Logic gates lab report



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Logic gates lab report

By: Brenen Thayaparan


452600


TEJ3M0: Computer Technology

Louise Arbour Secondary School

Mr. Lowe

Monday May 12, 2014



Table Of Contents

Title Page ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 1

Table of Contents ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 2

Purpose …………............…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 3

Aim ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 3

Introduction …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 3

Materials …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 3

Procedure …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 4 - 5

Observations ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 6 - 8

Discussion/ Conclusion ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 9



Purpose: To investigate the each individual operations of Logic Gates.

Aim for each of the following labs:

6. To investigate the operation of an “AND” gate.

7. To investigate the operation of an “OR” gate.

8. To investigate the operation of a logic inverter (“NOT” gate).

9. To investigate the operation of a “NAND” gate.

10. To investigate the operation of a “NOR” gate.

11. To investigate the operation of an “Exclusive OR” gate.

Introduction:

The objective for conducting these experiments, is to see how the operation of Logic Gates work. Furthermore, in order to see how these different logic gates work, they will be used in separate circuits and have their own truth tables, so that it is easier to tell how they differ from each other, and how they would work.



Materials:

  • 1 - 470 ohm Resistor

  • 1 - LED

  • 1 - 7408 Logic Gate (AND Gate)

  • 1 - 7432 Logic Gate (OR Gate)

  • 1 - 7404 Logic Gate (Inverter)

  • 1 – 7400 Logic Gate (Nand Gate)

  • 1 – 7402 Logic Gate (NOR Gate)

  • 1 – 7486 Logic Gate (Exclusive OR Gate)

  • 7 wires

  • 1 Battery

  • 1 SK- 50 breadboarding socket

  • Wire stripper tool

  • Needle Nose plier

  • Paper and writing utensil

  • Power Supply

Procedure:

  1. Gather all the required materials needed in order to conduct the labs



  1. Cut the jumper wires by using wire stripper to cut the lengths you need the wires to be.



  1. Use the needle nose plier to ply off any unwanted coating of the jumper wire on both ends (when doing this, keep in mind that you need both ends of the wire, to reach the bottom of the breadboard in order for the wire to make connections between pins in the breadboarding socket).



  1. Follow the diagrams and procedures on each lab sheet from Labs 6-11 in order to assemble the circuits.



  1. Verify if the resistor being used, is a 470 ohm resistor, by following this order:

    • 0 - Black

    • 1 – Brown

    • 2 – Red

    • 3 – Orange

    • 4 – Yellow

    • 5 – Green

    • 6 – Blue

    • 7 – Violet

    • 8 – Grey

    • 9 – White

(According to the above list, a 470 ohm resistor, must have the following colours: Yellow, Violet, and Brown in that precise order. Just remember that the third colour’s value, is the amount of zeroes the resistor will have, which in this case would be one zero.)

  1. Make sure the positive end (the longer end) of the LED being used, is in the slot directly under the right end of the resistor in the breadboarding circuit.



  1. Check if pin 7 of each logic gate for each lab, is grounded. Basically, have a jumper wire connected to the slot directly under pin 7 of the gate being used, to the negative slot vertically below it which would basically be at the bottom portion of the breadboarding socket.



  1. Now check if pin 14 of each logic gate for each lab, is connected to the input. Basically, have a jumper wire connected to the slot directly above pin 14 of the gate being used, to the positive slot vertically above it which would basically be at the top portion of the breadboarding socket.



  1. When the assembling of the circuit created on the breadboard is complete, the next step is too connect the breadboard socket to the power supply via jumper wires. (Connect a jumper wire to any positive slot on the power supply to a positive slot on the breadboard circuit, and do the same thing with another jumper wire, except this time, connect them to the negative slots).

  2. Switch the inputs A and B which would be located vertically under within the first 3 pins of each Logic Gate, to low and high (0 0, 0 1, 1 0, 1 1), to see how it effects the output results.



  1. Record Your Observations and create a Truth Table to record how the different inputs effect the outputs.



  1. Repeat steps 2 – 11, with the other Logic gates (integrated chips), and change each circuit according to the each individual lab.


Observations:

Truth Tables

1= On = High

0 = Off = Low

Lab 6 Gate:

https://encrypted-tbn0.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:and9gctruixctsykztdf7wxo5tz7c1ucgdivuynnbsumb8r95qc_bdw3

Lab # / Name

Input A

Input B

Output (LED)

Lab 6

(AND Gate)



0

0

0

0

1

0

1

0

0

1

1

1

Lab 7 Gate:

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/c8/logic-gate-or-us.png

Lab # / Name

Input A

Input B

Output (LED)

Lab 7

(OR Gate)



0

0

0

0

1

1

1

0

1

1

1

1

Lab 8 Gate:



Lab # / Name

Input A

Input B

Output (LED)

Lab 8

Inverters

(NOT Gate)


1

-

0

0

-

1

Lab 9 Gate:

https://encrypted-tbn3.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:and9gcsxcmtjjthhgeszhohh7nmndqpvj2zqhllivm8htstczvuqcbb_

Lab # / Name

Input A

Input B

Output (LED)

Lab 9

(NAND Gate)



0

0

1

0

1

1

1

0

1

1

1

0

Lab 10 Gate:



http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/15/logic-gate-nor-us.png

Lab # / Name

Input A

Input B

Output (LED)

Lab 10

(NOR Gate)



0

0

1

0

1

0

1

0

0

1

1

0

Lab 11 Gate:

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/c9/logic-gate-xor-us.png

Lab # / Name

Input A

Input B

Output (LED)

Lab 11

(Exclusive OR Gate)



(XOR)

0

0

0

0

1

1

1

0

1

1

1

0

Discussion and Conclusion:

Based off the “truth tables” shown in the observations, each truth table shows how unique each gate is. Furthermore, the different gates work in their own ways. For instance, an AND Gate requires both inputs to be 1 in order for the circuit to function, hence “AND Gate”. An “OR Gate” works in the opposite way of an AND Gate. In order for an OR Gate to make the circuit work, it at least needs one of the inputs to have a 1 value hence “OR Gate”. The third gate used in Lab 8 is called the “NOT Gate” which is also known as an Inverter. All it does, is give an output that is opposite to its inputs making the gate the simplest one to use out of the rest of the gates. Next up is the “NAND” Gate, which simply does the opposite of an “AND” Gate. The “NOR” Gate is also kind of like a “NAND” Gate except it gives outputs that are opposite to the outputs of an “OR” Gate. Last but not least is the “Exclusive OR Gate”. Simply put, in a circuit both values have to be different in order for the circuit it is used in to work. Furthermore, if both inputs are the same, the output will be a 0 and the circuit will not work. In conclusion, each gate has their own unique way to make a circuit work.


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