|SS9 – Crossroads
- Arrival4 – Life in New France
Life in New France
The social system in New France was similar to the old feudal system where French lords (seigneurs) own the land and the habitants or peasant farmers, cultivated the land in exchange for rent and services.
The peasant farmers of New France were more prosperous than their European counterparts and often supplemented their income by working part time in the fur trade.
The Habitants lived farming lifestyle that followed the season. They supplemented their diet and income with the natural wealth of the new world such as furs, fish and local berries.
The Habitants quickly developed their own culture and traditions that were a reflection of their European roots, Catholic beliefs and their N. American lifestyle.
Soon small town began to grow along the St. Lawrence River, the largest such as Quebec City and Montreal were important military or strategic locations. These military bases were used to protect France’s interests in N. America from the Native populations, the English and eventually the Americans.
SS9 – Crossroads
Arrival4 – Life in New France
Life in New France
Directions: Read pages 239-244 in your text Crossroads – A Meeting of Nations.
1. On a separate piece of paper, provide definitions for the following terms;
Seigneury land grant in New France similar to the Feudal system
Habitants peasant farmers
Militia citizens who train as soldiers in their spare time
Amenities things and services which improve life
Emissaries people sent out on missions
2. On a separate piece of paper, answer the following questions using COMPLETE
a) Who were the Habitants and why do you think they developed a more independent
attitude than their European counterparts? (2 mks for explanation and quality
peasant farmers who cultivated the land that belonged to the seigneur. They were more independent because they were prosperous. Many Habitants also worked in the fur trade part-time.
b) Describe the role of the Seigneury in New France. (2 mks for quality of explanation)
The Seigneur had to build and live in a manor house, hold court in the event of disputes. Attract settlers and build a mill. He was responsible for defense.
c) In your own words, describe the life of a Habitant farmer over the course of a typical
year. (2 mks for quality of thought and details)
Based on the cycle of the farm. Spring..plant crops, harvest sugar from Maple Trees and fishing. Summer, cultivating and weeding fields, cutting wood, clearing land. Fall harvest, slaughter animals, preserve food for the winter. They enjoyed music and story-telling. Regular church-goers. Worked together to plant, harvest, build roads etc.
d) Explain the role of women in New France and provide an example of successful woman
from this period. (2 mks for description and example)
Few legal rights but women worked like partners in family business
3. Examine the chart on Immigration to New France found on page 244 of your text and create your own line graph showing the immigration rates between the years 1630 and 1759. Be sure to use different colors for the three lines,
one for men, women and the total.
You will be marked out of 5 for the accuracy of your graph,
and out of 3 for quality of work for a total of 8 marks.
Total :____ /21