Lesson Name a political or Social Hero? – A structured Academic Controversy (sac) with Joshua L. Chamberlain Authors



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Lesson Name

A Political or Social Hero? – A Structured Academic Controversy (SAC) with Joshua L. Chamberlain


Authors

Charles J. Elfer, Scott L. Roberts & Brian Fahey
Grades Subject Topic


Fifth, Eighth, Eleventh.

U.S. History Joshua Chamberlain, The Battle of Gettysburg





Unit Name Estimated Time Needed for Lesson


The Social Category: The Battle of

Gettysburg

~ 90 minutes





State/Common Core Standard, Grade Level & Description

Standard Number




Detailed description of each standard.

Common Core Standards 5th Grade







Literacy.RI.5.5




Compare and contrast the overall structure (e.g., chronology, comparison,

cause/effect, and problem/solution) of events, ideas, concepts, or information in two or more texts.



Literacy.RI.5.6




Analyze multiple accounts of the same event or topic, noting important

similarities and differences in the point of view they represent.



Common

Core Standards 8th Grade







CCSS.ELA-

Literacy.RH.6-

8.1





Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of primary and secondary

sources.


CCSS.ELA-

Literacy.RH.6-

8.9





Analyze the relationship between a primary and secondary source on the

same topic.



Common

Core

Standards













11th Grade







CCSS.ELA-

Literacy.RI.11-

12.1





Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the

text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text, including determining where the text leaves matters uncertain.



CCSS.ELA-

Literacy.RI.11-

12.7





Integrate and evaluate multiple sources of information presented in

different media or formats (e.g., visually, quantitatively) as well as in words in order to address a question or solve a problem.



5th Grade

GPS







SS5H1c




Identify major battles and campaigns: Fort Sumter, Gettysburg, the Atlanta

Campaign, Sherman’s March to the Sea, and Appomattox Court House.



8th Grade

GPS







SS8H6b




State the importance of key events of the Civil War; include Antietam, the

Emancipation Proclamation, Gettysburg, Chickamauga, the Union blockade of Georgia’s coast, Sherman’s Atlanta Campaign, Sherman’s March to the Sea, and Andersonville.



11th Grade

GPS







SSUSH9d




Explain the importance of Fort Sumter, Antietam, Vicksburg, Gettysburg,

and the Battle for Atlanta and the impact of geography on these battles.













NCSS Theme Description

Theme

Number

Detailed description of each NCSS theme.

1

Culture - The study of culture examines the socially transmitted beliefs, values,

institutions, behaviors, traditions and way of life of a group of people; it also encompasses other cultural attributes and products, such as language, literature, music, arts and artifacts, and foods.



2

Time, Continuity, and Change - Studying the past makes it possible for us to

understand the human story across time. The historical experiences of societies, peoples and nations reveal patterns of continuity and change. Historical analysis enables us to identify continuities over time in core institutions, values, ideals, and traditions, as well as processes that lead to change within societies and institutions, and that result in innovation and the development of new ideas, values and ways of life.



4

Individuals Development and Identity - The examination of various forms of human

behavior enhances an understanding of the relationships between social norms and emerging personal identities, the social processes that influence identity formation, and the ethical principles underlying individual action.




The Cultural Approach Category Description

Category

Detailed description of each Category that is a focus of this lesson

Social

The notion of a “hero” is one that is socially determined and historically bounded,

often changing over time and across social groupings.



Political

Those who have power and influence impact our thinking about who our heroes

are why they should be seen as heroic.



Intellectual

Contemporary viewpoints often shape our own understanding of history.


Handouts/Materials/ Textbook Pages/Web Links

List all of the materials in the lesson. List pages in textbooks and online links.

All Grade Levels:

GUIDESHEET #1 A Political or Social Hero? - A Structured Academic Controversy with Joshua L. Chamberlain.



o One version each for 5th, 8th, and 11th grades
GUIDESHEET #2 – Position Development Chart
DOCUMENT COLLECTIONS – Teachers and students may print or view the documents by following the links indicated below, or, they may use the documents in the document lists provided – one version each for 5th, 8th, and 11th grades. The documents have been pared down and/or modified for lower grade levels.

