M macartney, Carlile Aylmer



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Macartney, Carlile Aylmer (1895-1978) – British historian, specialist in Hungarian issues. He was a research fellow of All Souls College, Oxford. From 1936 to 1946 he was in charge of the Hungarian section of the Foreign Office Research Department. From 1951 to 1957 he held the Chair of International Relations at Edinburgh University. He authored the following books about Hungary: The Magyars In the Ninth Century
(Cambridge, 1930); National States and National Minorities (Oxford, 1934); Hungary (Modern World Series, Bern, 1934); Hungary and Her Successors (Oxford, 1937); Studies in the Earliest Hungarian Historical Sources, I - VIII (Budapest, 1938-1952, Blackwell); Problems of the Danube Basin (Cambridge,, 1942); The Medieval Hungarian Historians (Cambridge, 1953); October Fifteenth, A History Of Hungary, 1929 - 1945 (Edinburgh, 1957, 2nd. Ed. 1962, with A. W. Palmer); Independent Eastern Europe (Macmillan, 1962); Hungary a Short History (Edinburgh, 1962), The Habsburg Empire, 1790 –1918, (Macmillan 1969). He was a British academic specializing in the history of Central Europe and in particular the history of Hungary. – B: 1031, 7617, T: 7617.→ Trianon Peace Treaty; Nagybecskerek.

Mace (buzogány) – A blunt striking hand-weapon: a club with short staff and a globular head studded with sharp spikes. It probably has an Asiatic origin and was imported to Europe by the Mongols. According to Byzantine Emperor Leo the Wise (886-912), early Hungarians did not use this weapon; in fact it was unknown to them. It was used mostly in the 14th and 15th centuries. It became a useful weapon against the armored cavalry and it appeared in different head types. The one with a solid head differed from the one with ribbing; the others, with thorny or starry heads, served different purposes. The starry-headed mace was popularly called the battle-star. Its use as a weapon became popular in Hungary only in the 14th century. Later, the decorated form of the mace became the symbol of power. – B: 0942, 1138, T: 3233.→Mace, ornamented; Mace, studded.
Mace, ornamented In the social order of Hungarians the mace was used as symbol of power for the heads of the tribes. Later, the family patriarch of historic families used it during ceremonies and parades. The feathered, segmented, richly decorated mace-heads were favored most usually on a long stalk. For example: (1) Andrássy family: Head in 12 segments studded with rubies and turquoises. The colored velvet covering of the stem ended in a hilt of silver plate with baroque ornamentation. Length is 48cm.; the head measures 6cm. (2) Bocskai family: large globe shaped head covered with perforated, gilded silver plate, showing renaissance flower motifs, the family coat-of-arms and the year 1605. The stem is covered with red velvet and its length is 63 cm. The diameter of the head is 10 cm. (3) Festetich family: the head is studded with precious stones, emeralds and turquoises. The red velvet covered stem ends in a gilded, silver-plated hilt. – B: 1322, T: 7670.→Mace; Mace, studded.
Mace, studded − A hand weapon with short staff and a globular head studded with sharp spikes. It was mostly used in the 14th and 15th centuries. It probably has an Asiatic origin and was brought to Europe by the Mongols. - B: 1322, T: 3233.→Mace; Mace, ornamented.
Mackinaw Coat (bekecs) – A fur-lined, short overcoat without a collar made of sheepskin with the fur inside. The outside is decorated with embroidered floral motifs. It either has a distinct waistline, or falls freely from the shoulders to the thighs. Its color is usually brown; the more expensive ones are white. It is a traditional piece of clothing. German tailors made them first, following a Polish pattern, toward the end of 18th century and they have been popular since then. It is a variant of the ködmön. – B: 0942, 1031, T: 3240.→Szűr Mantle.
Macskássy, Gyula (Julius) (Budapest, 4 February 1912 - Budapest, 29 October 1971) – Film director, film animator. He wanted to become a graphic artist. At the beginning of his career he drew advertisements and worked with János Halász (John Halas). He concurrently produced animated promotion films from 1930. In 1950, along with his associates, he founded the Hungarian animated motion picture industry. He also wrote scripts for his films. First, Walt Disney’s style influenced his works. Later, he created his own characteristic style, using folk motives. His works include The Cockerel’s Diamond Coin (A kiskakas gyémánt félkrajcára) (1951); Pencil and Eraser (Ceruza és radír) (1960); Duel (Párbaj) (1961); Gus the Lifesaver (Gusztáv az életmentő) (1964), and Statue (Szobor) (1971). Many of his animated films achieved international success. He and his production staff also received assignments from UNESCO. He received the Béla Balázs Price (1961), and the title of Merited Artist (1965). – B: 1160, 1031, T: 7685.→Halas, John.
