Letter from the Secretary-General



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317 Opt. Cite. BBC News. 2013. Might of militias challenges Libya. [online] Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-24479470 [Accessed: 21 Oct 2013].

318 Ibid.

319 Ibid.

320 BBC News. 2013. Q&A: Lawless Libya. [online] Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-24472322 [Accessed: 21 Oct 2013].

321 Ibid.

322 Joshi, S. 2013. Might of militias challenge Libya's fragile government. BBC News, [online] 10th October. Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-24479470 [Accessed: 21 Oct 2013].

323 Globaledge.msu.edu. n.d. Syria: History >> globalEDGE: Your source for Global Business Knowledge. [online] Available at: http://globaledge.msu.edu/countries/syria/history [Accessed: 22 Oct 2013].

324 JCPA.org. n.d. Armistice Agreement with Syria. [online] Available at: http://www.jcpa.org/art/knesset3.htm [Accessed: 2 Nov 2013].

325 Little, D. 2013. Cold War and Covert Action: The United States and Syria, 1945-1958. Middle East Journal, p. 51. Available at: http://www.jstor.org/stable/4328056 [Accessed: 21 Oct 2013].

326 Fanack.com. n.d. First decades of independence (1946-1963). [online] Available at: http://fanack.com/countries/syria/history/first-decades-of-independence-1946-1963/ [Accessed: 3 Nov 2013].

327 Faculty-staff.ou.edu. 2013. SHISHAKLI AND THE DRUZES: INTEGRATION AND INTRANSIGENCE. [online] Available at: http://faculty-staff.ou.edu/L/Joshua.M.Landis-1/Joshua_Landis_Druze_and_Shishakli.htm [Accessed: 2 Nov 2013].

328 Ibid.

329 Lababedi, Z. n.d. The Urban Development of Damascus: A study of its past, present and future. London. Available at: http://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/14328/1/14328.pdf [Accessed: 3 Nov 2013].

330 Mcinerney, A. 1992. Prospect Theory and Soviet Policy Towards Syria, 1966-1967. Political Psychology, 13 (2), Available at: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3791681 [Accessed: 25 Oct 2013].

331 USC.edu. 2013. Turkish-Syrian Frontier, 1955-1957. [online] Available at: http://www.usc.edu/dept/ancntr/Paris-in-LA/Database/Case-DB/Syr-Tur-56-87/DIS55A05.TXT [Accessed: 26 Oct 2013].

332 Ibid.

333 Gale, T. n.d. United Arab Republic. [online] Available at: http://www.encyclopedia.com/topic/United_Arab_Republic.aspx [Accessed: 26 Oct 2013].

334 Mousa, S. 2013. Commemorating the United Arab Republic. Al Jazeera, Available at: http://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/opinion/2013/02/201321985412606377.html [Accessed: 26 Oct 2013].

335 Podeh, E. 2013. Decline of Arab Unity: The Rise and Fall of the United Arab Republic. Sussex Academic Press.

336 Ibid.

337 Seale, P. and Mcconville, M. 1989. Asad of Syria. Berkeley: University of California Press.

338 Watford, B. 2012. A Layman's View Of Seventy Years Of America's Foreign Policy. Xlibris Corporation.

339 Countrystudies.us. n.d. Syria - Neo-Baath Dominance, 1963-66. [online] Available at: http://countrystudies.us/syria/16.htm [Accessed: 3 Nov 2013].

340 A term to define the ones who staged a coup

341 Syria Business Law Handbook Strategic Information and Laws. 2012. International Business Publications.

342 Globaledge.msu.edu. n.d. Syria: History. [online] Available at: http://globaledge.msu.edu/countries/syria/history [Accessed: 3 Nov 2013].

343 U.S. Department of State. n.d. Syria (05/07). [online] Available at: http://www.state.gov/outofdate/bgn/syria/85051.htm [Accessed: 3 Nov 2013].

344 Summit images. 2002. Al-Ahram Weekly Online, (579), Available at: http://weekly.ahram.org.eg/2002/579/sum7.htm [Accessed: 3 Nov 2013].

