Letter from the Secretary-General



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180 The Newyork Times, 2011. Hosni Mubarak. [online] Available at: http://web.archive.org/web/20110216065944/http://topics.nytimes.com/top/reference/timestopics/people/m/hosni_mubarak/index.html (accessed: 24 October 2013)

181 Ibid

182 Ibid

183 Ibid

184 Ibid

185 BBC News, 2013. Profile: Hosni Mubarak [online] Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-middle-east-12301713 (accessed: 24 October 2013)

186 The Egyptian Organization for Human Rights, 2008. Egypt and the Impact of 27 Years of Emergency on Human Rights. [online] Available at: http://en.eohr.org/2008/05/28/%E2%80%9Cegypt-and-the-impact-of-27-years-of-emergency-on-human-rights%E2%80%9D/#more-22 (accessed: 24 October 2013)

187 Ibid

188 Ibid

189 Amnesty International, 2010. [online] Available at: http://www.amnesty.org/en/library/asset/MDE12/027/2010/en/7139fa34-dd0b-4204-87ba-4b8c08f27a2d/mde120272010en.html (accessed: 24 October 2013)

190Texas University,2008. The Heir Apparency of Gamal Mubarak. [pdf] Available at: https://webspace.utexas.edu/jmb334/www/documents/article.ASJ.2008.pdf (accessed: 24 October 2013)

191 Ibid

192 AlJazeera, 2010. Egyptians reject inheritance of power. [online] Available at: http://blogs.aljazeera.com/blog/middle-east/egyptians-reject-inheritance-power (accessed: 24 October 2013)

193 The Guardian, 2011. US reported 'routine' police brutality in Egypt [online] Available at: http://www.theguardian.com/world/2011/jan/28/egypt-police-brutality-torture-wikileaks (accessed: 25 October 2013)

194 Ibid

195 US Department of State, 2010. 2009 Country Reports on Human Right Practices. [online] Available at: http://m.state.gov/md136067.htm (accessed: 25 October 2013)

196 New York Times, 2011. Violent Clashes Mark Protests Against Mubarak’s Rule [online] Available at: http://www.nytimes.com/2011/01/26/world/middleeast/26egypt.html?_r=0 (accessed: 25 October 2013)

197 BBC News, 2013. Profile: Hosni Mubarak [online] Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-middle-east-12301713 (accessed: 25 October 2013)

198 International, 2011. Uprising in Tunisia: People Power topples Ben Ali regime. [online] Available at: http://www.indybay.org/newsitems/2011/01/16/18669320.php (accessed: 24 October 2013)

199 Ibid

200 AlJazeera, 2011. Three Deads in Egypt Protests. [online] Available at: http://www.aljazeera.com/news/middleeast/2011/01/20111251711053608.html (accessed: 25 October 2013)

201 Ibid

202 Encyclopedia Britannica, 2013. Muslim Brotherhood. [online] Available at:http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/399387/Muslim-Brotherhood (accessed: 26 October 2013)

203 A genealogical inquiry into early Islamism: the discourse of Hasan al-Banna, 2012. [pdf] Available at: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/13569317.2012.644986 (accessed: 26 October 2013)

204 Ibid

205 Ibid

206 BBC News, 2013. Profile: Egypt’s Muslim Brotherhood. [online] Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-middle-east-12313405 (accessed: 26 October 2013)

207 Ibid

208 New York Times, 2007. Islamic Democrats? [online] Available at: http://www.nytimes.com/2007/04/29/magazine/29Brotherhood.t.html?_r=1& (accessed: 26 October 2013)


209 Middle East Report, undated. The Brotherhood goes to parliament. [online] Available at: http://web.archive.org/web/20061001175005/http://www.merip.org/mer/mer240/shehata_stacher.html (accessed: 26 October 2013)

210 BBC News, 2013. Profile: Egypt’s Muslim Brotherhood. [online] Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-middle-east-12313405 (accessed: 26 October 2013)