NOTE: Several of the documents are viewable only online and are not printable.


5th Grade:

Report of Col. Joshua L. Chamberlain, Twentieth Maine Infantry. Gettysburg Campaign.

July 6, 1863. O.R.--Series I--Volume XXVII/1 [S# 43]. Available:



http://www.civilwarhome.com/chamberl.htm [MODIFIED]

 Quotes from the website: “To the limits of the Soul’s Ideal: Why people Admire Joshua

Lawrence Chamberlain.” Available: http://www.joshua.lurker00.com/jlcadmirers.htm

 Letter from Joshua L. Chamberlain to Governor [Israel] Washburn, Brunswick, July 14,

1862. Maine State Archives. Augusta, Maine. "Records Relating to the Career of Joshua Lawrence Chamberlain." Available: http://learn.bowdoin.edu/joshua-lawrence- chamberlain/documents/1862-07-14.html [MODIFIED]

Quotes from the website: “To the limits of the Soul’s Ideal: Why people Admire Joshua

Lawrence Chamberlain.” http://www.joshua.lurker00.com/jlcadmirers.htm


8th Grade:

Report of Col. Joshua L. Chamberlain, Twentieth Maine Infantry. Gettysburg Campaign.

July 6, 1863. O.R.--Series I--Volume XXVII/1 [S# 43]. Available:



http://www.civilwarhome.com/chamberl.htm [MODIFIED]

 Tom Desjardin, Stand Firm, Ye Boys from Maine (New York: Oxford University Press,

2009). Available: https://gdg.org/Research/People/Chamberlain/stand.html

 Letter from Joshua L. Chamberlain to Governor [Israel] Washburn, Brunswick, July 14,

1862. Maine State Archives. Augusta, Maine. "Records Relating to the Career of Joshua
Lawrence Chamberlain." Available: http://learn.bowdoin.edu/joshua-lawrence- chamberlain/documents/1862-07-14.html

 Letter from Joshua L. Chamberlain to his father, Brunswick, February 20, 1865. Maine State Archives. Augusta, Maine. "Records Relating to the Career of Joshua Lawrence Chamberlain." Available: http://learn.bowdoin.edu/joshua-lawrence- chamberlain/documents/1865-02-20.html


11th Grade:

Letter from Joshua L. Chamberlain to Governor [Israel] Washburn, Brunswick, July 14,

1862. Maine State Archives. Augusta, Maine. "Records Relating to the Career of Joshua Lawrence Chamberlain." Available: http://learn.bowdoin.edu/joshua-lawrence- chamberlain/documents/1862-07-14.html

 Eloise Jordon, “Joshua Chamberlain: One of Maine’s Greatest Men,” Lewiston Journal (Lewiston, ME) Jan. 9, 1982, 3A. Available: http://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=1899&dat=19820109&id=xl0gAAAAIBAJ&sji d=EmUFAAAAIBAJ&pg=1386,1019495

Martin Pengelly, “The Maine lesson of Gettysburg: Real history is never so romantic as reel,” The Guardian, Jul. 2013. Available: http://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2013/jul/02/gettysburg-civil-war-maine- little-round-top

 Letter from Joshua L. Chamberlain to his father, Brunswick, February 20, 1865. Maine State Archives. Augusta, Maine. "Records Relating to the Career of Joshua Lawrence Chamberlain." Available: http://learn.bowdoin.edu/joshua-lawrence- chamberlain/documents/1865-02-20.html

 Report of Col. Joshua L. Chamberlain, Twentieth Maine Infantry. Gettysburg Campaign.

July 6, 1863. O.R.--Series I--Volume XXVII/1 [S# 43]. Available:

http://www.civilwarhome.com/chamberl.htm

 Tom Desjardin, Stand Firm, Ye Boys from Maine (New York: Oxford University Press,

2009). Available: https://gdg.org/Research/People/Chamberlain/stand.html

 “Letter to the Governor after Gettysburg.” Bangor Whig and Courier (Bangor, ME) Jul.

