M macartney, Carlile Aylmer



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Mezőkeresztes Battle – It took place on 26-28 October 1596. It was fought between the victorious Turkish Army of Sultan Mehmed III, and the united army of Prince Miksa (Maximilian) Teuffenbach, Captain of Kassa (now Košice, Slovakia), and Reigning Prince Zsigmond (Sigismund) Báthory (1581-1598) of Transylvania. The United Army lost 8,000 soldiers in action, and all its military equipment including the canons; but Zsigmond Báthory managed to escape. According to contemporary views, the lost battle was as tragic in its consequences as that of Mohács in 1526. – B: 1153, T: 7103. →Báthory, Prince Zsigmond.
Mezőség – The northern and northeastern part of the Transylvanian Basin (Transylvania, Erdély, now part of Romania), bordered by the Rivers Szamos, Maros and the three branches of the Küküllő. It was named after its treeless nature, a hilly country of ”grassy fields”, fairly high above sea level (400-500m), covering about 6,000 km2. Originally oak forests covered it; now it is agricultural land. Among its hills in the broad valleys, there is a variety of small lakes, some of them used to be artificially dammed up. The area is composed of Upper Mediterranean shale deposits and Sarmatian sandstone. Landslides are frequent in the areas of the shale outcrops. It has been populated since ancient times; excavations have uncovered items of prehistoric origin. It could be the “Csigla Field” (Csigla mező), mentioned in the chronicles, where the Szeklers lived after the collapse of the Hun Empire. Its Hungarian population suffered greatly during the Turkish occupation; many were killed and many others fled the area, especially after the fall of Nagyvárad (now Oradea, Romania) in 1660. Today, Hungarian ethnic pockets are still found in the villages. Szék (now Sic, Romania), a characteristic Hungarian town, is rich in medieval churches, lakeside manor houses and peasant homes. The towns of Apanagyfalu (now Nuseni, Romania), Mezőkölpény (now Culpiu, Romania) and others are rich in carpentry traditions. – B: 0942, 1068, 1134, 1153, T: 7456.→Maros Szék.
Michael de Ungria (15th century)  A monk, preacher and theologian. He was a member of the Pauline Order and was educated in Paris. He became a popular preacher and polemist in the country, and was even known at the French Royal Court. However, he was banned from Paris for allegedly using illegal means to get a higher position. Later, he was permitted to return to Paris, where he died. His sermons are lost, only their references survived. – B: 1078, T: 7103.→Pauline Order.
Microgroove Long Playing Record – A long-playing (LP) record, featuring much more densely spaced grooves as compared to the older standard records. The pre-heated raw material, using various fillers in a vinyl base, was placed between the press moulds (in contrast with the standard records). It took up less space and its playing time was considerably longer than that of the standard records. They first appeared in 1947 in three sizes: with diameters 7, 10 and 12 inches (170, 250 and 300 mm respectively) and in two speeds: 45 and 33 rotations/minute. Its playing time was about 5.5, 15 and 22-26 (maximum 30) minutes. The invention of Péter Károly (Peter Charles) Goldmark, submitted in 1948, perfected this kind of record. – B: 1138, 1226, T: 7456.→Goldmark, Péter Károly.
Micromanipulator – An instrument used in cytological research for microscopic interventions (cell operations, injections, etc.). Tibor Péterfi constructed the first micromanipulator that worked with fine-threaded screws; the later ones slid along on a metal ledge. – B: 1138, T: 7456.→Péterfi, Tibor.
Migration Legend Cycles – These legends are closely connected with the Hun–Hungarian legend cycle and with Hungarian legends of the Settlement Period of the 9th century AD. Its oldest segment is the legend of Hunor and Magor that symbolically reflects the historical development of the Hungarians. The “Wonderous Stag” legend reflects the memory of their migration into Europe around 700 BC, and assumed material representation in the Scythian Gold Stag objects found in the Carpathian Basin dating from 500 BC. The second wave of migration is associated with the arrival of the Huns in the area in the 5th century AD. – B: 1134, 1020, 7017, T: 7617.→Hun-Hungarian Legend Cycle; Wondrous Stag Legend.
Migration of Early Hungarians – A branch of the Turkic peoples, the Ogurs (branch of the Bolgar-Turkic Onogurs) moved westward from their Asian homeland. They became in increasingly close contact with the Magyars and gradually formed one community, one ethnic group. The Magyar tribal confederation, thus compounded, was made up of seven tribes (joined later by the three Khabar tribes) and they moved on to the steppes of the Kuban River south of the River Don but north of the Caucasus Mountains, to the Maeotis (now the Sea of Azov) area, positioned between the Khazars south of them and the Bolgars north of them. They stayed here primarily in the 7th century. The ever-increasing Arab advance northward was only stopped by the line of fortresses the Khazar Khanate built by the Caucasus Range.

