|Lesson 6: The American Revolution
Directions: Complete the following using textbook, internet, and theme park presentations.
****The 3 decisions below were made at the _2nd Continental Congress________________.
--appoint George Washington as leader of Continental Army
--send Olive Branch Petition to King George III requesting peace and notice of grievances
--raise money for uniforms, weapons, etc….
Ethan Allen’s _Green Mountain Boys__ led an attack on Fort Ticonderoga which later gave them valuable ammunition used in the defense of Boston.
Complete the headings for the T-Chart below.
Advantages of _Continental/Patriot Army at beginning of war Advantages of __British_Army at beginning of war
1. Washington: good leader 1. More troops/well trained
2. Knew the geography/land 2. Best navy in Europe
3. Believed in their cause 3. Loyalists support
_Loyalists__ were those who favored maintaining ties with Great Britain. The Loyalists’ support was stronger in Georgia and the Carolinas because those colonies were concerned about economy.
The Battle of _Bunker Hill_was considered a moral victory for the Patriots even though they didn’t win. The battle proved that the untrained militia could stand up to the British army. “Don’t shoot until you see the whites of their eyes.” was said by_William Prescott_. He was trying to save ammunition.
5. King George III decided to _blockade_ the ports.
6. _Mercenaries_ were troops for hire; they traveled thousands of miles across Atlantic to fight on the side of the British; Many were from Germany.
7 “Of more worth is one honest man to society and in the sight of God, than all the crowned ruffians that ever lived.” “These are the times that try men’s souls.”
Who is the author of these quotes? _Thomas Paine. He urged the colonists to break free from Britain in his Common Sense pamphlet. Washington read many of his words during bleak times.
8. “All men are created equal....(and) they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable rights.........among these are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness; that to secure these, governments are instituted among men, deriving their just power from the consents of the governed;
These words were written into the Declaration of Independence by Thomas Jefferson__ based on John Locke’s contract theory of government.
9. Below are the parts of the _Declaration of Independence; written in 1776
--1 Natural Rights
--2 British wrongs/grievances
--3 Final section: Resolution of Freedom – free and independent states
10. “I guess King George will be able to read that!”
_John Hancock was the first person to sign the Declaration of Independence since he was President of the Continental Congress. He has the most famous signature in American history.
11. Many historians believe that the chime that changed the world occurred on July 8, 1776, when the _Libery Bell__ rang out from the tower of Independence Hall summoning citizens to hear the first public reading of the Declaration of Independence.
12. During the Battle of _Long Island, Washington’s troops fought bravely, but were not able to hold on to New York. 1,500 men were injured or killed.
13. On Christmas night of 1776, Patriots scored a victory at the Battle of _Trenton.
The victory came within an hour establishing this battle as one of the greatest military plans in history.
14. The Battle of _Saratoga_ was a turning point in the War. The Americans defeated the German Hessians (soldiers) and gained the respect of other countries. After this battle, the French became allies with Americans.
15. _Burgoyne_was the British general who was blamed for British losses at the Battle of Saratoga. His surrender was partly due to the lack of communication among the British generals.
16. _Benjamin Franklin____ negotiated the Treaty of Alliance with France.
17. “I only regret that I have but one life to lose for my country.”
__Nathan Hale____________________He was an American spy who was caught and executed.
18. What were some ways that American allies helped them during the Revolutionary War?
France- military aid
Spain- money and aid
Poland- trained cavalry
Prussia—trained troops to march (Von Steuben)_____
19. _Valley Forge, Pennsylvania is where Washington spent a very difficult winter. 2, 500 American soldiers died. He described the winter as having to suffer through disease, lice, lack of food, and frostbite.
20. _Betsy Ross was a seamstress during the Revolutionary Era. Some historians believe she was asked by Washington to make the first American flag, but many historians believe no evidence supports that. Below is the design of the first American flag.
21. Women helped out during the war in many ways. Some made uniforms and weapons. Some served meals to soldiers. Some were nurses that cared for the wounded.
_Molly Pitcher was born with the name Mary Ludwig. She earned her Revolutionary name by carrying pitchers of water to soldiers during high temperatures. When her husband became wounded during battle, she took his place at the cannon.
22. _James Armistead was a slave that served as an American spy. After his services during the war he was granted freedom by the Virginia Legislature.
23. “I have not yet begun to fight.” _John Paul Jones_________
Bravery led to the defeat of a British warship later earning him the title Father of the Navy.
24. _Deborah Sampson disguised herself as a man in order to fight in the war because women were not allowed in combat. She was brave and volunteered for dangerous missions. After getting wounded, the army gave her a honorable discharge for her courage.
25. In 1778, the South became the main battleground. _Henry Clinton_became the new British commander in chief. He plotted to gain Loyalists support in the South to ensure a British victory in the war. (His plan almost worked!)
26. The Battle of Cowpens was a victory for the Americans convincing many doubtful Americans that the war could be won. The battle strategy used by General Daniel Morgan is referred to by historians as “an ingenious strategy that worked to perfection.”
27. _guerilla- hit and run tactics. Francis Marion (Swamp Fox) was successful at leading a series of nighttime hit and run tactics against the British and their Loyalists.
28. _Benedict Arnold is known as the most famous traitor in the United States. He plotted with the British for 16 months. He was one of Washington’s most trusted generals.
29. The Battle of _Yorktown__ was the last major battle of the American Revolution.
30. General _Cornwallis was the British General forced to surrender at Yorktown, Virginia because he disregarded an order and retreated to the Yorktown Peninsula.
31. What battle strategy was used to win the last major battle? seige______
32. The _Treaty of Paris was signed ending the Revolutionary War in 1783.
As a result of the American victory:
--Britain acknowledged independence of the colonies.
--Florida was returned to Spain.
--Great Britain agreed to remove troops from American soil.
33. After the Revolutionary War, George Washington bid farewell to his fellow officers and retreated to his home at _Mt. Vernon, Virginia.
34. List 3 MAJOR reasons the Americans were able to win the Revolutionary War.
Compromise—negotiate, settle, deal
Amend- alter, modify, change
Precede- to come/go before