345 Globaledge.msu.edu. n.d. Syria: History. [online] Available at: http://globaledge.msu.edu/countries/syria/history [Accessed: 3 Nov 2013].

346 Mongabay.com. n.d. Syria - HISTORY. [online] Available at: http://www.mongabay.com/reference/country_studies/syria/HISTORY.html [Accessed: 3 Nov 2013].

347 Globaledge.msu.edu. n.d. Syria: History. [online] Available at: http://globaledge.msu.edu/countries/syria/history [Accessed: 3 Nov 2013].

348 Oren, M. 2013. The Yom Kippur War Was 40 Years Ago. Everything You Thought You Knew About It Is Wrong.. New Republic, Available at: http://www.newrepublic.com/article/115154/yom-kippur-war-40-look-back [Accessed: 2 Nov 2013].

349 Weisburd, A. 2010. Use of Force: The Practice of States Since World War II. Penn State Press.

350 Choucair, J. 2005. Lebanon's New Political Moment. Policy Outlook - Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, Available at: http://research.policyarchive.org/6622.pdf [Accessed: 3 Nov 2013].

351 Pipes, D. 2000. "We Don't Need Syria" in Lebanon. Middle East Quarterly, Available at: http://www.danielpipes.org/354/we-dont-need-syria-in-lebanon [Accessed: 2 Nov 2013].

352 Bejjani, E. n.d. FREE LEBANON - CITIZENSHIP LAW & DELUSION. [online] Available at: http://www.generalaoun.org/eliasbejjani54.html [Accessed: 5 Nov 2013].

353 Krummrich, S. 2013. Shaping Jihadism: How Syria Molded the Muslim Brotherhood. Available at: http://www.dtic.mil/dtic/tr/fulltext/u2/a467079.pdf [Accessed: 3 Nov 2013].

354 Eldar, S. 2013. Israel Should Be Part Of Coalition Against Syria. Al-Monitor Israel Pulse, Available at: http://www.al-monitor.com/pulse/originals/2013/08/israel-international-coalition-syria-assad.html [Accessed: 3 Nov 2013].

355 News.bbc.co.uk. 2007. BBC NEWS | World | Middle East | History of failed peace talks. [online] Available at: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/world/middle_east/6666393.stm [Accessed: 5 Nov 2013].

356 Taylor & Francis Group. Europea World Year Book 2004. 2004. Europa Publications.

357 Jurist.law.pitt.edu. n.d. JURIST - Syria: Syrian Law, Legal Research, Human Rights. [online] Available at: http://jurist.law.pitt.edu/world/syria.htm [Accessed: 3 Nov 2013].

358 Ibid.

359 Carnegie Middle East Center. 2012. The Damascus Spring. [online] Available at: http://carnegie-mec.org/publications/?fa=48516 [Accessed: 5 Nov 2013].

360 Human Rights Watch. 2007. III. Background: The Emergence of a Human Rights Community in Syria. In: No Room to Breathe.

361 “Islamic Jihad Movement in Palestine” is a Palestinian militant organisation. It is listed as a terrorist group by Australia, Canada, the European Union, Israel, Japan, the United Kingdom and the United States. Iran is claimed to be its main financial supplier. (Reference: http://www.start.umd.edu/start/data_collections/tops/terrorist_organization_profile.asp?id=82)

362 Israel Strikes Base Inside Syria. 2009. CBSNews, Available at: http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2003/10/05/world/main576590.shtml [Accessed: 5 Nov 2013].

363 "Syria Accountability and Lebanese Sovereignty Restoration Act of 2003". 2003. act adopted at 108th Congress of the United States of America, Washington, D.C., 7th January. Washington, D.C..

364 In Qamishli, Tensions Rise Between PKK and Syrian Army. 2013. Syria Deeply, Available at: http://beta.syriadeeply.org/2013/04/qamishli-tensions-rise-pkk-syrian-army/#.UnhhePkW1Ws [Accessed: 5 Nov 2013].

