Mindszenty Trial – From 1945 on, with the backing of the Soviet Union that had occupied Hungary since 1945, the Hungarian Communist Party began the oppression of churches. It began with the Roman Catholic Church, the largest in the country. At first the Communist Party used the politics of division, the “salami-tactics”; but this policy failed, due the united front of the members of the Church. The Communists then rejected the proposals made by the Roman Catholic administration in 1947-1948, for cooperation between State and Church, and proceeded to nationalize the Church’s schools, prohibit all religious associations, and confiscate all their properties. An intense press campaign, full of false accusations, preceded these actions and the arrests of some religious leaders. Cardinal József Mindszenty in his Pastoral Letter of 18 November 1948, rejected all the accusations voiced against him in the press and stated his support of those, who suffered persecution and torture due to their faith.
On 19 November 1948, in Esztergom the AVH (AVH – Államvédelmi Hatóság – State Security Police) arrested Rev. Dr. András (Andrew) Zakar, secretary to the Cardinal, and interrogated him under torture for 4 days in the infamous AVH building on 60 Andrássy Street, Budapest. On 23 December they took the extremely tortured Zakar back to Esztergom, to the Cardinal’s palace to show what they could do to anyone who fell into their hands. József Mindszenty prepared for his arrest and the same day gave a short written statement to the senior Bishop of Kalocsa that was also transmitted to the West: “I have not participated in any conspiracy. I will not resign my post. I have nothing to confess and I do not sign any confessions. If I should do this in the future, it would be the consequence of the inherent weakness of the human body and I hereby declare it to be invalid”. On 25 December 1948 in Esztergom, the Cardinal was arrested without a written order and taken into custody.
For thirty-eight days he was interrogated in the Soviet way. He was given mind-altering drugs in his food, provided by the Soviets, that temporarily paralyzed his will. His public show trial was held between 3 and 8 February 1949. The charges were: organizing a conspiracy, treason and black market deals in foreign currency. During the trial he confessed to all these unfounded and impossible charges. The “incriminating documents” were forged by the AVH as the two graphologists confirmed, who prepared the documents and later escaped to the West, confirmed. The sentences were: József Mindszenty life imprisonment; Jusztin (Justin) Baranyai 15 years; András Zakar 6 years; Prince Pál (Paul) Eszterházy 15 years; Miklós (Nicholas) Nagy life imprisonment, and László (Ladislas) Tóth 10 years. In addition there were several other accused, sentenced to various prison terms; among them Assistant Bishop Zoltán Meszlényi, the Cardinal’s Deputy, and Gyula (Julius) Harza, Superintendent of Religious Education, who died in prison.
The Mindszenty trial shocked the civilized world. It was obvious that there was no legal basis for the Cardinal’s arrest. There was no conspiracy and no treason. The confessions were made under torture, the charges were false, the whole case was a typical Communist show trial and the sentences were absurd. – B: 1376, 1685, 1020, T: 7665.→Mindszenty, József; State Security Police; Zakar, András.
Mine Shaft Plumb-Line Mirror – An instrument known in foreign literature as the “Cséti mirror” and used in the construction and safety checks of mine work, invented by Ottó Cséti, mining engineer (1836-1906). – B: 1226, T: 7674.→Cséti, Ottó. Mine Trolley, Hungarian – Transporting medium, formerly used in mines for carrying the extracted material, where the diameter of the back-wheels were greater than that of the front-wheels and the center of gravity of the loaded trolley was on the hind wheels. As a consequence it was easy to stand the trolley on its hind wheels and in that position it was easy to turn it in any direction. – B: 1078, T: 7456.
Mineral Resources in Hungary – Hungary that is the truncated Hungary since the Dictated Peace Treaty of Trianon (1920), is relatively poor in mineral resources. Among the ore-deposits of magmatic and hydrothermal origin, the only important ones are the copper-ores with some gold, the lead-zinc-ores of Gyöngyösoroszi, and the iron-ore of Rudabánya. Of the ores of sedimentary origin, the bauxite, formed during the Cretaceous Period, is important, even on a world-scale; preset-time Hungary is the second-largest producer of bauxite in Europe. Bituminous coal only occurs in the Mecsek Mountains of southern Transdanubia (Dunántúl), but brown coal is mined in a number of other areas. Of the petroleum and natural gas reserves, the oil fields of Zala County in the west are important; more recently petroleum and natural gas wells have also been developed on the Great Hungarian Plain by means of hundreds of deep-drillings. Uranium ore was mined until the beginning of 1990s in the Mecsek Mountains. Other exploitable minerals include manganese ore, dolomite, gypsum, talc, barytes, fluorite, pumice, perlite, trass, bentonite, kaoline, kaolin, diatomaceous earth and earthen quartz. In mineral waters and medicinal waters, even present-time truncated Hungary is one of the richest in Europe. About 500 mineral springs have been registered. – B: 0883, 1046, T: 7456.