Macsó Banate – Part of the Bánát region of Historic Hungary of the Carpathian Basin, south of its border. This area extended from the eastern part of Serbia to the River Drina, the border of Bosnia. Its capital was Szabács (now Šabac, Serbia). It was probably King Imre (Emeric, 1196-1204), who established the Macsó Banat; but its earliest document originates from the time of King Béla IV (1235-1270), who installed Prince Vratislav of Galicia as leader of the Banat. The Serbian King Uros Milutin III occupied it in 1286; King Károly I (Charles) (Charles Robert, 1307-1342) reoccupied it in 1312. In 1339, Stepan Dusan, King of Serbia, conquered it but he was expelled and, after the devastation, it was resettled with new inhabitants. The Macsó Banat played an important role in the wars against the Turks. Finally, it fell under Turkish rule around 1496. In the 19th century, it became part of Serbia under the name of Matchva. – B: 0942, 0945, 1031, 1138, T: 7103.→Lackfi, András.
Mácza, János (John) (Alsóhrabóc, now Nižni Hrabovec, Slovakia, 4 August 1893 - Moscow, 14 November 1974) – Writer, art historian, esthete. He studied Pharmacology. From 1913 he wrote play reviews, first in the magazine Ungvár Bulletin (Ungvári Közlöny), later in Budapest papers: the Hungarian Figaro (Magyar Figaro), Whole Wide World (Ország-Világ), and Hungarian News (Magyar Hírlap). In 1915 he settled in Budapest and joined the antimilitaristic youth, gathering around Lajos (Louis) Kassák; he was a permanent correspondent for The Deed (A Tett), and later of Today (Ma). In 1917 he organized the Theater Studio of Ma, and drew a plan for an experimental theater. Under the influence of German expressionism, he wrote poems and translated some works of the Aktion and Sturm’s writers. During the Hungarian Council (Soviet) Republic of 1919, he was appointed Assistant Stage Manager of the National Theater (Nemzeti Színház), Budapest. Thereafter, he moved to Vienna, where he became a member of the Communist Party and was commissioned to write literary and cultural columns for the paper the Worker of Kassa (Kassai Munkás). He translated from Czech, German and Soviet Russian avant-garde literature; he also wrote poems and canvassed stories in the proletarian spirit. In 1923 he settled in Moscow; until 1926, he worked in the Literary Section of the Commissariat of Education; he studied 20th century Russian Literature and published articles and books. From 1928 to 1934 he was Lecturer of Art Theory and Art History at the University of Moscow. Between 1934 and 1954, he lectured at the College of Architecture and, in 1936 he obtained a Ph.D., and published in the field of General Theory of Architecture and Gothic Art. From 1954 to 1970 he gave lectures in Esthetics and Industrial Form-design Theory at the Lomonosov University. In 1962 he published a textbook on the History of Esthetics. His works include The Classical and Modern Hungarian Drama (A klasszikus és az új magyar dráma) (1915), and Esthetics and Revolution (Esztétika és forradalom) (1970). – B: 0883, 1257, T: 7456.
Maczkó, Mária (Tura, 15 August 1961- ) – Folk-singer. She graduated from the voice department of the Conservatory of Debrecen in 1982. Thereafter, she became the artistic leader of the Tura House of Culture, and a soloist of the State Folk Ensemble for the next ten years. She was a member of various literary circles and folk-song ensembles with the Gajdos Ensemble of Eger; she released a cassette and worked with the Tolcsvay Trio. In the settlements along the Galga River, on the southern slopes of the Cserhát Mountain, she carried out folk-song collecting; she also directed the heritage-preserving work of child and adult groups. Among others, she was the leader of the Women’s Choir of Kartal and, for a decade, she was the Artistic Director of the Tura Minstrels. Her solo records appeared under the titles With Song I Praise You and I Bless Your Sacred Name (Énekkel dícsérlek és Áldom szent nevedet). With film-manager, Ferenc (Francis) Olasz, she shot three Maria-films, and, on request of the French National Radio, she also gave concerts in Paris. Her work was recognized with numerous prizes and distinctions, such as the Young Master of Folk Art, the eMeRTon Prize, the Folksinger Prize, the Hungarian Heritage Prize, and she was made an honorary freewoman of Tura. – B: 2050, T: 7456.