365 The Al-Qamishli Uprising: The beginning of a »new era« for Syrian Kurds?. 2009. KurdWatch, Available at: http://www.kurdwatch.org/pdf/kurdwatch_qamischli_en.pdf [Accessed: 5 Nov 2013].

366 SYRIA: KURDS IN THE SYRIAN ARAB REPUBLIC ONE YEAR AFTER THE MARCH 2004 EVENTS. 2005. Amnesty International, Available at: http://www.amnesty.org/en/library/info/MDE24/002/2005 [Accessed: 5 Nov 2013].

367 Fattah, H. 2005. Kurds, Emboldened by Lebanon, Rise Up in Tense Syria. The New York Times, Available at: http://www.nytimes.com/2005/07/02/international/middleeast/02kurds.html?_r=0 [Accessed: 5 Nov 2013].

368 Faculty-staff.ou.edu. 2005. SyriaComment.com: Damascus Declaration in English. [online] Available at: http://faculty-staff.ou.edu/L/Joshua.M.Landis-1/syriablog/2005/11/damascus-declaration-in-english.htm [Accessed: 26 Oct 2013].

369 Syria complains to U.N. about Israeli airstrike. 2013. CNN, Available at: http://edition.cnn.com/2007/WORLD/meast/09/11/israel.syria/ [Accessed: 5 Nov 2013].

370 'US helicopter raid' inside Syria. 2008. BBC, Available at: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/7692153.stm [Accessed: 5 Nov 2013].

371 This part has been retrieved from the Study Guide of the United Nations Security Council of MUNTR 2013, pages 28 and 29.

372 Syria Comment. 2012. Free Syrian Army Founded by Seven Officers to Fight the Syrian Army . Available:

http://www.joshualandis.com/blog/?p=11043. [Accessed: 27 Oct 2013].



373 Allam, H. and Tice, A. 2013. Accounts of Syria rebels executing prisoners raise new human rights concerns. McClatchy Newspapers, Available at: http://www.mcclatchydc.com/2012/08/03/159888/accounts-of-syria-rebels-executing.html [Accessed: 26 Oct 2013].

374 The Guardian. 2012. Syria: rebels accused of human rights abuses - Tuesday 20 March 2012. Available: http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/middle-eastlive/2012/mar/20/syria-opposition-accusedabuses-live. Last accessed 02.01.2013.

375 Sarah Leah Whitson. 2012. Open Letter to the Leaders of the Syrian Opposition. Available: http://www.hrw.org/news/2012/03/20/openletter-leaders-syrian-opposition. Last accessed 02.01.2013.

376 al-Ahram. 2012. Syria rebels tolerate extremists despite West's fears.Available: http://english.ahram.org.eg/NewsContent/2/8/56977/World/Region/Syria-rebels-tolerateextremists-

despite-Wests-fea.aspx. Last accessed 02.01.2013.



377 Elise Labott. 2012. Obama authorized covert support for Syrian rebels, sources say. Available:

http://edition.cnn.com/2012/08/01/us/syriarebels-us-aid/index.html. Last accessed 02.01.2013.



378 France24. 2012. Islamic groups reject Syria opposition bloc .Available: http://www.france24.com/en/20121119-islamic-groups-reject-syria-opposition-bloc. [Accessed: 26 Oct 2013].

379 USA Today. 2012. Syrian opposition groups reach unity deal .Available: http://www.usatoday.com/story/news/world/2012/11/11/syrian-opposition-deal/1697693/. [Accessed: 26 Oct 2013].

380 BBC News. 2012. Guide to the Syrian opposition . Available: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-middle-east-15798218. [Accessed: 26 Oct 2013].

381 Ibid.

382 Basma Atassi. 2012. Aleppo rebels retract rejection of coalition . Available: http://www.aljazeera.com/news/middleeast/2012/11/2012112016567298627.html. [Accessed: 26 Oct 2013].

383 Reuters. 2012. World powers recognise Syrian opposition coalition .Available: http://www.reuters.com/article/2012/12/12/ussyria-crisis-draft-idUSBRE8BB0DC20121212. [Accessed: 26 Oct 2013].

