Letter from the Secretary-General



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25 Sloan, J., “ The Use of Offensive Force in U.N. Peacekeeping: A Cycle of Boom and Bust?” (2007) Hastings Int’l&Comp.L.Rev.385

26 Christian J. Tams. 2009. The Use of Force against Terrorists. Available at: http://ejil.oxfordjournals.org/content/20/2/359.full [Accessed: 20 Oct 2013].

27 Ibid.

28 Cf. Cassese, ‘ Return to Westphalia?’ , in A. Cassese (ed.), T he Current Legal Regulation of the Use of Force

29 Tom Franck’s Recourse to Force (2002) offers an excellent analysis of the evolving nature of the Charter’s regime governing force.

30 Bruno Simma. (1999). NATO, the UN and the Use of Force: Legal Aspects. Available at: http://ejil.oxfordjournals.org/content/10/1/1.full.pdf [Accessed: 20 Oct 2013].

31 United Nations. (2013). Charter of the UN. Available at: http://www.un.org/en/documents/charter/chapter7.shtml [Accessed: 20 Oct 2013].

32 Bruno Simma. (1999). NATO, the UN and the Use of Force: Legal Aspects. Available at: http://ejil.oxfordjournals.org/content/10/1/1.full.pdf [Accessed: 20 Oct 2013].

33 J.L.Holzgrefe and Robert O. Keohane. (2003). HUMANITAIAN INTERVENTION: Ethical, Legal and Political Dilemmas. Available at: http://catdir.loc.gov/catdir/samples/cam034/2003269355.pdf [Accessed: 21 Oct 2013].

34 Ian Hurd. (2011). Is Humanitarian Intervention Legal? The Rule of Law in an Incoherent World. Available at: http://faculty.wcas.northwestern.edu/~ihu355/Home_files/is%20hi%20legal.pdf [Accessed: 21 Oct 2013].

35 Anne Ryniker. (2001). The ICRC’s position on “humanitarian intervention”. Available at: http://www.ikrk.org/eng/assets/files/other/527-532_ryniker-ang.pdf [Accessed: 21 Oct 2013].

36 This part has been retrieved from the Study Guide of the United Nations Security Council of MUNTR 2013

37 This part has been retrieved from the Study Guide of the United Nations Security Council of MUNTR 2013

38 ibid

39Lois Wilson. (2005). Press Release. Available at: www.responsibilitytoprotect.org/index.php/component/content/?module=uploads&func=download&fileId=153 [Accessed: 21 Oct 2013].

40 International Commission on Intervention and State Sovereignty (2001). The Responsibility to Protect. Ottawa: the International Development Research Centre. 1-87. [Accessed: 21 Oct 2013].

41 Christian J. Tams. 2009. The Use of Force against Terrorists. Available at: http://ejil.oxfordjournals.org/content/20/2/359.full [Accessed: 24 Oct 2013].

42 Ibid.

43 Ibid.

44Christian J. Tams. 2009. The Use of Force against Terrorists. Available at: http://ejil.oxfordjournals.org/content/20/2/359.full [Accessed: 20 Oct 2013].

45NATO in focus. 2013. [pdf] Brussels - BELGIUM: Public Diplomacy Division. http://www.nato.int/nato_static/assets/pdf/pdf_publications/1303-nato_in_focus-en.pdf [Accessed: 2 Oct 2013].

46 Ibid.

47 Ibid.

48 Ibid.

49 A Short History of NATO. 2013. [pdf] Brussels - Belgium: Public Diplomacy Division. http://www.nato.int/cps/en/SID-2CD5ACAE-05C895BE/natolive/topics_85928.htm? [Accessed: 2 Oct 2013].

50 Ibid.

51 Ibid.

52 News.bbc.co.uk. 2013. In depth: Korean War, Introduction. [online] Available at: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/shared/spl/hi/asia_pac/03/the_korean_war/html/ [Accessed: 18 Oct 2013].

53 Ibid.

54 Opt. Cite. A Short History of NATO. 2013. [pdf] Brussels - Belgium: Public Diplomacy Division. http://www.nato.int/cps/en/SID-2CD5ACAE-05C895BE/natolive/topics_85928.htm? [Accessed: 2 Oct 2013].

55 Ibid.

56 News.bbc.co.uk. 2013. BBC News - Q&A: France and Nato. [online] Available at: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/7938191.stm [Accessed: 4 Nov 2013].

57 Ibid.

58 News.bbc.co.uk. 2013. BBC News - Timeline: Nato. [online] Available at: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/country_profiles/1543000.stm [Accessed: 18 Oct 2013].

59 Opt. Cite. A Short History of NATO. 2013. [pdf] Brussels - Belgium: Public Diplomacy Division. http://www.nato.int/cps/en/SID-2CD5ACAE-05C895BE/natolive/topics_85928.htm? [Accessed: 2 Oct 2013].