Mining towns − In Hungary there were many different methods of mining already in the time of the House of Árpád (896-1301). In the beginning, the King distributed the mining rights and he also worked them. Later, the landowners, who owned the rights, worked the mines. The mining cities grew out of the mining camps, but were permitted to form only if they had an important mining output. If the mining output was reduced, the respectability of the town also diminished, or it even ceased being a mining town. The free towns belonged to Kings, bishops and to landowners; their significance changed only in 1863. Well known were the seven mining towns in Upper Hungary: Bakabánya, Bélabánya, Besztercebánya, Körmöcbánya, Libetbánya, Selmecbánya and Újháza (Pukanec, Banská Belá, Banská Bystrica, Kremnica, Ľubietová, Banská Štiavnica respectively, now in Slovakia). The salt mine towns of Transylvania (Erdély, now in Romania), Dés, Torda, and Parajd etc. made up a separate group. - B: 0942, T: 7668.
Mini soccer – A version of soccer played on a smaller field, unlike the game of indoor soccer. The teams consist of eight players a side, and there is no goalkeeper. The size of the playing field is usually 35-20 m, the height of the goal standards is l m and its width is 2.5 m. The playing time is 4x13 minutes, and the rules are similar to the game of soccer. Endre (Andrew) Gaál introduced the game in 1963. – B: 1153, T: 3269.
Minstrels(Igric) – Hungarians had a rich, national minstrel culture. They were called igric, regős (bard, gleeman). They were jokesters and played on musical instruments. The name “minstrel” was first mentioned in the 13th century. There were several settlements in medieval times called Igric or Igrici, even today there is still a village bearing this name. They were storytellers accompanied by music or they sang the stories. Their musical instruments differed from those of the violinists and lute players. They were part of the royal courts from the time of the Árpád Dynasty (896-1301), although King István I (St. Stephen) (997-1038) persecuted them for preserving the old pagan customes.
Hungarian historians from the 11th century to the beginning of the 13th century drew their information from these minstrel songs, recording the events preceding and following the period of the settlement of the Carpathian Basin, and from the legendary songs of the Kings’ era. Such is the Hun-Szekler-Hungarian connection that became the colorful frame of these epic songs. From the 14th century, lute players, pipers and fiddlers (kobzos, sípos, hegedűs) replaced the minstrels in the royal courts and in aristocratic households, and the minstrels became merry makers and entertainers. Their importance came somewhat to the forefront again during the Renaissance era, as singing pages. In the 16th century, György (George) Szondi’s household had two certified singing pages. The historical song literature of the 16th century is the direct descendant of the minstrel tradition. In the 17th century, they were only rarely mentioned in Hungarian aristocratic households. – B: 0942, 1078, 1134, 0037, T: 3240.→Regös.
Miracle Stag→Wondrous Stag Mirage – On very hot summer days when the air is still and paceful on the plains or over a large water surface this atmospheric light phenomenon can be observed. The hot air mass reverses the image of tall objects in the far distance. The necessary condition for a mirage is that the air temperature right at the bottom level should increase at least one degree per every meter toward the higher strata. In 1781, Tóbiás (Tobias) Gruber provided the first scientific explanation of this phenomenon. – B: 1134, 1153, T: 3233.