By the middle of the 8th century, the Magyars had moved to the Don-Dnepr steppes north of the Black Sea (in the present day Ukraine). Their homeland here was called Levedia (Lebedia), where they lived in alliance with the Khazars. They abandoned Levedia in 889, due to some internal troubles within the Khazar Empire and presumably to their refusal to accept Judaism. They decided to move west to the Carpathian Basin, which some of them had already visited on exploratory expeditions. The defeat of the Avar Khanate in the Carpathian Basin by Charlemagne took place in 803. It is likely that the so-called late Avars (related to the Magyars) were still in the Carpathian Basin before 896, the time of the arrival of the Magyars. Also, a small number of Magyars from earlier exploratory expeditions could have remained in the Carpathian Basin among surviving groups of Avars, together with the Szeklers, held to be the survivors of the Huns in Transylvania (Erdély, now in Romania). A little later these related peoples were welcoming and helping Árpád’s Magyars in the occupation of the new homeland. In the Carpathian Basin, the Magyars found a people speaking a language similar to that of the majority of the occupying tribes.



Etelköz (between the Dnepr River and the lower course of the Danube, near its delta) was the last stop for the Magyars immediately before the Carpathian settlement. It was here that the so-called Blood Covenant (Vérszerződés) was made between the Magyar tribes, and Álmos, the head of the Megyer Tribe became their leader (khagan) and planned the migration to the Carpathian Basin. However, he was unable to enter the Carpathian Basin and the Magyars, led by Khagan (Supreme Leader) Árpád, carried out the final settlement during the years 895 to 900. This was a gradual occupation: first settling mainly in Transdanubia, the Danube islands (especially Csepel Island) and the Danube-Tisza Interfluve; the occupation of Northern Hungary and the more easterly parts of the Basin as well as Transylvania followed later. The Bulgar Khanate (the Danube Bulgars) was successfully forced out of the eastern part of the Carpathian Basin. – B: 1068, 1553, 7456, T: 7456.→Khazars, Avars, Petchenegs, Bulgars, Bulgar Khanate, Great Hungary; Magna Hungaria; Maeotis; Lebedia; Etelköz; Khabars; Blood Covenant; Szeklers; László, Gyula.
Mihalkovics, Géza (Pest, 30 January 1844 - Budapest, 12 July 1899) – Physician, anatomist. He obtained his Medical Degree from the University of Pest in 1869, and became a demonstrator at the Institute of Anatomy. From 1872 to 1874 he was an honorary lecturer of Embryology at the University of Strasbourg. In 1875 he became Associate Professor of Embryology at the University of Budapest, and in 1878 a full professor. Between 1881 and 1889 he was professor at the Department of Regional Anatomy and Histology; from 1890 to 1899, at the Institute of Anatomy (No. 1). During 1898 and 1899 he was Vice-Chancellor of the University and, for several periods, Dean of the Medical Faculty. He was mainly interested in histology and engaged in cerebral research and comparative anatomy. His works include Study of Surgical Dressing (Sebészeti köttan) (1868); Growth of the Brain (Az agy fejlődése) (1877); General Anatomy (Általános bonctan) (1881), and Anatomie und Entwicklungsgeschichte der Nase und ihrer Nebenhöhle (1894). – B: 1730, 1160, 0907, T: 7456.
Mihalovich, Ödön (Edmund) (Fericence, Slavonia, 13 September 1842 - Budapest, 22 April 1929) – Composer. From 1855 he studied Music under the direction of Mihály (Michael) Mosonyi at the Ferenc (Franz) Liszt Academy of Music, Budapest. In 1865 he studied with M. Hauptmann in Leipzig and, in 1866 under P. Cornelius in Munich. In 1865 he met Richard Wagner, Hans von Bülow, and also Ferenc (Franz) Liszt, and appeared with Liszt in several concerts. In 1870 he held his first orchestral concert. In 1872 he was President of the Wagner Society of Pest. In 1881 he became Director of the Academy of Dramatic Art. From 1887 until his retirement in 1919, he was Director of the Academy of Music, Budapest. Wagner strongly influenced his style. He really came into his own during his directorship, reaching European standards and securing outstanding musicians for the Academy (B. Bartók, Z. Kodály, E. Dohnányi). His compositions include four symphonies, seven symphonic poems, a Faust fantasy, piano works, operas (Eliana, Wieland der Schmied, Toldi’s Love), male choirs, songs, musical articles and critiques. – B: 0883, 0907, T: 7456.→Mosonyi, Mihály; Liszt, Ferenc; Bartók, Béla; Kodály, Zoltán.