1863. Available: http://www.joshualawrencechamberlain.com/gettysburgletter.php

 “A Bayonet Charge the Last Hope,” in Deeds of Valor: From Records of the Archives of the United States Government. How Heroes Won the Medal of Honor, Vol. 1., (Detroit: Perrien- Keydel, 1907), p. 248-251. http://www.joshualawrencechamberlain.com/deedsofvalor.php


Additional Sources:

 History: Chamberlin Defends Little Round Top http://www.history.com/videos/chamberlain-defends-little-round-top#chamberlain-



defends-little-round-top

 Gettysburg Daily: The Myth of Little Round Top: Parts 1-3 http://www.gettysburgdaily.com/?p=7132


Guiding Questions

What should students know or understand at the completion of the unit or lesson?

All Grade Levels:

By what measures are heroes determined?

Why do you think that Chamberlain came to be regarded as a hero by so many 19th

century Americans?

 Does the notion of “hero” change over time? How are our modern heroes alike or

different from that of the historical figure Joshua Chamberlain?


Additional Questions

What is a primary/secondary source?

 What are ways to gain a better understanding of an historical event or person?



Which type of source is the most accurate primary/secondary? When? Why?


Indicators of Achievement

List all of the important indicators of achievement (important people, places, and events) and vocabulary that students will need to know at the conclusion of the lesson.

The Battle of Gettysburg - (July 1-3, 1864) - Union victory; turning point of the Civil

War; the North repelled a Southern invasion into Pennsylvania.

Little Round Top (July 2, 1864)-A skirmish during the second day of the Battle of Gettysburg where the Union, led by the 20th Maine Volunteer infantry, repelled multiple assaults by Confederate troops

Joshua L. Chamberlin A college professor from the State of Maine. Chamberlin commanded the 20th Maine Volunteer infantry and ordered their famous bayonet charge

at Little Round Top effectively protecting the Union flank. Chamberlin won the Medal of

Honor for his action during the battle. He went on to become a Brigadier General, college president, and Governor of Maine.

William C. Oates – A Confederate Colonel from Alabama who led the charge against Little Round Top. Oates later became Governor of Alabama and a General during the Spanish-America War.


Assessment Strategies

Describe the assessments that will be used during the unit.
Formative Assessment – Small-Group Deliberation, Construction and Presentation of Evidence- Based Arguments, Consensus Building

Summative Assessment- Final Consensus Statements, “What is a hero? Writing Assignment
Teaching Strategies

5

min


Introduction of SAC,

including warm-up


30min


Primary Sources and

Secondary Source

Analysis – Position

30min


Consensus Building











5min


Organization of

Teams and Groups



10-

15min


Development

Position Sharing



10

min



Conclusion/Summary













Describe all of the teaching strategies that you will be using in this lesson. In

the squares calculate the percentage of the lesson that the strategy will take. For example in an hour lesson, lecture should take no more than 25% (15mins) of the lesson


Sparking Strategy/Warm-Up

Sparking Strategy (Lesson introduction)
Have students consider the notion of heroism. What does it mean to be a hero in 2014 and who are some modern examples? Are ideas about heroism universal? Is there any evidence to suggest

that our conceptions of heroism change over time and from one social group to the next?


Lesson Procedures

In a numerical list provide a step by step outline of the lesson. Include questions you will ask the students and materials you will use.
Outline (Steps also clarified in Guide Sheet)
1. Start with a round table group discussion (See warm-up above). Distribute

GUIDESHEETS outlining the format and steps of the SAC – Political or Social Hero?



2. Divide the class into groups with social and political sides as indicated in the exercise. A good idea would be to have 3-4 members per side, perhaps a total of 8 per group. In doing so, each team member will be responsible for a single text, thus ensuring that the position preparation portion of the exercise can be completed within the allotted time.

3. Following GUIDESHEET #1, each group will have 30 minutes to read their assigned

texts and craft 2-4 evidence-based position statements supporting their argument. Remind students to refer to the texts! Use GUIDESHEET #2 to record positions.



4. Following GUIDESHEET #1, each group will have approximately 10-15 minutes to deliver their arguments, roughly 5-7 minutes per side. NOTE: After each side presents the position statements, the opposing group must restate the arguments to the authors’ satisfaction. Both sides should follow this process. GUIDESHEET #2 can be used for record keeping.