Miska, János (John) (Nyírbéltek, 20 January 1932 - ) – Author, editor, bibliographer, librarian, literary translator. He moved to Canada in 1957. He studied at the University of Budapest, at McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario (B.A.), (1961) and the University of Toronto Library School, where he obtained a B.LSc. (1962). He was an Engineering Librarian at the University of Manitoba (1962-1966); Head of Acquisitions at Agriculture Canada’s Libraries (1967-1972); Chief Librarian and Area Coordinator in Alberta (1972-1983), and Regional Director of Central Canada (1983-1991). Following his retirement in 1992, he moved to Victoria and was appointed Editor-in-Chief of the monthly journal Tárogató, the official publication of the Hungarian Cultural Society of Greater Vancouver, which he edited between 1994 and 1998. He is Founding President of the Hungarian-Canadian Authors’ Association (1966), and Editor for its Anthology Series: three volumes in Hungarian (1968-1972) and two in English (1974, 1989). He compiled 20 book-length bibliographies on the sciences and the humanities, the latter include Canadian Studies on Hungarians (1987), and Ethnic and Native Canadian Literature (1990). In addition to more than 200 papers, he has published the following books: A Mug of Milk(Egy bögre tej), short stories (1969); On our Own Homestead(A magunk portáján), essays (1974); From Canada with Love(Kanadából szeretettel), essays (1989); Literature of Hungarian-Canadians, essays (1991); Mostly about Ourselves(Többnyire magunkról), essays (1996); In our Footprints (Lábunk nyomában), essays and memoirs (1997), and Blessed Harbours (ed) (Áldott kikötők), an anthology of 35 Canadian Hungarian authors (2002). He received several grants and awards, including the Queen’s Jubilee Silver Medal (1977), an Alberta Achievement Award for Excellence in Literature (1978), and a silver and gold medal for his books of essays from the Árpád Academy, Cleveland, OH, USA. Perhaps the highest honor he received was in 2004, when he was inducted into the Hungarian Academy of Sciences. In 2005 his hometown named him an Honorary Citizen. – B: 0893, 1672, T: 4342.→Shawm; Canadian Hungarian Literature. Miskócz Clan – One of the grass-roots clans of the County Borsod. Its first known member, Jákó, was Lord Lieutenant of County Borsod during the time of King Kálmán (Coloman) (109-1116). In 1194, a member of this clan, Domonkos (Dominic) Bán, was considered as King Béla III’s (1172-1196) blood relative. Domonkos established a monastery at Kéthely. His son, Bors, was Lord Lieutenant of the County Borsod at the beginning of the rule of King Béla IV rule (1235-1270). Members of this clan also showed great valor on the battlefield. – B: 1078, T: 7676.
Miskolc Codex Fragment – A Hungarian language relic from 1525, originally part of the Vitkovics Codex, published and annotated by György (George) Volf, in the 13th volume of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences’ linguistic records. – B: 0942, T: 3240.→Codex Literature. Miskolczi, László (Ladislas) (Hajdúszoboszló, 16 October 1923 - Budapest, 7 July 1988) – Painter. While doing his secondary studies in the Reformed College of Debrecen, his teacher, G. Kálmán (Coloman) Szabó, noticed his talent. In 1949 he obtained a diploma from the Academy of Applied Art, Budapest. István (Stephen) Szőnyi was his master and he worked for him on a scholarship later, as a demonstrator. From 1949 he appeared regularly in exhibitions. For a while he worked as an engineering draftsman, and from 1952 until his retirement (1983) he taught at the Special High School of Art and Industrial Art. Between 1956 and 1959 he was on a Derkovits scholarship. His painting, Morning Atmosphere (Reggeli hangulat) won the silver medal at the World Youth Meeting of Moscow (1957). In 1982 he won first prize for his portrait of Zoltán Kodály at the Debrecen Exhibition. For his works, presented at the Autumn Exhibition of Hódmezővásárhely, he received the first prize posthumously. His lyric atmospheric paintings reflect the traditions of the post-Nagybánya School. He was influenced by the art of Aurél Bernáth and László (Ladislas) Mednyánszky. Thorough drawing design, compositional ability and large color spots characterize his pictures. His landscapes express the love and respect for his birthplace and its people, interwoven with childhood memories. He also painted a number of portraits: of Béla Bartók, Zoltán Kodály, László (Ladislas) Németh, and Sándor (Alexander) Petőfi. He regularly exhibited in Hungary and abroad, at the Hatvan Gallery, Debrecen Summer Show, and the Biennial Show of Venice, also in Beijing, Berlin, Brussels, Cairo, Moscow, Prague and Warsaw. His one-man shows in Budapest were presented at the Adolf Fényes Hall (1956, 1961), the Ernst Museum (1973), and at the István (Stephen) Csók Gallery (1982). Some of his paintings are at the Hungarian National Gallery, including the Morning Atmosphere, Winter, Homeward, Sentry, Demonstrators, and Daydreamers; others are at the Ferenc (Francis) Móra Museum of Szeged, the Déri Museum of Debrecen, and in private collections. He received the Munkácsy Prize twice (1963, 1974). – B: 0883, 1815, T: 7456.