, Rezső; Mócsy, János. Márffy, Ödön (Edmund) (Budapest, 30 November 1878 - Budapest, 3 December 1959) - Painter. He studied at the Julian Academy of Paris and at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts. He worked in the Cormon Studio. In 1907 he returned to Hungary, where he led the Hungarian postimpressionism; however, he retained traces of the constructivism of his youth. From 1906 he often appeared in the exhibitions of the Salon d’Automne and the Salon Carre in Paris. Following his return to Hungary, he took part in a collective exhibition, where his works of lyric atmosphere, a result of his plein air ambitions, were featured. After an extensive trip to Italy, he became one of the founding members of TheGroup ofEight, and became one of the leading exponents of the postimpressionist efforts. In his works, he successfully combined the Paris school with Hungarian traditions. He had a free, richly colored style combined with a dynamic presentation. In 1928 he visited the USA, where he organized a number of successful exhibitions. A number of his works are held in museums abroad; the Hungarian National Gallery also has several of his works. He was a friend of the great lyric poet Endre (Andrew) Ady and, in 1922 he married Ady’s widow, Csinszka (Berta Boncza). Pál Pátzay wrote a monograph on him. His works include Girl in the Grass (Leány a zöldben) (1906); Standing Nude (Álló akt) (1911); Still Life (Csendélet) (1930); Self Portrait (Önarckép) (1940); the large size Fruit Pickers (Gyümölcsszedők) (1949); the portrait of Lajos (Louis) Gulácsy (1907), and the lithograph St. John’s Visitations (Szt. János jelenései). He received the Franz Joseph Jubilee Prize (1907), the Prize of the Szinyei Society (1931), the Gold Medal of the Hungarian State (1947), and the title of Artist of Merit (1958). – B: 0934, 1068, T: 7456.→Ady, Endre; Pátzay, Pál; Gulácsy, Lajos; Eight, The Group of. Margaret of Scotland, Saint(Skóciai Szt. Margit) (Reska, now the ruins of Réka Castle in Mecseknádasd, ca. 1045 - Edinburgh, 16 November 1093) – Queen of Scotland. She was the granddaughter of Edward Ironside, killed by the Danes. His two sons fled to the court of the King of Hungary, where Prince Edward married the Royal Princess Ágota (Agatha), and Margaret was their firstborn child, followed by seven other children. After the Danish occupation, her father returned to England as heir to the throne (ca. 1057), but he died there soon afterwards. Her family had to flee after the Norman Conquest and her mother, Ágota, wanted to return to Hungary, but a sea-storm prevented her, thus they reached the Scottish shores. King Malcolm III offered protection to the party and took Margaret as his wife. Queen Margaret exercised considerable influence upon the King in matters of religion and piety. She initiated reforms in the Scottish Church, convoked a national synod, and introduced a unified liturgy, and constructed churches and schools. She cared for the sick and destitute and founded the Abbey of Dunfermline, where she was buried in front of the high altar. Her prayer book and contemporary biography, written by Archbishop Turgot and Friar Theodoric, survived. Pope Innocent IV canonized her and made her the Patron Saint of Scotland. There is a chapel named after her in the Castle of Edinburgh. – B: 0945, 1031, T: 7103.