211 Ibid

212 Fox News, 2011 Nobel Peace Winner Returns to Egypt to Lead Anti-Government Protest Movement. [online] Available at: http://www.foxnews.com/world/2011/01/27/egypts-protests-pose-threat-regime/ (accessed: 26 October 2013)

213 CNN, 2011. Muslim Brotherhood’s Key Role in Egypt. [online] Available at: http://www.cnn.com/2011/OPINION/02/14/gerges.muslim.brotherhood/ (accessed: 26 October 2013)

214 Fox News, 2011 Nobel Peace Winner Returns to Egypt to Lead Anti-Government Protest Movement. [online] Available at: http://www.foxnews.com/world/2011/01/27/egypts-protests-pose-threat-regime/ (accessed: 26 October 2013)

215 Al Jazeera English. 2013. Timeline: Egypt's revolution. [online] Available at: http://www.aljazeera.com/news/middleeast/2011/01/201112515334871490.html [Accessed: 30 Oct 2013].

216 Ibid.

217 Ibid.

218 Ibid.

219 The Huffington Post. 2013. Egyptian President Faces 'Day Of Rage' Protests. [online] Available at: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2011/01/25/mubarak-faces-egypt-prote_n_813572.html#s229529 [Accessed: 30 Oct 2013].

220 Wong, C. 2013. Egypt Protests: Anti-Mubarak Clashes Continue For Second Day (PHOTOS). [online] Available at: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2011/01/26/egypt-protests-antimubara_n_814514.html#230285 [Accessed: 30 Oct 2013].

221 Huffington Post, T. 2013. Egypt's Internet Shut Down. [online] Available at: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2011/01/27/egypt-internet-goes-down-_n_815156.html [Accessed: 30 Oct 2013].

222 Kanalley, C. 2013. New Egypt Government Coming, But Mubarak Won't Step Down. [online] Available at: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2011/01/28/new-egypt-government-to-b_1_n_815682.html [Accessed: 30 Oct 2013].

223 Ibid.

224 Al Jazeera English. 2013. Timeline: Egypt's revolution. [online] Available at: http://www.aljazeera.com/news/middleeast/2011/01/201112515334871490.html [Accessed: 30 Oct 2013].

225 Ibid.

226 Ibid.

227 Ibid.

228 Kanalley, C. 2013. Day Of Departure. [online] Available at: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2011/02/03/day-of-departure-feb-4_n_818398.html [Accessed: 30 Oct 2013].

229 Huffington Post, A. 2013. Egypt Ruling Party Leadership Resigns; Obama Backs Gradual Transition. [online] Available at: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2011/02/05/egypt-ruling-party-leader_n_819084.html [Accessed: 30 Oct 2013].

230 Opt. Cite. Al Jazeera English. 2013. Timeline: Egypt's revolution. [online] Available at: http://www.aljazeera.com/news/middleeast/2011/01/201112515334871490.html [Accessed: 30 Oct 2013].

231 Ibid.

232 Huffington Post/AP, T. 2013. Mubarak Won't Step Down But Passes Powers To Vice President. [online] Available at: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2011/02/10/mubarak-speech-egypt-vice-president_n_821568.html [Accessed: 30 Oct 2013].

233 Huffington Post/AP, T. 2013. Mubarak Resigns As Egypt's President; Armed Forces To Take Control. [online] Available at: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2011/02/11/mubarak-red-sea-egypt_n_821812.html [Accessed: 30 Oct 2013].

234 Opt. Cite. Al Jazeera English. 2013. Timeline: Egypt's revolution. [online] Available at: http://www.aljazeera.com/news/middleeast/2011/01/201112515334871490.html [Accessed: 30 Oct 2013].

235 The Huffington Post. 2013. Egypt: Post Revolution Timeline. [online] Available at: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2013/07/01/egypt-post-revolution-timeline_n_3528293.html [Accessed: 30 Oct 2013].