→Mednyánszky, Baron László; Bernáth, Aurél. Miskolczy, Dezső (Desider) (Baja, 12 August 1894 - Budapest, 31 December 1978) – Physician, neurologist. His Medical Degree is from the University of Budapest (1919). Between 1921 and 1926 he was a demonstrator at the Institute of Braintissue Studies of the University. From 1930 to 1935 he was Associate Professor of Psychiatry at the Medical Faculty of the University of Szeged, and was a professor there from 1935 until 1940. In the period of 1940-1944 (when northern Transylvania was returned to Hungary by the Second Vienna Award), he was Professor of Psychiatry at the Medical Faculty of Kolozsvár University (now Cluj Napoca, Romania), and Director of a local clinic. In 1944-1945 he served as Vice-Chancellor of the University. After World War II, when the Paris Peace Treaty (1947) returned Northern Transylvania to Romania, he moved to Marosvásárhely (now Târgu Mureş, Romania) and was Professor of Psychiatry at the Medical Faculty of the University of Marosvásárhely from 1945 to 1964. He also headed the local Research Institute of the Romanian Academy of Sciences (1955-1964). From 1964 until his retirement in 1969, he was a professor at the University of Budapest and Director of the Psychiatric Research Institute. He was a member of numerous European scientific bodies and societies, among them the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (corresponding 1939, ordinary 1946, 1958), the Leopold Natural Science Academy, Halle, Germany (1938), and the Romanian Academy of Sciences, (ordinary 1955). His main fields of research were neuro-psychiatry and neuro-pathology. He studied the inherited diseases of the nervous system and the pathological histology of schizophrenia. He was first to apply the experimental method of the cellular degeneration of the synopsis for recognizing the fiber connections, synopsis and cell-system of the cerebellum. He pioneered the healing of modern neurotic and mental illnesses. His works include Inheritable Mental Disorders at a MoreAdvanced Age (A haladottabb kor öröklődő elmebetegségei) (1934); Histopathology des Neurons (1938); Psychiatry (Elmekórtan) co-authored (1953), and Károly Schaffer (Schaffer Károly) (1973). He received the State Prize in 1973. – B: 1730, 1031, T: 7456.→Vienna Award II. Misoga, László (Ladislas) (Budapest, 16 June 1895 - Budapest, 8 April 1969) – Actor. He studied in the Acting School of Szidi Rákosi in Budapest. He stepped on stage first at the Theater of Nagykároly (now Carei in Romania) in 1919. Between 1922 and 1928 he was with the Company of Mihály (Michael) Fekete, playing in Transylvanian theaters. From 1929 to 1931 he was a member of the Csokonai Theater of Debrecen; from 1931 to 1932 of the Theater of Szeged and, from 1932 to 1934 of the National Theater (Nemzeti Színház) of Miskolc. From 1934 to 1944 he played at the Comedy Theater (Vígszínház),Budapest, and he was its Artistic Director between 1940 and 1944. He was a guest artist at the Inner City Theater (Belvárosi Színház) in 1935, at the Royal and Municipal (Városi) Theaters in 1939, and at the Operetta Theater (Operett Színház) in 1944 and 1945. From 1945 he appeared at a number of theaters in Budapest. He also performed at the Madách Theater (MadáchSzínház) (1952-1958), and the Petőfi Theater (1958), Budapest. From 1957 to 1966 he was member of the Gaiety Stage (Vídám Színpad), Budapest. He began his career as a comic dancer and, with his excellent caricaturing ability and humor he became a popular artist of the cabaret genre. His roles include Basilin Lehár’s Count of Luxemburg (Luxemburg grófja); Zsupánin J. Strauss Jr’s The Gipsy Baron (A cigánybáró), and Rosenkrantz in Shakespeare’s Hamlet. From 1938, he appeared in more than 120 feature films sometimes in minor roles, including Black Diamonds (Fekete gyémántok) (1938); Men on the Mountains (Emberek a havason) (1942); Life-Sign (Életjel) (1954); Merry-Go-Round (Körhinta) (1955); Yesterday (Tegnap) (1959); The Suitable Man (A megfelelő ember) (1960); Two Half-times in Hell (Két félidő a pokolban) (1962), and Sweet and Bitter (Édes és keserú) (1966). He frequently performed on the Hungarian Radio. – B: 1445, 0883, T: 7456.
Misztótfalusi Kis, Miklós (Nicholas) (Misztótfalusi) (Alsómisztótfalu, now Teuc din jos, Romania, 1650 - Kolozsvár, now Cluj-Napoca, Romania, 20 March, 1702) – Typesetter, letter-cutter, printer. He studied Philosophy and Reformed Theology at the Nagyenyed College in Transylvania (now Aiud in Romania). From 1677-1680 he was a schoolmaster in Fogaras (now Fagaras, Romania). In 1680, on behalf of Bishop Mihály (Michael) Tófeus, he went to Holland to supervise the orthography of the Bible in the Hungarian language just being printed there, and at the same time to continue his studies. However, instead of theology, he became interested in the printing trade and in Amsterdam he learnt the trade of lettercutting and printing to an unusually high, artistic degree. Because of the war-time situation he almost completely broke connection with the Transylvanian Reformed Church, made himself independent, and for a number of years he worked there as a printer, receiving orders from every part of Europe. He cut and engraved letters also in Greek, Armenian, and Hebrew, and prepared the letters of the first Georgian (Grusian) printed alphabet. The antique letters, prepared by him, but for a long time attributed to Anton Janson, are still in use today.