5. Following GUIDESHEET #1, groups must now work to build consensus. Both sides should abandon their allegiances to their original positions and work to find common ground with their peers. Several guiding questions are included in GUIDESHEET #1 and the group must work to draft and record a statement of consensus, again drawing on the evidence available. ~30 minutes

6. With the time remaining, bring the class back together for sharing of consensus
statements and whole-group debriefing. Additional questions for consideration are included in GUIDESHEET #1.

7. A final, summative assessment is optional. Included in the guide sheet is an essay prompt, generally intended as homework. The prompt asks students to draw on the

exercise to consider the changing nature of heroism.


Differentiation

Think about students skill levels, intelligences, and learning styles.
Scaffolds: Work with students individually if needed to answer questions and further explain any material. Make sure that the student table groups have mixed students so that higher achieving students are working with/helping their classmates. The readings vary in complexity and should meet the needs of a diversity of students and literacy levels.
ESOL Interventions: Give students background knowledge and vocabulary before moving on to lesson. Consider providing alternate terms for difficult vocabulary within the texts. Most texts provided in the exercise can be manipulated in Word.
Extensions/Interventions: Have students explore the resources at their own pace. Due to the student reflection on their learning through the SAC, students are able to progress at their own rate of pace and still share their learning with classmates during the round table discussion. Use some of the “Additional Sources” for higher level students in their analysis of the controversy. Another extension to follow the SAC would be to research historic notions of honor and duty.

Summarizing Strategies/Synthesizing Activity

The strategies to allow students to summarize what they learned in the lesson.

Strategies we will use:

 Structured Small-Group Discussion

 Whole-Group Round Table Discussion

 Consensus Statements

Summative Essays
Citations (as needed)
Brann, J.R. (1999) Defense of the Battle of Little Round Top. Retrieved from http://www.civilwar.org/battlefields/gettysburg/gettysburg-history-articles/defense-of-little- round-top.html
Chamberlin, J. C. (1996). Through Blood and Fire at Gettysburg. Gettysburg: PA. Stan Clark

Military Books.


Desjardian, T. A. (2003). These Honored Dead: How the Story of Gettysburg Shaped American

Memory. Cambridge, MA: De Capo Press.
Eye witness to History.com. (n.d.). The Battle of Gettysburg 1863: The Battles Aftermath. Retrieved from http://www.eyewitnesstohistory.com/gtburgcont.htm
Foote, S. (1986). The Civil War: A Narrative. Volume 2: Fredericksburg to Meridian. New

York: Vintage Books.


Gettysburg Daily. (2010). The Myth of Little Round Top: Parts 1-3. Retrieved from http://www.gettysburgdaily.com/?p=7132
History. (2013). Chamberlin Defends Little Round Top. Retrieved from http://www.history.com/videos/chamberlain-defends-little-round-top#chamberlain-defends-little-

round-top
History.net. (2013). The Battle for Little Round Top. Retrieved from

http://www.historynet.com/little-round-top
McPherson, J. (1988). Battle Cry of Freedom. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.
Mr. Nusbraum (2013). The Battle of Gettysburg for Kids-Day 2. Retrieved from http://mrnussbaum.com/civil-war/gettysburg_day_two/
Oates, W.C. (1905). The War Between the Union and the Confederacy and its Lost Opportunities. New York: The Neale Publishing Company. Retrieved from http://books.google.com/books?id=IMgvAQAAMAAJ&pg=PR3&dq=William+C.+Oates+The+ War+Between+the+Union+and+the+Confederacy&hl=en&sa=X&ei=mZv4T52LLKrn0QHpzd

HsBg&ved=0CEwQ6AEwBA#v=onepage&q=Betheune&f=false
Pengelly, M. (2013). The Maine Lesson of Gettysburg: Real History is Never so Romantic as

Reel. Retrieved from http://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2013/jul/02/gettysburg-civil- war-maine-little-round-top
Shaara, M. (1974). The Killer Angles. New York: Crown Publishers.
Youtube. (n.d.). Chamberlins Charge (From Gettysburg, 1993). Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bqT8PMBtIKI


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