236 New York Post. 2013. From Mubarak to the ‘Day of Rage’ – timeline of Egypt’s transition, turmoil. [online] Available at: http://nypost.com/2013/08/19/from-mubarak-to-the-day-of-rage-timeline-of-egypts-transition-turmoil/ [Accessed: 30 Oct 2013].

237 Ibid.

238 Opt. Cite. The Huffington Post. 2013. Egypt: Post Revolution Timeline. [online] Available at: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2013/07/01/egypt-post-revolution-timeline_n_3528293.html [Accessed: 30 Oct 2013].

239 Ibid.

240 Ibid.

241 Opt. Cite. New York Post. 2013. From Mubarak to the ‘Day of Rage’ – timeline of Egypt’s transition, turmoil. [online] Available at: http://nypost.com/2013/08/19/from-mubarak-to-the-day-of-rage-timeline-of-egypts-transition-turmoil/ [Accessed: 30 Oct 2013].

242 Ibid.

243 Opt. Cite. New York Post. 2013. From Mubarak to the ‘Day of Rage’ – timeline of Egypt’s transition, turmoil. [online] Available at: http://nypost.com/2013/08/19/from-mubarak-to-the-day-of-rage-timeline-of-egypts-transition-turmoil/ [Accessed: 30 Oct 2013].

244 BBC News. 2013. Egypt profile. [online] Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-13315719 [Accessed: 30 Oct 2013].

245 Ibid.

246 Ibid.

247 BBC News. 2013. Q&A: Egypt in turmoil. [online] Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-middle-east-23146910 [Accessed: 30 Oct 2013].

248 Opt. Cite. The Huffington Post. 2013. Egypt: Post Revolution Timeline. [online] Available at: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2013/07/01/egypt-post-revolution-timeline_n_3528293.html [Accessed: 30 Oct 2013].

249 Smith, M., Wedeman., B. and Sayah, R. 2013. Coup topples Egypt's Morsy; deposed president under 'house arrest'. [online] Available at: http://edition.cnn.com/2013/07/03/world/meast/egypt-protests/ [Accessed: 30 Oct 2013].

250 Opt. Cite. BBC News. 2013. Q&A: Egypt in turmoil. [online] Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-middle-east-23146910 [Accessed: 30 Oct 2013].

251 Opt. Cite. Smith, M., Wedeman., B. and Sayah, R. 2013. Coup topples Egypt's Morsy; deposed president under 'house arrest'. [online] Available at: http://edition.cnn.com/2013/07/03/world/meast/egypt-protests/ [Accessed: 30 Oct 2013].

252 Ibid.

253 Ibid.

254 Ibid.

255 Ibid.

256 Ibid.

257 Ibid.

258 Aşık, İ. and Koçak, K. 2011. Study Guide of NATO. [e-book] Ankara: Model United Nations Association Turkey. http://muntr.org/v4/wp-content/uploads/2011/11/NATO.pdf [Accessed: 19 Oct 2013].

259 BBC News. 2013. Libya country profile. [online] Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-13754897 [Accessed: 20 Oct 2013].

260 BBC News. 2013. Libya profile. [online] Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-13755445 [Accessed: 20 Oct 2013]

261 Ibid.

262 Ibid.

263 Nytimes.com. 2013. Timeline: Col. Muammar el-Qaddafi. [online] Available at: http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2011/02/24/world/middleeast/20110224_qaddafi_timeline.html [Accessed: 20 Oct 2013].

264 BBC News. 2013. Libya profile. [online] Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-13755445 [Accessed: 20 Oct 2013

265 GWERTZMAN, B. 1981. U.S. REPORTS SHOOTING DOWN 2 LIBYA JETS THAT ATTACKED F-14'S OVER MEDITERRANE. New York Times, 20 August.

266 BBC News. 2013. Libya profile. [online] Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-13755445 [Accessed: 20 Oct 2013]

267 Ibid.

268 New York Times 1986. PRESIDENT'S NEWS CONFERENCE ON FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC ISSUES. [interview] April 10, 1986.