384 Al Jazeera. 2012. 'Friends of Syria' recognise opposition. Available: http://www.aljazeera.com/news/middleeast/2012/12/201212124541767116.html. Last accessed 02.01.2013.

385 Polina Chernitsa. 2012. Syrian opposition united but not fully recognized. Available: http://english.ruvr.ru/2012_11_17/Syrianopposition-united-but-not-fully-recognized/. Last accessed 02.01.2013.

386 MICHAEL R. GORDON and MARK LANDLER. 2012. U.S. Moves Toward Recognizing Syria’s Opposition. Available: http://www.nytimes.com/2012/11/30/world/middleeast/us-moves-toward-recognizing-syriaopposition.html. Last accessed 02.01.2013.

387 Reuters. 2012. Britain recognizes Syria opposition coalition: Hague.Available: http://www.reuters.com/article/2012/11/20/usbritain-syria-oppositionidUSBRE8AJ0P920121120. Last accessed 02.01.2013.

388 France24. 2012. Turkey recognises new Syrian opposition. Available: http://www.france24.com/en/20121115-turkeyrecognises-new-syrian-opposition. Last accessed 02.01.2013.

389 CNN. 2012. Arab League recognizes new Syrian opposition coalition.Available: http://edition.cnn.com/2012/11/12/world/meast/syria-civil-war. Last accessed 02.01.2013.

390 BBC News. 2003. Baghdad falls to US forces. Available: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/2933707.stm. [Accessed: 26 Oct 2013].

391 This part has been retrieved from the Study Guide of the United Nations Security Council of MUNTR 2013, pages 29 and 30.

392 BBC News. 2003. Baghdad falls to US forces. Available: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/2933707.stm. [Accessed: 26 Oct 2013].

393 Country Studies. n.d. United Arab Republic. Available: http://countrystudies.us/syria/14.htm. [Accessed: 26 Oct 2013]

394 Salam Kawakibi . 2007. Political Islam in Syria. Available: http://aei.pitt.edu/11726/. [Accessed: 26 Oct 2013].

395 Ibid.

396 Ibid.

397 Russian MP. 2012. If Assad is ousted, radical Islamists will take over Syria – Russian MP. Available: http://rt.com/politics/asad-ousted-succeed-russian-327/. Last accessed 27 Oct 2013

398 Hürriyet Daily News. 2012. Syria opposition must beware of Islamist 'hijack': Clinton. Available: http://www.hurriyetdailynews.com/Default.aspx?pageID=549&nID=33717&NewsCatID=359. [Accessed: 27 Oct 2013]

399 Daniel Greenfield. 2012. Obama Breaks with Syrian Muslim Brotherhood . Available: http://frontpagemag.com/2012/dgreenfield/oba ma-breaks-with-syrian-muslim-brotherhood/. [Accessed: 27 Oct 2013].

400 Matthews, D. 2013. Syria: The very, very basics. Washington Post, Available at: http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/wonkblog/wp/2013/08/29/syria-the-very-very-basics/ [Accessed: 3 Nov 2013].

401 Ibid.

402 Ekinci, G., et al. 2013. UNITED NATIONS SECURITY COUNCIL STUDY GUIDE - MUNTR 2013. Model United Nations Association.

403 Rosen, N. 2012. Islamism and the Syrian Uprising.Foreign Policy, Available at: http://mideast.foreignpolicy.com/posts/2012/0XLIX 3/08/islamism_and_the_syrian_uprising [Accessed: 5 Nov 2013].

404 UN chief slams Syria's crackdown on protests. 2011. Al Jazeera, Available at: http://www.aljazeera.com/news/middleeast/2011/03/2011318231622114396.html [Accessed: 5 Nov 2013].

405 Gladstone, R. 2012. Friction at the U.N. as Russia and China Veto Another Resolution on Syria Sanctions. The New York Times, Available at: http://www.nytimes.com/2012/07/20/world/middleeast/russia-and-china-veto-un-sanctions-against-syria.html [Accessed: 5 Nov 2013].