Madách Family (Sztregovai and Kiskelecsényi Madách) – One of the oldest families of County Nógrád. Radun, one of its ancient members, lived at the time of King András II (Andrew, 1205-1235). He escorted the fleeing King Béla IV (1235-1270) to the Adriatic shore following the disasterous Battle of Muhi in 1241. He stayed with him there and then escorted him back. His sons also remained humble subjects and faithful to the King. – B: 0942, T: 7676.→Muhi, Battle of.
Madách, Imre (Emeric) (Alsósztregova, now Dolná Strehová, Slovakia, 21 January 1823 - Alsósztregova, 4 October 1864) – Poet, writer. He studied Law and Philosophy at the University of Pest in 1837. His first romantic poems were published in 1840, under the title, Latin Flowers (Latin virágok), about his first hopeless love. Following his studies, he moved back to the family estate. He was admitted to the Bar in 1842. He became appointed County Deputy Clerk in 1843; a Judge of the Court of Appeal in 1844, and posted as Provincial High Commissioner between 1846 and 1849. In 1861, he was again appointed Judge to the County Court, and became a parliamentary representative. In 1863 he became member of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences. Due to his weak heart he was unable to participate in the Freedom Fight; however, he harbored a rebel soldier friend, for which the Austrians imprisoned him. While in prison, his wife became unfaithful. The intensity of the pain cleansed Madách; he got over the incident and finally, after several attempts, wrote his drama, The Tragedy of Man (Az Ember Tragédiája). From the time of its first publication, the play appeared in Hungarian in different forms, was translated into several languages, and was reprinted more than one hundred times. Although it was never staged in his lifetime, the Hungarian National Theater (Nemzeti Színház) presented it over 1100 times until 1967. Imre Madách was the greatest Hungarian playwright of the 19th century, along with József (Joseph) Katona. – B: 0883, 1257, T: 3240.→Katona, József.

Madaras, József (Joseph) (Rigmány, now Rigmani, Romania, 16 August 1937 - Máriahalom, 24 April 2007) – Actor. In 1958 he completed his studies at the Academy of Dramatic Art. The 1958-1959 season was spent with the Kisfaludy Theater of Győr; then, in 1959-1960, he played in the National Theater of Szeged. In 1960-1961 he was a member of the State Déryné Theater (Állami Déryné Színház) and, from 1961 to 1966, of the Thalia Theater (Thália Színház). Between 1966 and 1969 he worked in the Syncron Pannonia Studio (Pannónia Szinkron Stúdió). From 1969 to 1971 he was a member of the Literary Stage (Irodalmi Színpad). Between 1971 and 1974 he played in the National Theater (Nemzeti Színház), Budapest, and, from 1974 to 1976, again on the Literary Stage. From 1978 he was a member of the Hungarian Film Producing Co. (Magyar Filmgyártó Vállalat). He was a skillful impersonator of peasant or worker figures discontented with their fate, desiring to break free from it. His main roles included Laci in J. Darvas’ Sooty Sky (Kormos ég); Jani Habetler in E. Fejes’ Rust-cemetery (Rozsdatemető), and Juan in Pedro Calderon’s The Judge of Zalamea (A zalameai bíró). There are 36 feature films to his credit, including The Bells Went to Rome (A harangok Rómába mentek) (1958); Idol (Bálvány) (1963); Shiny Breezes (Fényes Szelek) (1968); Black Cat (Fekete macska) (1972); 80 Hussars (80 Huszár) (1978), and Defense is Next (Védelemé a szó) (1988). From 1982 he also acted as stage manager. He was awarded a number of prizes, among them the Béla Balázs Prize (1974), the Grand Prix of Locarno Festival (1978), the title of Merited Artist (1978), the Kossuth Prize (1996), and the Prize of Life Achievement (2000). – B: 1445, 1031, T: 7456.

Madarász, Emil (Nagyszentmiklós, now Sânnicolaul-Mare, Romania, 12 November 1884 - Budapest, 18 February 1962) – Poet, writer, journalist. Having completed Teachers’ College, he taught in a private school in Budapest. His first poems appeared in the paper People’s Voice (Népszava), early in the 20th century. In 1918 he became a member of the Soldiers’ Council of Gödöllő, and, in 1919, he joined the Communist Party. During the Hungarian Council (Soviet) Republic of 1919, he fought in the Red Army. Later, he had to move to Vienna; then between 1923 and 1946, lived in the Soviet Union, writing for Hungarian papers there. During World War II, he was in charge of the Literary Foundation at Alma Ata. On his return to Hungary, he was a correspondent for the papers, New Word (Új Szó), and People’s Voice (Népszava). He translated a number of Soviet novels. He was at his best when he featured the daily life of people. His works include Poems (Versek) (1905-1947); Csihajda Legend from 1919 (Csihajda Legenda 1919-ből), poems (1957), and Yesterday and the Day Before Yesterday (Tegnap és tegnapelőtt), poems (1955). – B: 0883, 1257, T: 7456.