60 Ibid.

61 Opt. Cite. News.bbc.co.uk. 2013. BBC News - Timeline: Nato. [online] Available at: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/country_profiles/1543000.stm [Accessed: 18 Oct 2013].

62 Opt. Cite. A Short History of NATO. 2013. [pdf] Brussels - Belgium: Public Diplomacy Division. http://www.nato.int/cps/en/SID-2CD5ACAE-05C895BE/natolive/topics_85928.htm? [Accessed: 2 Oct 2013].

63 Ibid.

64 Ibid.

65 Ibid.

66 Ibid.

67 North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Press Release (1999)040, March 23, 1999

68 Greenwood, Christopher, “Humanitarian intervention: the case of Kosovo”, London School of Economics Research Online, November 2008

69 North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Press Release (1999)040, March 23, 1999

70 United Nations Security Council Resolution 1244(1999)

71García-Orrico, D. n.d. “Kosovo”. [e-book] http://www.fride.org/uploads/Cap5_Kosovo_ENG_oct9.pdf [Accessed: 4 Nov 2013].

72 Ibid.

73 Ibid.

74 Opt. Cite. A Short History of NATO. 2013. [pdf] Brussels - Belgium: Public Diplomacy Division. http://www.nato.int/cps/en/SID-2CD5ACAE-05C895BE/natolive/topics_85928.htm? [Accessed: 2 Oct 2013].

75 NATO 2001. Statement by the North Atlantic Council. [press release] 11 September 2001.

76 Opt. Cite. A Short History of NATO. 2013. [pdf] Brussels - Belgium: Public Diplomacy Division. http://www.nato.int/cps/en/SID-2CD5ACAE-05C895BE/natolive/topics_85928.htm? [Accessed: 2 Oct 2013].

77 Ibid.

78 Assenova, M. “The Debate on NATO’s Evolution”.[Online] Available at: http://csis.org/files/media/csis/pubs/NATO_Debate_guidebook.pdf [Accessed 10 October 2012].


79 Ibid.

80 Ibid.

81 Opt. Cite. A Short History of NATO. 2013. [pdf] Brussels - Belgium: Public Diplomacy Division. http://www.nato.int/cps/en/SID-2CD5ACAE-05C895BE/natolive/topics_85928.htm? [Accessed: 2 Oct 2013].

82 Ibid.

83 Nato.int. 2002. NATO Update: NATO transformed: new members, capabilities and partnerships - 21 Nov. 2002. [online] Available at: http://www.nato.int/docu/update/2002/11-november/e1121e.htm [Accessed: 18 Oct 2013].

84 Nato-russia-council.info. 2013. Nato-Russia Council - About. [online] Available at: http://www.nato-russia-council.info/en/about/ [Accessed: 18 Oct 2013].

85 NATO 2004. The Istanbul Declaration Our security in a new era. [press release] 28 June 2004.

86Ibid.

87 Nato.int. 2006. NATO Update: NATO boosts efforts in Afghanistan - 29 November 2006. [online] Available at: http://www.nato.int/docu/update/2006/11-november/e1128a.htm [Accessed: 18 Oct 2013].

88 NATO. 2010. NATO - NATO Summit paves way for renewed Alliance. [online] Available at: http://www.nato.int/cps/en/natolive/news_68877.htm [Accessed: 18 Oct 2013].

89 NATO. 2010. NATO - Allied leaders agree on NATO Missile Defence system. [online] Available at: http://www.nato.int/cps/en/natolive/news_68439.htm [Accessed: 18 Oct 2013].

90 NATO Study Guide. 2012. EuroAsia Training and Development Conference. MUNTR Secretariat.

91 NATO (2012). Summit Declaration on Defence Capabilities: Toward NATO Forces

2020 [online]. [Accessed 23 October 2012]. Available from: http://www.nato.int/cps/en/natolive/official_texts_87594.htm?mode=pressrelease




92 NATO. 2012. NATO - The North Atlantic Council. [online] Available at: http://www.nato.int/cps/en/SID-C39C9699-84BD963D/natolive/topics_49763.htm? [Accessed: 3 Oct 2013].

93 NATO. 2012. NATO - The NATO Secretary General. [online] Available at: http://www.nato.int/cps/en/natolive/topics_50094.htm [Accessed: 3 Oct 2013].

94 Opt. Cite. NATO. 2012. NATO - The North Atlantic Council. [online] Available at: http://www.nato.int/cps/en/SID-C39C9699-84BD963D/natolive/topics_49763.htm? [Accessed: 3 Oct 2013].

95 Ibid.

96 Ibid.

97 Ibid.

98 NATO. 2013. NATO - Smart Defence. [online] Available at: http://www.nato.int/cps/en/natolive/topics_84268.htm? [Accessed: 18 Oct 2013].