Margit (Margaret) Saint, the Legend A manuscript about St Margit of the Royal House of Árpád, daughter of King Béla IV (1235-1270), copied by Lea Ráskai in 1510. It is the first Margit legend written in Hungarian. It had 231 pages and three parts: 1) Review of Margaret's life in the nunnery. 2) Details of Margaret’s miracles. 3) The facts of her canonization records as testified to by the nuns. Lea Ráskai localized an earlier legend based on topographical conditions of the period. Margaret’s confessor, “Frater Senior”, probably Frater Marcellus, most probably wrote its oldest Latin version. Johannes Vercellensis based his work on this version and it was the source of Jorg Walter’s German translation. It is the most important Codex of the Dominican Nunnery of the Island of Hares (today Margaret Island) in the Danube at Budapest, due to its cultural historical details. Now the manuscript is held in the National Széchényi Library in Budapest. – B: 1150, 0925, 1031, T: 3240.→Margit (Margaret) Saint, of the House of Árpád; Ráskai, Lea; Codex Literature. Margit (Margaret),Saintof the House of Árpád, (Klissa, Dalmatia, 27 January 1242 – “Island ofHares” (Nyulak Szigete), now Margaret Island (Margit sziget), Budapest, 18 January 1270) – Nun O.P. She was the daughter of Hungarian King Béla IV (1235-1270) and Maria Laskaris. Her aunt was St. Erzsébet (Elizabeth) of the House of Árpád, her brother King István V (Stephen), and her sisters were St. Kinga and the Blessed Jolán (Yolanda). Following the lost Battle of Muhi against the invading Mongol-Tartar army (11-12 April, 1241), the Hungarian royal family escaped to Dalmatia. The royal couple offered their child to-be-born to God. When they returned to Hungary, the King had a Convent built on the “Island of Hares” in the River Danube, where Princess Margaret settled in 1252, and took her vows in 1254. In the cloister, she carried out difficult services and her life was spent in hard penance. She refused all marriage offers and any release from her vows. She predicted the date and time of her own death. Her father, the King died not long after her. She was buried in front of the altar in the convent’s church. Her long canonization proceeding began in 1276, and was only concluded in 1943 by Pope Pius XII. Her biography was written some 40 years after her death and was copied into a Codex by Lea Ráskai in 1510. Churches, schools, hospitals and pharmacies bear her name. – B: 0945, 1673, T: 7103.→Béla IV, King; Muhi, Battle of; Jolán, Saint (Yolanda), Kinga, Saint; Ráskai, Lea; Codex Literature. Margitai, Ági (Agnes Margittay) (Budapest, 12 July 1932 - ) – Actress. In 1958, after completing her studies at the Academy of Dramatic Art, she accepted an engagement with the Theater in Pécs, from 1962, with the József Katona Theater (KatonaJózsef Szinház), Kecskemét, from 1963 the Petőfi Theater (Petőfi Színház), Budapest and, from 1965, the National Theater (Nemzeti Színház), Miskolc. In 1968, the Microscope Stage (Mikroszkóp Színpad), Budapest, engaged her. Between 1970 and 1972 she played at the Szeged Theater (Szegedi Színház), from 1972, at the Attila József Theater (József Attila Színház) and, from 1978, in the Theater of Szolnok (Szolnoki Színház). From 1982 she was a member of the Hungarian Film Studios and, from 1990, of the National Theater of Miskolc. Her interesting, colorful personality renders her equally suitable for dramatic and comic roles. Her best-known roles include Julia in Shakespeare’s Romeo and Juliet; Kate in The Taming of the Shrew (Makrancos hölgy); Gertrudin Hamlet; Eliza in Shaw’s Pygmalion; Elisabeth in Schiller’s Maria Stuart, and Sonia in Chekhov’s Uncle Vanya (Ványa bácsi). There are more than 35 feature films to her credit among them: Deliver Us from Evil(Szabadits meg a gonosztól) (1979); Circus Maximus (1980); Lost Illusions (Elveszett illúziók) (1983); Mesmer (1994); The Fall (A bukás) (1998), and Der Geköpfte Hahn(The Decapitated Rooster) (2006). Among her TV films are: Snow-Queen (Hókirálynő) (1964); At the End of September(Szeptember végén) (1973); Sell-out Sale (Végkiárusítás) (1978), and Presszó (series, 2008). She is a recipient the Mari Jászai Prize (1962), the Merited Artist title (1959), the Outstanding Artist title (1973), and the Kossuth Prize (2010). – B: 1439, 1445, 1031, T: 7456.
Margittay, Sándor (Alexander) (Budapest, 16 November 1927 - Budapest, 10 June 1992) – Organist, conductor, musicologist. He studied at the Benedictine High School, Budapest, where he played reed organ at student masses. Later he was a student of Viktor Sugár at the Ferenc (Franz) Liszt Academy of Music, Budapest, where he recieved his qualifications as organist and conductor 1950. Besides being soloist with the National Philharmonic Society, he gave more than 1000 organ concerts in churches all over the country. Initially he played J.S. Bach’s and G.F. Handel’s Baroque organ music. Later, his repertoire included works of romantic French and modern composers. He was the first in Hungary to play all of Liszt’s organ works. He was frequently on concert tours in Europe. He was choirmaster of the Cistercian Church of Buda, then choirmaster of the Budapest Choir between 1949 and 1978. His oratorio performances were memorable. His works include an edition of Franz Liszt’s Organ Works vols. i–iv (1970-1973); the Historia Organoediae, vols. i –xvi., He also made a number of recordings. He was awarded the first Hungarian Grand Prix and numerous foreign prizes. He was honored with the title of Merited Artist. – B: 0876, 0945, T: 7103.