Mihály, Dénes (Denis) (Gödöllő, 7 July 1894 - Berlin, 20 August 1953) – Mechanical engineer, inventor. At the early age of sixteen, he wrote a technical book on automobiles, followed by another on motorbikes. While completing his higher studies at the Budapest Polytechnic, his interest turned to the problems of sound-film and television. In 1916 he conducted successful experiments in the field of sound-films. In fact, he may well be regarded as its inventor. On 30 April 1918 he submitted his patent called Projectophon. He perfected several transmitter systems; his Telehor of 1919 was designed using selenium cells and a coiled oscillograph; a piece of equipment suitable for transmitting motionless pictures to a distance of several kilometers; it was a prototype of the picture-transmitter. To further develop his inventions, he accepted the invitation of the Allgemeine Elektrizitats Gesellschaft to work in Berlin. During the 1928 Berlin radio exhibition, he employed the Nipkow-dial (his modification) and glow discharge lamp as a light-relay. For the first time in the world, on 8 March 1929, the Radio Station of Berlin-Witzleben transmitted a motion picture broadcast, based on Mihály’s patent. He then established a company for the manufacturing of television appliances. The apparatus he brought out in 1933 had a layout featuring a reflex-perimeter, glow-discharge lamp. In conjunction with the physicist E.H. Traub, a more advanced design, known as the Mihály-Traub Receiving Set with rotary mirror, was introduced in 1935. During the Hitler era, he was hiding persecuted people and he was subsequently interned; a consequence that led to a relapse of his tuberculosis, ultimately causing his death. – B: 0883, 1123, T: 7456.
Mihályfi, Ernő (Ernest) (Bér, 3 September 1898 - Budapest, 20 November 1972) – Politician, journalist. He was born into a Lutheran Pastor’s family. He studied at the Faculty of Art of the University of Budapest, and obtained a Ph.D. from the University of Szeged in 1923. While still a student, he was involved in journalism; he was a contributor for the newspaper, Evening (Est). In 1923, he emigrated to the USA, where he was a manual worker, but sent reports to his newspaper, the Est. When he returned to Hungary, he continued working for the same newspaper. He was a versatile journalist, working for other papers as well. He became involved in politics. He befriended some leading intellectuals and artists, among them Endre (Andrew) Bajcsy-Zsilinszky, Pál (Paul) Pátzay, Gyula (Julius) Derkovics and Péter (Peter) Veress. From 1942 he was involved with the antifascist Hungarian Historical Memorial Committee (Magyar Történelmi Emklékbizottság) and entered the Smallholders’ Party (Kisgazda Párt). During the German occupation in 1944, he was hiding in Bér, his village of birth. After World War II, he edited two newspapers and participated in the political life. From 1947 until his death he was a Member of Parliament, filling various positions, including Ministerial Offices and membership in the Presidential Council. He was also a Presidium member of the Patriotic People’s Front (Hazafias Népfront,) and that of the National Peace Council (Nemzeti Béketanács). He was lay-superintendent of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Hungary, from 1957. He was Co-President of the Friends of Soviets Society (Szovjet Baráti Társaság) and President of the Hungarian Society of the United Nations (Magyar ENSZ Társaság). He received a number of prizes and awards, among them the Ferenc Rózsa Prize (1962) and the Order of the Banner of the Hungarian People’s Republic (1965). A posthumous documentary film was made about him. A foundation for talented young journalists bears his name. – B: 0883, 1257, T: 7103.→Bajcsy-Zsilinszky, Endre; Pátzay, Pál; Derkovics, Gyula; Veress, Péter; Evangelical-Lutheran Church in Hungary.
Mikes, Éva (Misics) (Budapest, 22 December 1938 - Budapest, 5 February 1986) – Pop singer. She did her musical training privately under Júlia Majláth, as well as in the Hungarian Radio Dance music Studio under Péter Tamás Balassa. Toward the end of the 1950s she often appeared with János (John) Koós, Mária (Mary) Toldi and Katalin (Catherine) Sárosi. Her characteristic voice and tender style made her quickly known troughout the country. Apart from the concert stages of Hungary, she also appeared in a number of other European countries. She won a prize at the International Dance-song Festival of Sopot, Poland. Her populat songs include What is on my Heart, it is on my Mouth (Ami szívemen a számon) (1964), A Little Luck (Egy kis szerencse) (1965), and First Love (Első szerelem) (1965). She had many radio and gramophone recordings. – B: 0883, 1031, T: 7456.→Majláth, Júlia; Koós, János.