99 Ibid.

100 FOUNDING ACT ON MUTUAL RELATIONS, COOPERATION AND SECURITY BETWEEN NATO AND THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION!. 1997. [e-book] Paris: NATO - Russia Council. http://www.nato-russia-council.info/media/59451/1997_nato_russia_founding_act.pdf [Accessed: 19 Oct 2013].

101 Ibid.

102 News.bbc.co.uk. 2013. BBC News - Timeline: Nato. [online] Available at: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/country_profiles/1543000.stm [Accessed: 18 Oct 2013].

103 Opt.Cite García-Orrico, Débora “Kosovo”

104 Smith, J. 2008. The NATO-Russia Relationship. [e-book] Center for Strategic & International Studies and Institut Francais des Relations Internationales. http://csis.org/files/media/csis/pubs/081110_smith_natorussia_web.pdf [Accessed: 19 Oct 2013].

105 Ibid.

106 Ibid.

107 Ibid.

108 NATO. 2013. NATO - NATO’s relations with Russia. [online] Available at: http://www.nato.int/cps/en/natolive/topics_50090.htm? [Accessed: 19 Oct 2013].

109 Ibid.

110 Ibid.

111 Ibid.

112 Jonson, P. 2010. The debate about Article 5 and its credibilty. [e-book] Rome: Research Division - NATO Defense College. http://www.gees.org/files/documentation/28052010065121_Documen-07840.pdf [Accessed: 19 Oct 2013].

113 Ibid.

114 NATO Secretary General Anders Fogh Rasmussen 2010. Monthly press briefing. [press release] 11 Oct. 2010.

115 Opt. Cite. A Short History of NATO. 2013. [pdf] Brussels - Belgium: Public Diplomacy Division. http://www.nato.int/cps/en/SID-2CD5ACAE-05C895BE/natolive/topics_85928.htm? [Accessed: 2 Oct 2013].

116 Telegraph.co.uk. 2013. Afghanistan: 2001 to Nato handover timeline - Telegraph. [online] Available at: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/asia/afghanistan/10127579/Afghanistan-2001-to-Nato-handover-timeline.html [Accessed: 19 Oct 2013].

117 NATO Public Diplomacy Divison. 2012. NATO and Afghanistan: questions&answers. [e-book] Brussels: NATO. http://www.nato.int/nato_static/assets/pdf/pdf_publications/NATO_and_Afgh_LR_en.pdf [Accessed: 19 Oct 2013].

118 Isaf.nato.int. 2013. History | ISAF - International Security Assistance Force. [online] Available at: http://www.isaf.nato.int/history.html [Accessed: 19 Oct 2013].

119 Ibid.

120 Opt. Cite. NATO Public Diplomacy Divison. 2012. NATO and Afghanistan: questions&answers. [e-book] Brussels: NATO. http://www.nato.int/nato_static/assets/pdf/pdf_publications/NATO_and_Afgh_LR_en.pdf [Accessed: 19 Oct 2013].

121 Opt. Cite. Telegraph.co.uk. 2013. Afghanistan: 2001 to Nato handover timeline - Telegraph. [online] Available at: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/asia/afghanistan/10127579/Afghanistan-2001-to-Nato-handover-timeline.html [Accessed: 19 Oct 2013].

122 Opt. Cite. NATO Public Diplomacy Divison. 2012. NATO and Afghanistan: questions&answers. [e-book] Brussels: NATO. http://www.nato.int/nato_static/assets/pdf/pdf_publications/NATO_and_Afgh_LR_en.pdf [Accessed: 19 Oct 2013].

123 BBC News. 2013. Afghanistan profile - Timeline. [online] Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-south-asia-12024253 [Accessed: 19 Oct 2013].

124 Opt. Cite. Telegraph.co.uk. 2013. Afghanistan: 2001 to Nato handover timeline - Telegraph. [online] Available at: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/asia/afghanistan/10127579/Afghanistan-2001-to-Nato-handover-timeline.html [Accessed: 19 Oct 2013].

125 Ibid.

126 Ibid.

127 BBC News. 2013. Afghan militants attack Isaf convoy. [online] Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-asia-24584877 [Accessed: 19 Oct 2013].

128 Opt. Cite. NATO Public Diplomacy Divison. 2012. NATO and Afghanistan: questions&answers. [e-book] Brussels: NATO. http://www.nato.int/nato_static/assets/pdf/pdf_publications/NATO_and_Afgh_LR_en.pdf [Accessed: 19 Oct 2013].

129 NATO. 2011. NATO - Afghanistan and NATO put theory into practice in their Enduring Partnership. [online] Available at: http://www.nato.int/cps/en/natolive/news_72547.htm [Accessed: 19 Oct 2013].