Mária, Queen (1) ( ? 1370 - ? 17 May 1395) – Née Maria of Anjou. She was daughter and successor of King Lajos I (Louis the Great) (1342-1382). Impersonating a boy at the young age of twelve in 1382, she was elevated to the throne and crowned at Székesfehérvár. At first her mother reigned in her place; then, between 1382 and 1387, she ruled independently. After 1387, her husband, Zsigmond (Sigismund of Luxembourg), ruled in her place. She inherited the Polish throne but was forced to renounce it in favor of her sister Hedvig. – B: 1078, 1138, T: 7658.→Hedvig, Saint. Mária, Queen (2) (Brussels, 17 September 1505 - Cigales, Spain 18 October 1558) – Wife of King Lajos II (Louis, 1516-1526), daughter of Phillip I Habsburg (the Handsome), King of Castille and Johanna (the Insane). She was crowned Queen of Hungary at Székesfehérvár in 1521, and of Bohemia in 1522. She lived at the Hungarian Royal Court and kept clerics, filled with the idea of the Reformation. After the death of her husband in the fateful battle against the invading Turks at Mohács, on 29 August 1526, she moved to Pozsony (now Bratislava, Slovakia) to successfully assist her brother in obtaining the Hungarian throne. In 1527, Martin Luther dedicated his book Vier tröstliche Psalmen to her. After 1556, she retired to Spain. – B: 1078, 0883, T: 7658.→Maria Queen’s Dress; Lajos II, King. Maria, Queen’s Dress – A green, silk-damask dress with a matching skirt displayed in the Church of Mariacell, Austria, together with a particularly beautiful man’s mantle and shirt. Mariacell was a location of pilgrimage for centuries. During earlier times, it was believed that King Lajos I (Louis the Great, 1342-1382) donated these items to the shrine. The Hungarian National Museum took possession of them in 1928. Experts in the Museum established that the clothing was made in 1520. This year coincides with the date of marriage between the 15-year-old King Lajos II (1516-1526) of Hungary and the 16 year-old Queen Maria on 11 December in Innsbruck, Austria. The dating of the dress to 1520 was confirmed by tests carried out in 1985. Today, the only older dress in existence, dated to 1363, is on display in the Dome of Uppsala, Sweden. The other one, made in 1580, is a jealously guarded treasure of the Museum of Nuremberg. - B: 1020, T: 7662.→Maria, Queen (2); Lajos II, King. Maria’s Lamentation, Old Hungarian(Planctus – Ómagyar Mária-siralom)– The first extant lyrical composition in the Hungarian language dating from between 1280 and 1310, discovered in a 298-page Latin Codex used by the Dominican Order. It was among the material that the Catholic University of Leuven, Belgium acquired from a book store in Munich in 1922. Hence the name: Leuven Codex. A foreign language text on one of the pages was identified as Hungarian by a librarian at the Bavarian State Library in Munich. He notified the Hungarian experts, who translated the already faint writing. As page 134b of the Codex was left blank, an anonymous, Hungarian Dominican friar inserted the Hungarian poem onto it. This suggests that the Codex must have been used in a monastery, where the Hungarian language was known. It consists of 37 lines and 132 words. It already uses rhymes and alliterations, e.g. “Világ világa / virágnak virága” (Light of the world / flower of flowers). According to some linguists, it is a paraphrase of a Latin poem by Godefroy de Breteuil (d. 1194). Others attribute it to the lyrics of a musical composition by the sub-prior of the Augustine Friars of Paris, Godefroy de St. Victoire: Planctus ante nescia (fl. 1170 - 1190). The Leuven Codex was acquired through a book exchange by the National Széchényi Library in 1982; it is catalogued under Mny 79. – B: 1031, 1661, T: 7103.→ Muzslay, István S.J.; Codex Literature. Mária Terézia,Empress and Queen (Maria Theresa) (Vienna, 13 May 1717 - Vienna, 29 November 1780) – Empress of Austria, Queen of Hungary and Bohemia. She was the daughter of Emperor King Károly III (Charles, 1711-1740), who promulgated the so-called Pragmatic Sanction (Pragmatica Sanctio, 1740)to allow his daughter to succeed to the Habsburg throne. This is how she became the Archduchess of Austria and Queen of Hungary and Bohemia. As soon as she ascended throne, competing claimants assailed her, especially Frederick the Great of Prussia. In the War of the Austrian Succession (1740-1748), the Prussian King wrenched Silesia from her and penetrated deeply into Austrian territories. In this critical situation, she