Madarász, Gyula (Julius) (Pest, 3 May 1858 - Budapest, 29 December 1931) – Ornithologist, painter and illustrator. After earning his Ph.D. at the University of Budapest in 1880, he obtained a position in the Bird Gallery at the Zoological Department of the Hungarian National Museum. To further his study of birds, he toured Hungary and later traveled in Western Europe, Asia, Africa, and North America. From 1884 until 1887 he published and edited the periodical, Zeitschrift für die gesammte Ornithologie. His fieldwork included scientifically documenting bird migration patterns in the Lake Fertő region. The Hungarian Government commissioned him to lead a zoological expedition to India and Ceylon (now Sri Lanka) in 1896 and 1897, where he focused primarily on ornithological collection and research. This was followed by expeditions to Egypt, Nubia (now southern Egypt and northern Sudan) and Sudan in 1911 and 1912. His research was widely published in national as well as in foreign journals. Madarász’ bird and landscape paintings were exhibited in the Art Gallery and at the Hungarian National Salon. His major works include Systematic Register of Hungarian Birds and Corresponding Literature (Rendszeres névsora a magyarországi madaraknak és az ezekre vonatkozó irodalom) (1881); Samuel Fenichel’s Ornithological Collection in New Guinea’s Finisterre Range (Fenichel Sámuel ornitológiai gyûjtése az új guineai Finisterre hegységben) (1894); The Results of My Ornithological Collection in Ceylon (Ceyloni gyûjtésem madártani eredményei) (1897), and Birds of Hungary (Magyarország madarai) (1899-1903). – B: 1160, 1124, T: 7657.→Herman, Ottó; Fenichel, Sámuel; Pungur, Gyula.
Madarász, Imre (Emeric) (Budapest, 1 May 1962 - ) – Literary historian. He did his secondary and tertiary studies in Milan (1975-1982), and completed them at the University of Budapest with a Degree in Education in 1988. From 1990 he worked as a demonstrator on a scholarship in the Department of Old Hungarian Literature of the University of Debrecen. He was an assistant lecturer there in 1992 and, in 1993 he established the Chair of Italian Studies and became Head of the Research Center of the Italian Enlightenment and Romanticism. In 1991 he obtained his candidature for professorship and, in 1998, became a full professor. He is Editor for the series: Italianistica Debreceniensis, The Discovered Classics (A Felfedezett Klasszikusok), and The Eötvös Classics (Eötvös Klasszikusok). His main field of study is the literature of the Italian Enlightenment and Romanticism. His works include Kölcsey, Eötvös, Madách (1989); Manzoni (1990); The History of Italian Literature (Az olasz irodalom története) (1993), and Halfway Along the Road of Human Life (Az emberélet utjának felén) (1999), as well as more than 1000 publications in 52 periodicals. He edited more than 100 volumes. He is a member of a number of learned societies and a recipient of the Knight Medal of Merit of the Republic of Italy (2002). – B: 1257, 1700, T: 7456.
Madarász, Viktor (Victor) (Csetnek, now Štítnik, Slovakia, 14 December 1830 - Budapest, 10 January 1917) – Painter. First he was a soldier, then a Lieutenant in the War of Independence (1848-1849). After the war was lost, he went underground; then studied Law, but soon changed to painting. He attended the Faculty of Historical Painting and Illustration at the Academy of Fine Arts, Vienna, where he painted his first historical picture Kuruc and Labanc (Kuruc és Labanc), and took it to an exhibition in Budapest (1859). He began his studies in Paris in 1856, where he created his major works, illustrating historical events, such as László Hunyadi on the Bier (Hunyadi László siratása) (1859), and Ilona Zrinyi Before the Investigating Judge [in the Fortress of Munkács] (Zrinyi Ilona a vizsgálóbíró előtt) (1859). The experiences gathered as a young soldier and the memories of war followed him through his entire life. His artistic concepts always had the theme of national independence, or tragic Hungarian historical subjects. In 1870 he returned to Budapest; but the bureaucracy at that time, and the official red tape obstructed him in his work. His canvas Gábor Bethlen Among his Scholars (Bethlen Gábor tudósai között) (1870) was rejected. After another rejection by the Hungarian Government, he felt his art and works were not needed in his country; consequently he withdrew from the artistic life and never painted again. Following this decision, he took care of the business left by his father. His romantic style made him famous. He is one of the greatest artists of Hungary, the founder of historical painting. There is no other artist whose oil canvasses have been reproduced as much as his. His works reflected the Hungarian people’s love for their country. After the defeat of the War of Independence of 1848-1849, his paintings remained excellent examples of patriotism. Over the decades, the works of Viktor Madarász never lost importance, due to his reflection of the tragic destiny and history of the Hungarian nation. – B: 0883, 0934, 1031, T: 7279, 7653.→Munkács; Munkács Castle.