406 UN.org. n.d. UNSMIS Background - United Nations Supervision Mission in Syria. [online] Available at: http://www.un.org/en/peacekeeping/missions/unsmis/background.shtml [Accessed: 5 Nov 2013].

407 United Nations Department of Public Information, News and Media Division. 2013. SECURITY COUNCIL REQUIRES SCHEDULED DESTRUCTION OF SYRIA’S CHEMICAL WEAPONS, UNANIMOUSLY ADOPTING RESOLUTION 2118 (2013). [online] Available at: http://www.un.org/News/Press/docs/2013/sc11135.doc.htm [Accessed: 5 Nov 2013].

408 Ibid.

409 Yoon, S. and Gaouette, N. 2013. Syria Chemical-Arms Resolution Passes UN Security Council. Bloomberg, Available at: http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2013-09-28/un-security-council-approves-syria-chemical-arms-measure.html [Accessed: 26 Oct 2013].

410 Doucet, L. 2013. Syria crisis: Is Geneva 2 peace conference achievable?. BBC, Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-middle-east-24775796 [Accessed: 3 Nov 2013].

411 Xin Hua Net. 2013. Syria's Assad says Geneva II conference has no success factors. [online] Available at: https://theelders.org/article/syria-civil-sectarian-and-proxy-war [Accessed: 26 Oct 2013].

412 Reuters. 2013. Syria chemical attack: What we know. [online] Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-middle-east-23927399 [Accessed: 26 Oct 2013].

413 Oliver Holmes. 2013. Syria submits plan to destroy its chemical weapons – OPCW. [online] Available at: http://uk.reuters.com/article/2013/10/27/uk-syria-crisis-opcw-idUKBRE99Q06720131027 [Accessed: 26 Oct 2013].

414 OPCW. 2013. Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production, Stockpiling and Use of Chemical Weapons and on their Destruction. [online] Available at: http://www.opcw.org/chemical-weapons-convention/ [Accessed: 26 Oct 2013].

415 Ibid.

416 Oliver Holmes. 2013. Syria submits plan to destroy its chemical weapons – OPCW. [online] Available at: http://uk.reuters.com/article/2013/10/27/uk-syria-crisis-opcw-idUKBRE99Q06720131027 [Accessed: 26 Oct 2013].

417 Ibid.

418 John Kerry, 2013. Syria's chemical weapons destruction on track, US and Russia agree. Available at: http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/oct/07/syrias-chemical-weapons-destruction-on-track-us-and-russia-agree [Accessed: 24 Oct 2013].

419 Ibid.

420 Phillips, C. 2013. Chapter: Turkey and Syria. [e-book] London School of Economic's. p. p.34. http://www.lse.ac.uk/IDEAS/publications/reports/pdf/SR007/syria.pdf [Accessed: 24 Oct 2013].

421 Ibid.

422 Tuysuz, G. and Watson, I. 2013. Turkey mulls defensive measures on Syrian border. CNN, [online] 11 November. Available at: http://edition.cnn.com/2012/11/08/world/europe/turkey-border-defense/ [Accessed: 24 Oct 2013].

423 Number of Syrian refugees in Turkey exceeds 600,000: Turkish official. 2013. Reuters, [online] 12 October. Available at: http://www.reuters.com/article/2013/10/21/us-syria-crisis-turkey-refugees-idUSBRE99K04O20131021 [Accessed: 24 Oct 2013].

424 EPATKO, L. 2013. Syria and Turkey: A Complex Relationship. PBS Newshour, [online] November 15. Available at: http://www.pbs.org/newshour/rundown/2012/11/syria-and-turkey.html [Accessed: 24 Oct 2013].

425 Croft, A. 2012. NATO demands halt to Syria aggression against Turkey. Reuters, [online] October 3. Available at: http://www.reuters.com/article/2012/10/03/us-syria-crisis-alliance-idUSBRE8921F220121003 [Accessed: 24 Oct 2013].

426 BBC News. 2013. Syria profile. [online] Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-middle-east-14703995 [Accessed: 24 Oct 2013].