turned to Hungary for help: the Hungarian Diet enthusiastically voted for substantial military help by shouting: Vitam et sanguinem (We offer: Our life and blood), and this move saved her monarchy. The Peace of Aix-la-Chapelle in 1748 concluded the war. Maria Theresa retained her heritage, except that Frederick kept Silesia. Intent on recovering Silesia, Maria Theresa formed an alliance with France and Russia against Prussia. The resulting Seven Years’ War (1756-1763) left things as they were, though she gained some territory including Galicia and Lodomeria as a result of the First Partition of Poland. She also secured Bukovina from the Ottoman Empire and some territory from Bavaria in the War of the Bavarian Succession (1778-1779). After 1763, she pursued a consistently peaceful policy concentrating on internal reforms. Although her methods were despotic, she fostered education, codified the laws, and abolished torture. She curbed the abuses of the Church and expelled the Jesuits. After her death, her eldest son József II (Joseph) became Emperor and King (1780-1790). Maria Theresa was a key figure in the power politics of 18th century Europe, who brought unity to the Habsburg Monarchy and was considered one of its most capable rulers. Among her sixteen children were Marie Antoinette and King Lipót II (Leopold) (1790-1792). – B: 0881,1031, 1683, T: 7103, 7456.→Károly III, King. Máriássy, Ádám (? - Khotin, Bukovina, 1739) – Colonel in the insurgent Kuruc army, follower of Prince Ferenc (Francis) Rákóczi II. He served in the Prince’s army during the national uprising, and not only remained faithful to him but also followed him into exile in Rodostó (now Tekirdag), Turkey (1719). For a while, he was in the military service of the Russians, then in the Polish Army. When József (Joseph) Rákóczi started to organize another uprising, he made Máriássy a general. In 1732 Máriássy became Commander of the Kuruc Cavalry and settled in Khotin (formerly in Poland, now in Ukraine), where he died in 1739. – B: 0942, 0883, T: 7456.→Kuruc army; Rákóczi II, Prince Ferenc. Máriássy Family – The Márkus and Batizfalvi families are ancient baronial families. Their first known ancestor was Miklós (Nicholas) Comes, who received permission from King László I (St Ladislas, 1077-1095) to build castles. András (Andrew) (Márkusfalva) received the title of Baron in 1840. Péter, János and István (Peter, John and Stephen) took part in King Zsigmond’s (Sigismund of Luxemburg, 1387-1437) wars and also received honors for defeating the Hussite troops. Bishop Sándor (Alexander) was the Archprovost of Eger (1740-1755). Family members often acted as sheriffs in the Counties of Gömör and Szepes. Adam was one of the officers of Reigning Prince Ferenc (Francis) Rákóczi II, while Sándor was condemned to death as a general in the 1848 War of Independence; however, after serving six years in prison, he was pardoned. – B: 1640, T: 7676.
Máriássy, Félix (Mikófalva, Hungary, 3 June 1915 - Szőny, 26 January 1975) – Film director, prominent filmmaker of the Communist era. He acquired the mastery of film and movie making from Géza Radványi at the Hunnia film works during World War II. At first, he worked as a cutter, then as an assistant director. After 1945 he joined the Hungarian Film Production Co. and prepared some documentaries. He was a creative team member for the film Somewhere in Europe (Valahol Európában). In 1949 he came out with his own feature film, Mrs. Szabó (Szabóné). His movie (1954), based on the novel, Relatives (Rokonok), by the eminent novelist Zsigmond (Sigismund) Móricz; and the other film, Budapest Spring (1955), was based on the novel of Ferenc (Francis) Karinthy. These films brought him fame and placed him among the leading film directors. In 1968, his feature, Budapest Spring, was listed among the best 12 films of the post-war period. His other movies include Marriage of Katalin Kis (KisKatalin házassága) (1950); Half a Pint of Beer (Egy pikkoló világos) (1958); Trial Road (Próbaút) (1961), and Deluge (Áradat) TV film (1971).He prepared his films mostly with the help of his wife, the drama critique and scenarist Judit Máriássy. From 1948, he taught at the Academy of Dramatic Art, Budapest. He was President of the International Association of Film Colleges. He received the Prize of the National Council of Trade Unions (SZOT Prize) (1971), the Kossuth Prize (1956) and the Artist of Merit title (1969). – B: 0883, 1160, T: 7456.