130 NATO, 2012. NATO’s Relations with the United Nations. [online] Available at: http://www.nato.int/cps/en/natolive/topics_50321.htm (accessed: 25 October 2013)

131 Ibid


132 Ibid

133 Ibid

134 Ibid

135 Ibid

136 NATO, 2012. NATO’s Relations with the United Nations. [online] Available at: http://www.nato.int/cps/en/natolive/topics_50321.htm (accessed: 25 October 2013)

137 Ibid

138 Ibid

139 NATO, 2008. North Atlantic Treaty. [online] Available at: http://www.nato.int/cps/en/natolive/official_texts_17120.htm (accessed: 25 October 2013)

140 NATO, 2012. NATO’s Relations with the United Nations. [online] Available at: http://www.nato.int/cps/en/natolive/topics_50321.htm (accessed: 25 October 2013)

141 NATO, 2008. North Atlantic Treaty. [online] Available at: http://www.nato.int/cps/en/natolive/official_texts_17120.htm (accessed: 25 October 2013)

142 NATO, 2012. NATO’s Relations with the United Nations. [online] Available at: http://www.nato.int/cps/en/natolive/topics_50321.htm (accessed: 25 October 2013)

143 Eastern Illınoıs Universiyt, undated. NATO and the United Nations: Debates and Trends in Institutional Coordination. [pdf] Available at: http://www.journal-iostudies.org/sites/journal-iostudies.org/files/JIOS201121final_4.pdf (accessed: 26 October 2013)

144 Ibid

145 Georgetown University, 2012. Sustainability of the NATO. [pdf] Available at: http://repository.library.georgetown.edu/bitstream/handle/10822/557633/Sundarajan_georgetown_0076M_11550.pdf?sequence=1 (accessed: 4 November 2013)

146 Ibid

147 Ibid

148 Ibid

149 German Institute for International and Security Affairs, 2012. NATO and the UN: Partnership for Potential. [pdf] Available at: http://www.swp-berlin.org/fileadmin/contents/products/research_papers/2012_RP02_har.pdf (accessed: 26 October 2013)

150 Ibid

151 Ibid

152 German Institute for International and Security Affairs, 2012. NATO and the UN: Partnership for Potential. [pdf] Available at: http://www.swp-berlin.org/fileadmin/contents/products/research_papers/2012_RP02_har.pdf (accessed: 26 October 2013)


153 Ibid

154 United Nations, undated. The Charter of the United Nations, Chapter 6. [online] Available at: http://www.un.org/en/documents/charter/chapter7.shtml (accessed: 26 October 2013)


155 Ibid

156 Ibid

157 Ibid

158 Ibid

159 Ibid

160 Ibid

161 International Journal of Asian Social Science, 2013. Typology of Political Regymes in North Africa Before Arab Spring. [pdf] Available at: http://www.aessweb.com/download.php?id=2054#page8 (accessed: 26 October 2013)

162 Ibid

163 Ibid

164 CNN, 2011. What’s Causing North African Unrest. [online] Available at: http://business.blogs.cnn.com/2011/01/16/whats-causing-north-african-unrest/ (accessed: 26 October 2013)

165 Almanar News, 2012. The Arab Spring: The Root Causes. [online] Availabe at: http://www.almanar.com.lb/english/adetails.php?eid=45439&cid=31&fromval=1 (accessed: 26 October 2013)

166 International, 2011. Uprising in Tunisia: People Power topples Ben Ali regime. [online] Available at: http://www.indybay.org/newsitems/2011/01/16/18669320.php (accessed: 24 October 2013)

167 Ibid

168 Ibid

169 The Guardian, 2011. Al-Qaida Leaders Welcome Arab Uprisings. [online]Available at: http://www.theguardian.com/world/2011/mar/31/alqaida-leaders-welcome-arab-uprisings (accessed: 3 Novermber 2013)

170 BBC News, 2011. Tunisia: President Zine al-Abidine Ben Ali forced out. [online] Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-12195025 (accessed: 24 October 2013)

171 About.com, 2010. This Day in African History: The Republic of Egypt is Declared. [online] Available at: http://africanhistory.about.com/b/2010/06/19/18-june-1953-the-republic-of-egypt-is-declared.htm [accessed: 23 October 2013]


172 Ibid

173 Egypt News, 2009. Egyptian Revoluiton of 1952. [online] Available at: http://news.egypt.com/en/egyptian-revolution-of-1952.html (accessed: 23 October 2013)

174 Ibid

175 The Newyork Times, 2013. Middle East. [online] Available at: http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2013/08/21/world/middleeast/Mubarak_timeline.html?ref=hosnimubarak&_r=0#/#time139_4617 (accessed: 23 October 2013)

176 Ibid

177 Ibid

178 Ibid

179 Ibid

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