427 BBC News. 2011. Turkey presses Syrian president. [online] Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-middle-east-14454175 [Accessed: 24 Oct 2013].

428 Ibid.

429 Haaretz.com. 2013. Turkey cuts trade ties with Syria amid continued protest crackdowns. [online] Available at: http://www.haaretz.com/news/middle-east/turkey-cuts-trade-ties-with-syria-amid-continued-protest-crackdowns-1.398665 [Accessed: 24 Oct 2013]

430 Ibid.

431 Kirisci, K. 2013. Turkey's Syria Calculus Must Change Again. The National Interest, [online] September 23. Available at: http://nationalinterest.org/commentary/turkeys-syria-calculus-must-change-again-9104 [Accessed: 24 Oct 2013].

432 BBC News. 2012. Syria says it downed Turkish jet. [online] Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-middle-east-18561219 [Accessed: 24 Oct 2013].

433 Mawad, D. and Gladstone, R. 2012. Syria Shots Down Turkish Warplane, Fraying Ties Further. International New York Times, [online] June 22.

434 Ibid.

435 Ibid.

436 BBC News. 2012. Turkey challenges Syria jet story. [online] Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-middle-east-18568412 [Accessed: 24 Oct 2013].

437 Ibid.

438 Ibid.

439 BBC News. 2012. Turkey challenges Syria jet story. [online] Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-middle-east-18568412 [Accessed: 24 Oct 2013].

440 Ibid.

441 Ibid.

442 Ibid.

443 BBC News. 2012. Turkey gives Syria border warning. [online] Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-middle-east-18584872 [Accessed: 24 Oct 2013].

444 BBC News. 2012. Turkey calls Nato meeting on jet. [online] Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-middle-east-18568207 [Accessed: 24 Oct 2013].

445 NATO. 2013. NATO - NATO support to Turkey : Background and timeline. [online] Available at: http://www.nato.int/cps/en/natolive/topics_92555.htm [Accessed: 24 Oct 2013].

446 The Independent. 2012. Bodies of Turkish pilots found on seabed. [online] Available at: http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/middle-east/bodies-of-turkish-pilots-found-on-seabed-7912697.html [Accessed: 24 Oct 2013].

447 CNN Wire Staff. 2012. Al-Assad: I wish the Turkish jet shootdown didn't happen. [online] Available at: http://edition.cnn.com/2012/07/03/world/meast/syria-unrest/index.html [Accessed: 24 Oct 2013].

448 Opt. Cite. NATO. 2013. NATO - NATO support to Turkey : Background and timeline. [online] Available at: http://www.nato.int/cps/en/natolive/topics_92555.htm [Accessed: 24 Oct 2013].

449 Ivan Watson, C. 2012. Turkey strikes targets in Syria in retaliation for shelling deaths. [online] Available at: http://edition.cnn.com/2012/10/03/world/europe/turkey-syria-tension/ [Accessed: 24 Oct 2013].

450 BBC News. 2012. Turkey renews strikes on Syria. [online] Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-middle-east-19822253 [Accessed: 24 Oct 2013].

451 The Huffington Post. 2013. Turkey Approves 'Use Of Force' In Syria. [online] Available at: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/10/04/turkey-syria-attack_n_1938938.html [Accessed: 24 Oct 2013].

452 NATO. 2012. NATO - North Atlantic Council statement on developments on the Turkish-Syrian border. [online] Available at: http://www.nato.int/cps/en/natolive/news_90447.htm?selectedLocale=en [Accessed: 24 Oct 2013].

453 Sky News. 2013. Syria Shells Turkey: UN Calls For Calm. [online] Available at: http://news.sky.com/story/992856/syria-shells-turkey-un-calls-for-calm [Accessed: 24 Oct 2013].

454Daily Mail Online. 2012. Crisis deepens as Turkey fires more retaliatory strikes at Syria for fourth consecutive day. [online] Available at: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2213980/Syria-Turkey-clash-Crisis-deepens-Turkey-fires-retaliatory-strikes-fourth-consecutive-day.html [Accessed: 24 Oct 2013].