Mikes, George (1) (György) (Siklós, 15 February 1912 - London, 30 August 1987) – Writer, journalist. He received a Degree in Law at the University of Budapest in 1933. He became a journalist, wrote for the weekly Morning (Reggel), created the Intimate Stevie (Intim Pista) column for Theater Life (Színházi Élet), as well as submitted works for other newspapers. On moving to England, he became the London correspondent for the Morning (Reggel) and the 8 o’clock News (8 Órai Ujság) in 1938. During World War II, he was a correspondent for the Hungarian Section of the BBC, later a staff member until 1950. He was President of the London Group of the Expatriate Writers’ PEN Center, regularly wrote for English and Hungarian émigré papers and prepared television reports. Between 1957 and 1963 he was one of the editors of London’s Word of the People (Népszava). He worked for Radio Free Europe’s Hungarian Program from 1975 until his death. His first book, England in Slippers (Anglia papucsban), made him famous. Besides humor, he wrote travel guides, journals, and political analyses, they were translated into many languages. His major works include How to be an Alien (1946); How to Scrape Skies (1946); Milk and Honey (1950; Down with Everybody (1951); Shakespeare and Myself (1952); Über Alles (1953); The Land of Promise (Ígéret földje) (1953), The Hungarian Revolution (1957); Wheelbarrow (Talicska) (1958); How to Unite Nations (1963); The Land of the Rising Yen (1970); How to be Seventy (1982), and How to be Decadent (1986). – B: 0877, 0883, 0878, T: 7657.
Mikes, György (2) (George) (Privigye, now Prievidza, Slovakia, 29 July 1929 - Budapest, 9 June 1986) – Writer, humorist. Following his commercial high school studies he worked as a bookkeeper. From 1951 until his death, he was a correspondent for the satirical weekly Crafty Matt – the Goose herd (Ludas Matyi); in the 1970s became its Night Editor, then Editor-in-Chief. His major works include Girl With a Half-million (A félmilliós lány) (1957); Splinter and Beam (Szálka és gerenda), humorous sketches (1961); Peas Thrown at the Wall (Falra hányt borsó), humorous sketches (1963); The Lions Left Home at Four O’clock (Az oroszlánok négy órakkor mentek el otthonról) (1965), and I Go Uunder the Water (Megyek a víz alá), humorous sketches (1972). – B: 0883, 0878, T: 7456.
Mikes Imre (Emeric) (Gallicus, pen name from 1951 to 1967) (Budapest, 9 February 1900 - Kihei, Hawaii, USA, 30 March 1990) – Journalist, writer. He wanted to be a seaman but chose journalism instead. He first worked in the editorial office of the paper, Szamos, of Szatmárnémeti (now Satu Mare, Romania) from 1920. Later, he worked for the Eastern Newspaper (Keleti Ujság) of Kolozsvár (now Cluj-Napoca, Romania), then for the Brassó Papers (Brassói Lapok) (now Braşov, Romania), and eventually became Editor-in-Chief for the Nagyvárad Diary (Nagyváradi Napló) (now Oradea, Romania). He was also a correspondent for the journal Our Age (Korunk). He participated in the editing of the volume, Metamorphosis Transylvaniae, (1934) (Transylvania, Erdély now in Romania). Due to a series of articles, Everything Silent on the Bank of the Dnepr (A Dnyeper partján minden csendes), published in the Brassó Papers, he was sentenced by the new Romanian leaders of Transylvania to three and a half years’ imprisonment. For his work The Way of Transylvania from Greater Hungary to Great Romania vols. i,ii (Erdély útja Nagymagyarországtól Nagyromániáig, I-II) (1936), he was deported to Hungary in 1936. In Budapest he joined the editorial office of the daily, The News (Az Újság). He reported to the daily, Hungarian Nation (Magyar Nemzet). While working at The Journal, (Az Újság), he was assigned as a reporter to Paris; and after World War II he served as Press Secretary of the Hungarian Embassy in France. Due to his anti-Communist articles from the Paris Peace Negotiation, he had to leave the Magyar Nemzet (1947). After emigration to the West, he launched the weekly, Western Herald (Nyugati Hírnök) and its French edition, the Courrier de l’Occident. In 1951, he joined Radio Free Europe (Szabad Európa Rádió), and edited the Reflector Program, where he worked until 1976. He settled in Hawaii in 1982. One of his other works is Reflector – Historical Documents (Reflektor – Történelmi dokumentumok) (1977). – B: 0883, 0921, 1438, 1672, T: 7456.