The incomes he earned with the lettercutting he devoted to the publication of the Bible in Hungarian. In the course of publishing he corrected numerous mistakes and meaningless expressions in the translated text and in addition he introduced innovations (modernizations) in spelling, like setting up type in: ‘c’ for ‘cz’, ‘f’ for ph and ‘i’ for ‘y’. At his “own expense and letters” in small, easily manageable form he had the Károli Bible, as well as the Psalms translated by Albert Szenczi Molnár re-printed, adding to these even a new edition of the New Testament.
In 1689 he gave up his Amsterdam workshop and returned to Hungary to directly serve the cause of Hungarian culture in Transylvania (Erdély, now Romania). He took on himself the management of the printing shop of the Reformed Church at Kolozsvár, which, after various petty problems, only opened in 1693. He had a great variety of works printed and published at his own expense: works of history, useful informations, calendars, volumes of verses, etc. In ten years he had about a hundred works published in Hungarian and Latin, carefully edited, with the highest standard of the typographic taste of his times.
His selfless work was not appreciated and recognized; instead, he was facing only intrigues and slanders. In fact, the self-respecting authors of manuscripts, who were Reformed ministers and schoolteachers, did not tolerate his corrections in their texts. The orthodox Reformed Church leadership laid charges against him, accusing him with text-falsification, falsifying the Holy Scripture by his textual-philological corrections, and that his aim was to discredit the ecclesiastical and secular leadership of the country. He tried to defend himself in his work Apologia Bibliorum in 1697; then, he answered the accusations against him in his Justification of his Own Person (Maga személlyének Mentsége) in 1698. Both of his writings are powerful indictment against the petty ecclesiastical and secular leaders opposing any progress or modernization. Because of his two books he was summoned to a church council, where he was forced to publicly apologize for, and recant the contents of his writings. Copies of his books were then burnt.
Tótfalusi Kis was one of the great pioneers of Hungarian culture. The denigration of his completely misunderstood modernizing work and his character assassination ruined his health and spirit and died as a broken man at the age of 52. Ferenc (Francis) Páriz Pápai wrote his first biography (in verse form), Lajos (Louis) Dézsi published a more recent work on him entitled: Misztótfalusi Kis Miklós (1898). – B: 1078, 0883, 1020, T: 7456.→Szenczi Molnár, Albert; Pápai Páriz, Ferenc; Felvinczi, György; Comenius,
Ámos János; Balassi, Bálint; Károli Bible; Bible in Hungarian. Misztrál Ensemble – A group of musicians, formed in 1997 with the aim of setting to music the little-known verses of poets of Hungary and abroad in an original and individual tone. In their songs, they blend the history, tradition and the unusual world of original Hungarian songs and modern songs. Members of the ensemble are: Sámuel Csóka, sound engineer and technician; Miklós Heinczinger, flute, clarinet and vocals; Mihály Hoppál, viola and double bass; Gábor Pusztai, percussion; Tamás Tobisz Tinelli, guitars and vocals; and Máté Török cello, guitar and mandolin, lute and song. They annually organize the Legend-walking Misztral Festival at Nagymaros (Nagymarosi RegejáróMisztrál Fesztivál) in the Danube Bend, North of Budapest. The Mistrals, criss-crossing the country, endeavor to engage with the public and share with them the valuable literary-musical culture, by means of concerts, stage appearances and literary hours. The Legend-walking Misztral Artistic Club network serves the same purpose: they are active in a number of towns in Hungary. In the club evenings, along with the regularly appearing Mistral Ensemble, numerous well-known figures of the musical life of Hungary also appear, thereby enriching the program. Up to the present, acting in response to invitations from a number of countries abroad, they have appeared in the Felvidék (Northern) area of Hungary (now Slovakia), Transylvania (Erdély,now in Romania), Carpathian-Ukraine, Poland, Estonia, Finland, Italy and the USA. Their CDs include Mezőn széllel járók (2004) and Megkopott harangszó (2006). They are recipients of the Béla Bartók Prize (2006) and the Bálint Balassi Memorial Medal (2008). – B: 2051, T: 7456.