→Móricz, Zsigmond; Karinthy, Ferenc; Máriássy, Judit. Máriássy, Judit (Judith) (Budapest, 18 July 1924 - Budapest, 24 November 1986) – Scenarist, journalist, prominent representative of the Communist era movie making in Hungary. She was wife of filmmaker Félix Máriássy. She was a journalist from 1945 at Nagybánya (now Baia Mara, Romania). From 1947 she headed a department of the Hungarian-Soviet Friendship Society. Between 1952 and 1956, she was a correspondent for the paper, Literary News (Irodalmi Újság). She wrote television reviews in the 1960s and 1970s. A number of her scripts dealt with the workers’ environment and social and moral problems of the 1950s and 1960s. Her scripts include Somewhere in Europe (Valahol Európában) with Béla Balázs, Géza Radványi and Félix Máriássy(1947); Marriage of Katalin Kiss (Kiss Katalin házassága) (1950); Sleepless Years (Álmatlan évek) (1958); TrafficAccident (Karambol) (1963); Impostors(Imposztorok) (1968); Sign Talk (Jelbeszéd) (1974), and Circus Maximus (1980). She received the Attila József Prize (1951) as well as the Ferenc Rózsa Prize (1983). – B: 1257, 0878, T: 7456.→Balázs, Béla; Máriássy, Félix; Radványi, Géza. Máriabesnyő Fragment – A Codex fragment on two narrow membrane strips, originating in the last quarter of the 15th century. It comes with the Piry membrane from the same Codex, written by the same hand. This language relic was taken from the cover of a Latin Codex. It consists of conversations about Christ’s sufferings and the necessity of his death. The Codex belonged to the Capuchin Monastery of Máriabesnyő. In 1910 it was in the possession of the Library of Jesuit Order in Nagyszombat (now Trnava, Slovakia). The Order presented it to the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (Magyar Tudományos Akadémia – MTA) in 1921, where it is registered under Mny 1910:20. – B: 1150, 1257, T: 3240.→Codex Literature. Marik, Miklós (Nicholas) (Budapest, 28 May, 1936 - Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain, 23 June, 1998) – Astronomer. His uncle, an astronomer, introduced him to astronomy. After graduating from the Ferenc (Francis) Toldy High School in 1954, he studied Physics and later Mathematics and Physics at the University of Budapest, where he qualified as a teacher.In 1957 and 1958 he was a lecturer there and, in 1959 he was appointed Assistant Professor at the Department of Astronomy. From 1962 he pursued post-graduate studies at the Sternberg Institute of Astronomy of Lomonosov University, Moscow. From 1990 he was Head of the Department of Astronomy of the University of Budapest. From 1970 he was a member of the Astronomy Committee of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences. Intermittently, he filled the secretarial position of the Committee. Astrophysics and Solar Physics were his main fields of research. He wrote many articles and books and delivered many more lectures, not only at the University, but to the public as well, and appeared on radio and TV broadcasts. In addition to receiving a number of acknowledgements, a minor planet, Marik (2000 CM59), was named after him. – B: 1930, 1031, T: 7103. Marik, Péter (Budapest, 3 November 1938 - ) – Actor, singer. In 1964, on completing his studies at the Ferenc (Franz) Liszt Academy of Music, Budapest, he obtained his singing and teaching qualifications. Subsequently, he worked from 1962 to 1969, as an assistant stage manager at the Opera House, Budapest. From 1969 he conducted further studies at the Operetta Theater. He made his debute as René in Leo Fall’s operetta, Madame Popadour in 1970. From then on he he played mainly leading roles at the Operetta Theater (Operett Színház), Budapest. Among his roles are: Edvin in Imre (Emerich) Kálmán’s The Gipsy Princess (Die Czardasfürstin – Csárdáskirálynő); Mister X in I. Kálmán’s The Circus Princess (Cirkuszhercegnő); Péter in Kálmán’s Countess Maritza (Marica grófnő); Bagó in Kacsóh’s John the Brave (János vitéz); Józsiin Lehár’s Gipsy Love (Cigányszerelem), and Falke in J. Strauss Jr’s Die Fledermaus (The Bat; A denevér). Among his feature films is the Gipsy Princess (Csárdáskirálynő) (2009). He appeared abroad as a guest artist a number of times: in Greece, the Netherlands, the USA and the UK. The singer and operetta Primadonna, Marika (Maria) Németh, was his wife and colleague. He received the Mari Jászai Prize (1983), the Hilda Gobbi Life Achievement Prize (2004), the Aase Prize (2004), as well as the Gyula Gózon Life Achievement Prize. – B: 1445, 1031, T: 7456.→Németh, Marika.