Mádéfalva’s Peril (Mádéfalvi veszedelem; Seculicidium) (Mádéfalva, now Siculeni in Romania) – In 1762, Empress and Queen Mária Terézia (Maria Theresa, 1740-1780) appointed General Buccow as Commander-in-Chief of Transylvania (Erdély, now in Romania), and charged him with the task of setting up a frontier defense system. Consequently, young men were recruited for border-guard duty. The Szekler (Székely Hungarian) youth refused to comply with this demand, which was a grave infringement of the Szeklers’ free status, and also because the military frontier duty was a serious burden. Nonetheless, the conscription of able-bodied men continued unabated in the Szekler regions of Ski, Kászon (now Casin), Gyergyó and Háromszék (now Trei Scaune). Against the general resistance, General Buccow moved his army into Székelyudvarhely (now Odorheiu Secuiesc, Romania). By the summer of 1763, hundreds of young Szekler men had fled across the Carpathian mountain range to Moldova. In the meantime, three Szekler leaders were prosecuted and deported. In 1767, General Siskowicz started forcibly conscripting young men, upon which the male population of Mádéfalva fled into the forests of the mountainous region. In retaliation, the military drove out the remaining families from their houses into the winter cold. Resistance started to be organized in Mádéfalva, its members moved to the village. On 6 February, the families that had previously fled, returned to their village from the forest. General Siskowicz surrounded the village with 1000 infantrymen and 300 other soldiers in the same night; and at 4 a.m. on 7 January, following an artillery barrage, the soldiers stormed the village and massacred 400 of the 2,500 Szeklers. Later, many more died of their wounds. The next day, an imperial edict was issued, ordering General Siskowicz to identify and punish the members of the resistance by beheading them and confiscating their property. In order to avoid prosecution, many Szeklers fled to Bukovina, where they hid in Csángó-Magyar villages. In 1777, Bukovina fell under Austrian authority and, with the mediation of Count Andárs (Andrew) Hadik, the Szeklers were pardoned, were called into the unpopulated area of Bukovina, where they founded villages such as Istensegíts (Ţibeni), Fogadjisten (Iacobeşti), Hadikfalva (Dorneşti), Józseffalva (Tolova), Andrásfalva (Măneuţi). Every year, on 7 January, Mádéfalva holds a Commemoration Day of the Seculicidium. There is a memorial of Seculicidium at Mádéfalva. – B: 1230, 1031, 1665, T: 7103.→Mária Terézia, Empress and Queen; Csángós; Hadik, Count András.
Maderspach, Károly (Charles) (Madersbacher) (Oravicabánya, now Oraviţa, Romania, 3 August 1791 – Ruszkabánya, now Rusca Montană, Romania, 23 August 1899) – Metallurgical engineer. He obtained his Degree from the Mining and Forestry Academy of Selmecbánya (Schemnitz now Banská Štiavnica, Slovakia). Soon after, he joined the company of the Hofmann Brothers and, following the company’s reorganization he became joint owner of Hofmann Brothers and Charles Maderspach Mining and Ironworks Company. In the 1840s he played an initiating role in the research of the Oligocene coal basin of the Zsil River valley. The successes of the company were due to his invention that became internationally applied: an iron bridge with a stay hanging on an arch. The first such bridge was built over the Temes River at Lugos in 1833. He also took part in the planning competition for a permanent Pest-Buda bridge. In 1849, with the iron works of Ruszkabánya, he played an important and enthusiastic part in supplying the army of General Bem with munitions and armaments (fighting the Austrian forces in the Hungarian War of Independence against Habsburg rule, 1848-1849). His wife, Franciska Buchwald contributed to the cause by entertaining Generals Bem and Kmety in their house. For these reasons the Austrians arrested him, and the commander of the invading Austrian troops, on the instruction of the brutal General Haynau, had his wife publicly flogged. As a result of this humiliation, Maderspach committed suicide. At Ruszkabánya, there is a commemorative column for Mme. Maderspach and Charles Maderspach (erected in 1909). B: 0883, 1068; T: 7456.→Bem, József; Haynau, Baron Julius Freiherr von.
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