269 Opt. Cite. Nytimes.com. 2013. Timeline: Col. Muammar el-Qaddafi. [online] Available at: http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2011/02/24/world/middleeast/20110224_qaddafi_timeline.html [Accessed: 20 Oct 2013].

270 Associated Press. 2011. Pan Am Flight 103. New York Times, [online] August 29. Available at: http://topics.nytimes.com/top/reference/timestopics/subjects/a/airplane_accidents_and_incidents/pan_am_flight_103/index.html?scp=1&sq=lockerbie&st=cse [Accessed: 20 Oct 2013].

271 BBC News. 2013. Libya profile. [online] Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-13755445 [Accessed: 20 Oct 2013]

272 Ibid.

273 Aşık, İ. and Koçak, K. 2011. Study Guide of NATO. [e-book] Ankara: Model United Nations Association Turkey. http://muntr.org/v4/wp-content/uploads/2011/11/NATO.pdf [Accessed: 19 Oct 2013].

274 Mcneil Jr., D. 2001. THE LOCKERBIE VERDICT: THE OVERVIEW; LIBYAN CONVICTED BY SCOTTISH COURT IN '88 PAN AM BLAST. New York Times, [online] 1st February. Available at: http://www.nytimes.com/2001/02/01/world/lockerbie-verdict-overview-libyan-convicted-scottish-court-88-pan-am-blast.html?scp=11&sq=al-Megrahi&st=nyt [Accessed: 20 Oct 2013].

275 BARRINGER, F. 2003. Libya Admits Culpability In Crash of Pan Am Plane. New York Times, [online] 16 August. Available at: http://www.nytimes.com/2003/08/16/world/libya-admits-culpability-in-crash-of-pan-am-plane.html?scp=5&sq=libya+lockerbie&st=nyt [Accessed: 20 Oct 2013].

276 Opt. Cite. BBC News. 2013. Libya profile. [online] Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-13755445 [Accessed: 20 Oct 2013]

277 Ibid.

278 Ibid.

279 Al Jazeera English. 2011. Gaddafi as orator: A life in quotes. [online] Available at: http://www.aljazeera.com/news/africa/2011/09/20119493450743624.html [Accessed: 20 Oct 2013].

280 Opt. Cite. BBC News. 2013. Libya profile. [online] Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-13755445 [Accessed: 20 Oct 2013]

281 Ibid.

282 Opt. Cite. Aşık, İ. and Koçak, K. 2011. Study Guide of NATO. [e-book] Ankara: Model United Nations Association Turkey. http://muntr.org/v4/wp-content/uploads/2011/11/NATO.pdf [Accessed: 19 Oct 2013].

283 BBC News. 2011. Gaddafi's quixotic and brutal rule. [online] Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-12532929 [Accessed: 20 Oct 2013].

284 Ibid.

285 Reuters. 2011. Timeline: Libya's uprising against Muammar Gaddafi. [online] Available at: http://www.reuters.com/article/2011/03/21/us-libya-timeline-idUSTRE72K41V20110321 [Accessed: 20 Oct 2013].

286 Ibid.

287 Al Jazeera English. 2013. Battle for Libya: Key moments. [online] Available at: http://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/spotlight/libya/2011/10/20111020104244706760.html [Accessed: 20 Oct 2013].

288 Al Jazeera English. 2011. Deadly 'day of rage' in Libya. [online] Available at: http://www.aljazeera.com/news/africa/2011/02/201121716917273192.html [Accessed: 20 Oct 2013].

289 Opt. Cite. Al Jazeera English. 2013. Battle for Libya: Key moments. [online] Available at: http://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/spotlight/libya/2011/10/20111020104244706760.html [Accessed: 20 Oct 2013].