455 The Huffington Post. Syrian Plane Carrying 'Illegal Cargo' Through Turkish Airspace. [online] Available at: http://www.huffingtonpost.co.uk/2012/10/11/syrian-turkey-relations-illegal-cargo-arms-moscow_n_1957024.html [Accessed: 24 Oct 2013].

456 The Huffington Post. 2013. Turkey Intercepts Syrian Plane. [online] Available at: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/10/10/turkey-syria-plane_n_1955274.html [Accessed: 24 Oct 2013].

457 Ibid.

458 Opt. Cite. BBC News. 2013. Syria profile. [online] Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-middle-east-14703995 [Accessed: 24 Oct 2013].

459 ARSU, S. and ARANGO, T. 2012. Turks Grant Recognition to Coalition of Syrians. New York Times, [online] 15 November. Available at: http://www.nytimes.com/2012/11/16/world/middleeast/turkey-recognizes-new-syrian-rebel-group-as-legitimate-leader-of-syria.html [Accessed: 24 Oct 2013].

460 Opt. Cite. NATO. 2013. NATO - NATO support to Turkey : Background and timeline. [online] Available at: http://www.nato.int/cps/en/natolive/topics_92555.htm [Accessed: 24 Oct 2013].

461 Ibid.

462 BBC News. 2013. Syria denies role in Turkey blasts. [online] Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-middle-east-22499326 [Accessed: 24 Oct 2013].

463 FAHIM, K. and ARSU, S. 2013. Car Bombings Kill Dozens in Center of Turkish Town Near the Syrian Border. New York Times, [online] 11th May. Available at: http://www.nytimes.com/2013/05/12/world/middleeast/bombings-in-turkish-border-town.html?_r=0 [Accessed: 25 Oct 2013].

464 Shelton, T. and News Desk. 2013. Deadly explosions strike Turkish-Syrian border town of Reyhanli (PHOTOS). [online] Available at: http://www.globalpost.com/dispatch/news/regions/europe/turkey/130511/deadly-explosions-strike-turkish-border-town-reyhanli [Accessed: 25 Oct 2013].

465 BBC News. 2013. Syria denies role in Turkey blasts. [online] Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-middle-east-22499326 [Accessed: 25 Oct 2013].

466 Daily Mail Online. 2013. Turkey warns of reprisals after accusing Syria of being behind car bombs in border town of Reyhanli which left 43 dead. [online] Available at: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2322998/Turkey-warns-reprisals-accusing-Syria-car-bombs-border-town-Reyhanli-left-43-dead.html [Accessed: 25 Oct 2013].

467 Aljazeera.com. 2013. Syria denies link to Turkey car bombs. [online] Available at: http://www.aljazeera.com/news/europe/2013/05/2013511121047931174.html [Accessed: 25 Oct 2013].

468 Arab League expresses "growing concern" about Syria. 2011. Reuters, Available at: http://www.reuters.com/article/2011/08/07/us-syria-league-idUSTRE7761H720110807 [Accessed: 26 Oct 2013].

469 Fresh deaths in Syria crackdown. 2011. Al Jazeera, Available at: http://www.aljazeera.com/news/middleeast/2011/08/2011828132644450754.html [Accessed: 26 Oct 2013].

470 Ibid.

471 Syria criticizes Arab League for meeting anti-Assad opposition figures. 2011. Haaretz, Available at: http://www.haaretz.com/news/middle-east/syria-criticizes-arab-league-for-meeting-anti-assad-opposition-figures-1.384818 [Accessed: 26 Oct 2013].

472 Syria agrees to end crackdown, Arab League says. 2011. CNN, Available at: http://edition.cnn.com/2011/11/02/world/meast/syria-unrest/index.html [Accessed: 26 Oct 2013].

473 Scores of bodies in Homs, activists say. 2011. CNN, Available at: http://edition.cnn.com/2011/11/04/world/meast/syria-unrest/index.html [Accessed: 26 Oct 2013].

474 Batty, D. and Shenker, J. 2011. Syria suspended from Arab League. The Guardian, Available at: http://www.theguardian.com/world/2011/nov/12/syria-suspended-arab-league [Accessed: 2 Nov 2013].