Mikes, Kelemen (Zágon, now Zagon, Romania, ca 15 August 1690 - Rodosto, now Tekirdag, Turkey, 2 October 1761) – Writer, author of the Letters from Turkey (Törökországi Levelek). His father was of Transylvanian lesser nobility, participant of the Thököly uprising, executed by the Habsburgs in the year of his son’s birth. He studied at the Jesuit School of Kolozsvár (now Cluj-Napoca, Romania) until age 17. In 1707 he became a page of Prince Ferenc (Francis) Rákóczi II, and was inseparable from the Prince thereafter. He participated in the Rákóczi Freedom Fight (1704-1711), and was a member of the Noble Company (Nemesi Társaság). He went into exile with the Prince. At first, he traveled with the Prince to Poland and England, and then in 1713 to France via Danzig. He familiarized himself with Paris and learned French. At the Sultan’s suggestion, he went to Turkey with other refugees in 1717. The fugitives were relocated to Rodosto (the present Tekirdağ) on the shore of the Sea of Marmora in 1720. As Rákóczi's page and chamberlain, he observed the life in exile for four decades. He describes his experiences in his Letters from Turkey. It is a collection of letters in the French literary style, most probably written after 1735, and addressed to a ficticious aunt, Countess P.E. in Istanbul.

After the death of the Prince, he traveled close to Hungary in the in course of József (Joseph) Rákóczi's project in 1738-1739. Later in 1739 he also saw the borders of Transylvania (Erdély now part of Romania) as the Sultan's envoy, while traveling to Jászvásár (now Jasi, Romania), to see the Voivode of Moldova. Empress Maria Theresa refused his return but “permitted” him to correspond with his family in Transylvania. He filled his monotonous lifestyle producing literary works and with translations from French. The Kuruc fugitives died one after the other and he became the leader of the local Hungarian colony in 1758.



For 41 years, he wrote about the life of the refugees in his Letters from Turkey. His work is an important historical source, the peak of the Hungarian artistic prose of the 18th century. There is a commemorative monument marking his home in Zágon. – B: 0883, 1257, 1288, T: 3240.→Rákóczi II, Prince Ferenc; Kuruc.
Miklós (Nicholas) – A church dignitary in the 10th century. He was Bishop of Győr from 1052 to 1064. He was the notary of King Andrew I (1046–1060), and he composed the wording of the Founding Charter of the Tihany Abbey in 1055. It is possible that he was also the first chronicler. It is assumed that he summarized in writing the origin of Hungarians, their occupation of the Carpathian Basin, their western campaigns, and the history of their first king, St. Stephen, in a text that was purportedly lost, but whose one-time existence is highly probable. – B: 0883, T: 7456.
Miklósa, Erika (Kiskunhalas, 9 June, 1971 - ) – Opera singer (coloratura soprano). She spent her youth as an athlete, training for the heptathlon. Due to an accident, however, she was forced to switch career paths. Because of her good singing skills she chose to be a singer. At first, she sang at family gatherings, weddings and formal celebrations. On one such occasion, a singing-master heard her and almost immediately began to teach the 16-year-old Erika. Soon she went on to study music at the Ferenc (Franz) Liszt Academy of Music in Szeged, as well as in Milan and New York. She became a soloist at the Hungarian State Opera, Budapest, in 1990, and made her debut in 1991 as Papagena in Mozart’s Magic Flute (Varázsfuvola). She was also a participant in the Interoperett concerts and appeared in TV programs. Her “image”role is the Queen of the Night in Mozart’s Magic Flute. She also sang at the Opera House in Brussels, where her international career began in 1992. She sang at the Royal Opera in London, at the Staatsoper in Vienna, at the Metropolitan Opera in New York, in San Francisco, Los Angeles, Washington and Chicago, and other famous opera houses. Her international fame is still growing. She is also a recording artist, mostly of Mozart’s works (The Mozart Album, Die Zauberflöte). Her awards include Europe Cultura Award for the role of “Queen of the Night” in Zauberflöte, Zurich (1991); Pro Opera Lyrica Opera Singer of the Year 1993 (Hungary); International Mozart Competition - 1st Prize in Voice category (1993); European Award for Culture, Zurich (1995); the Cross of Order of Merit of the Republic of Hungary (1998), the Kossuth Prize (2012), and was made an Honorary Citizen of Kiskunhalas (1999), and Artist of Bács County (2003). – B: 1031, 2016, 1031, T: 7103.
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