290 Ibid.

291 Reuters. 2011. Timeline: Libya's uprising against Muammar Gaddafi. [online] Available at: http://www.reuters.com/article/2011/03/21/us-libya-timeline-idUSTRE72K41V20110321 [Accessed: 20 Oct 2013].

292 Usun.state.gov. 2011. Fact Sheet: UN Security Council Resolution 1970, Libya Sanctions. [online] Available at: http://usun.state.gov/briefing/statements/2011/157194.htm [Accessed: 20 Oct 2013].

293 Temehu.com. n.d. National Transitional Council of Libya (NTC):. [online] Available at: http://www.temehu.com/ntc.htm [Accessed: 20 Oct 2013].

294 Un.org. 2011. Security Council Approves No-Fly Zone over Libya, Authorizing All Necessary Measures to Protect Civilians, by Vote of 10 in Favour with 5 Abstentions. [online] Available at: http://www.un.org/News/Press/docs/2011/sc10200.doc.htm [Accessed: 20 Oct 2013].

295 Ibid.

296 Opt. Cite. Reuters. 2011. Timeline: Libya's uprising against Muammar Gaddafi. [online] Available at: http://www.reuters.com/article/2011/03/21/us-libya-timeline-idUSTRE72K41V20110321 [Accessed: 20 Oct 2013].

297 NATO. n.d. NATO - NATO and Libya. [online] Available at: http://www.nato.int/cps/en/natolive/topics_71652.htm [Accessed: 20 Oct 2013].

298 Un.org. 2011. Security Council Approves No-Fly Zone over Libya, Authorizing All Necessary Measures to Protect Civilians, by Vote of 10 in Favour with 5 Abstentions. [online] Available at: http://www.un.org/News/Press/docs/2011/sc10200.doc.htm [Accessed: 20 Oct 2013].

299


300 Al Jazeera English. 2011. French jets attack Gaddafi targets. [online] Available at: http://www.aljazeera.com/news/europe/2011/03/2011319132058782326.html?asid=99e37e6a [Accessed: 21 Oct 2013].

301 Taylor, C. 2011. Military Operations in Libya. [e-book] Standard Note: SN/IA/5909: International Affairs and Defence Section - HOUSE OF COMMONS LIBRARY. [Accessed: 20 Oct 2013].

302 Opt. Cite. NATO. n.d. NATO - NATO and Libya. [online] Available at: http://www.nato.int/cps/en/natolive/topics_71652.htm [Accessed: 20 Oct 2013].

303 Ibid.

304 Opt. Cite. Al Jazeera English. 2013. Battle for Libya: Key moments. [online] Available at: http://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/spotlight/libya/2011/10/20111020104244706760.html [Accessed: 20 Oct 2013].

305 Ibid.

306 Ibid.

307 Charbonneau, L. 2011. U.N. assembly recognizes Libya's interim government. Reuters, [online] 16 September. Available at: http://www.reuters.com/article/2011/09/16/us-libya-un-assembly-idUSTRE78F4QA20110916 [Accessed: 21 Oct 2013].

308 Opt. Cite. Al Jazeera English. 2013. Battle for Libya: Key moments. [online] Available at: http://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/spotlight/libya/2011/10/20111020104244706760.html [Accessed: 20 Oct 2013].

309 Opt. Cite. NATO. n.d. NATO - NATO and Libya. [online] Available at: http://www.nato.int/cps/en/natolive/topics_71652.htm [Accessed: 20 Oct 2013].

310 BBC News. 2013. Libya country profile. [online] Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-13754897 [Accessed: 21 Oct 2013].

311 Ibid.

312 BBC News. 2013. Guide to Libya's militias. [online] Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-middle-east-19744533 [Accessed: 21 Oct 2013].

313 Ibid.

314 BBC News. 2013. Might of militias challenges Libya. [online] Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-24479470 [Accessed: 21 Oct 2013].

315 BBC News. 2012. Unfinished business in Libya. [online] Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-20014801 [Accessed: 21 Oct 2013].

316 Ibid.

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