475 El Madany, S. and Samir, A. 2011. Syria agrees to let Arab League monitors in, but sanctions remain. Reuters, Available at: http://news.nationalpost.com/2011/12/19/syria-agrees-to-let-arab-league-monitors-in-but-sanctions-remain/ [Accessed: 26 Oct 2013].

476 Black, I. 2013. Syrian opposition takes Arab League seat. The Guardian, Available at: http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/mar/26/syrian-opposition-appeals-nato-support [Accessed: 26 Oct 2013].

477 Declaration by High Representative, Catherine Ashton, on behalf of the EU on the violent crackdown on peaceful demonstrators in Syria. 2013. Brussels: European Union. http://www.consilium.europa.eu/uedocs/cms_Data/docs/pressdata/en/cfsp/120169.pdf [Accessed: 26 Oct 2013].

478 Fulton, W., Holliday, J. and Wyer, S. 2013. Iranean Strategy in Syria. AEI's Critical Threats Projects & Institute for the Study of War.

479 Ibid.

480 Goodarzi, J. 2013. Syria: the view from Iran | European Council on Foreign Relations. [online] Available at: http://ecfr.eu/content/entry/commentary_syria_the_view_from_iran137 [Accessed: 26 Oct 2013].

481 Yan, H. 2012. Why China, Russia won't condemn Syrian regime. CNN, Available at: http://edition.cnn.com/2012/02/05/world/meast/syria-china-russia-relations/index.html [Accessed: 2 Nov 2013].

482 Charbonneau, L. 2013. Russia U.N. veto on Syria aimed at crushing West's crusade. Reuters, Available at: http://www.reuters.com/article/2012/02/08/us-un-russia-idUSTRE8170BK20120208 [Accessed: 26 Oct 2013].

483 Amos, H. 2011. News Analysis: Russia Damages Image in Arab Spring. The Moscow Times, Available at: http://www.themoscowtimes.com/business/article/news-analysis-russia-damages-image-in-arab-spring/442712.html [Accessed: 26 Oct 2013].

484 Yan, H. 2013. Syria allies: Why Russia, Iran and China are standing by the regime. Available at: http://edition.cnn.com/2013/08/29/world/meast/syria-iran-china-russia-supporters/ [Accessed: 2 Nov 2013].

485 Jolly, D. 2013. Russia Urges Syria to Cooperate in Chemical Weapons Inquiry. The New York Times, Available at: http://www.nytimes.com/2013/08/24/world/middleeast/syria-chemical-attack.html [Accessed: 3 Nov 2013].

486 Joint UK, French and German statement on Syria. 2011. Available at: https://www.gov.uk/government/news/joint-uk-french-and-german-statement-on-syria [Accessed: 2 Nov 2013].

487 Syria Rebels 'Aided By British Intelligence'. 2012. Sky News, Available at: http://uk.news.yahoo.com/syria-rebels-aided-british-intelligence-041638306.html#zd54J8q [Accessed: 26 Oct 2013].

488 Syria conflict: UK to give extra £5m to opposition groups. 2012. BBC, Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-19205204 [Accessed: 26 Oct 2013].

489 UK's Cameron loses parliamentary vote on Syria action. 2013. Reuters, Available at: http://www.reuters.com/article/2013/08/29/us-syria-crisis-britain-vote-idUSBRE97S18K20130829 [Accessed: 26 Oct 2013].

490 Myers, S. and Shadid, A. 2013. U.S. Imposes Sanctions on Syrian Leader and 6 Aides. The New York Times, Available at: http://www.nytimes.com/2011/05/19/world/middleeast/19syria.html?_r=0 [Accessed: 26 Oct 2013].

491 Clinton: Syria's Assad has lost legitimacy to rule. 2011. NBCnews, Available at: http://www.nbcnews.com/id/43711672/ [Accessed: 2 Nov 2013].

492 United Nations Security Council. 2013. "S/RES/2118 (2013)", resolution adopted on 27th September.

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