Lesson 3 “For Imposing Taxes without our Consent”



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Georgia Economic History

Revolution in Georgia

Lesson 3

For Imposing Taxes without our Consent”



The Revolutionary War in Georgia


Enduring Understanding

Wars for independence are not the result of a single event but the culmination of a series of events in which failure to compromise results in conflict.




Lesson Essential Question

How did the economic acts and pre-Revolutionary War events lead some Georgia colonists to support rebellion?


Introduction

There were many causes of the American Revolution and many ways in which these issues affected Georgia. In this lesson, students will learn about the economic acts and the events that led some colonists to rebellion. With the school “tax” hoax, students will gain emotional ties and have a better understanding of why these colonists chose to rebel against Great Britain. In addition, because many colonists joined the Revolution due to works of “propaganda” (the Boston Massacre, the Boston Tea Party, the “Intolerable” Acts, Liberty Trees, etc.), students will gain a better understanding of the concept of economic propaganda, how it was used in the past, and how it affects them today.




GPS Standards –

SS8E2 The student will explain the benefits of free trade.

a. Describe how Georgians have engaged in trade in different historical time

periods.

SS8H3 The student will analyze the role of Georgia in the American Revolution.

a. Explain the immediate and long-term causes of the American Revolution and

their impact on Georgia: include the French and Indian War (i.e. Seven Years

War), Proclamation of 1763, Stamp Act, Intolerable Acts, and the Declaration

of Independence.


Economic Concepts

free trade, opportunity cost, government revenues, government expenditures




Knowledge

The student will know that:

  • “unfair” taxes and acts were a major cause of the American Revolution.

  • these taxes and acts affected Georgia in many ways.

  • propaganda campaigns based on economics have been used throughout history to support both positive and negative causes.

  • there was a debate on which side to join and economics was a major factor in the side people choose.




Core Skills

The student will be able to:

  • read for information.

  • draw conclusions.

  • interpret a chart.

  • distinguish fact from opinion.

  • identify and use primary sources.




Materials Needed

  • White Paper

  • Colored Pencils/Markers

  • tape

1 copy/student:

  • New Classroom Fees Handout

  • The Economic Causes of the American Revolution Handout

  • Acts and Taxes Worksheet

  • New Class Rules/Acts and Taxes Comparison Worksheet

  • Revolutionary War Propaganda (Patriot and Loyalist) Handout

  • To Fight or Not to Fight Worksheet

One copy to display on overhead or LCD projector:

  • Historic Propaganda Images (Boston Massacre, Join or Die, The Gadsden Flag, The Repeal or Funeral of Miss Ame-Stamp; Bloody Butchery of British Troops) Transparency Masters




Time Required

2 to 3 class periods




Procedures


  1. Begin the class by using the tax hoax to introduce the topic of study. Start the class by writing “Take out a pencil or pen” as the essential question. As sternly and seriously as you can muster tell the students that the “Department of Education has cut funding for all Social Studies classes in the state and that there are new fees that students are required to pay”. Distribute the “New Classroom Fees” Handout. Read the new rules to the students. Tell students that they must sign the document to show that they were given these rules and they need to bring it home to their parents. Tell students that if they refuse, they will not do well in your class. After students get upset, complain, protest…explain that this was a hoax. Tell them to remember the feeling they had about this simulation in mind as you discuss the economic causes of the American Revolution.




  1. Distribute copies of The Economic Causes of the American Revolution Handout and have students complete the Acts and Taxes Worksheet.




  1. Explain to students that individuals had to choose what they thought was the best option for their situation. What was their opportunity cost (the next best alternative given up when they made their decision)? Remind students that the British chose to tax the colonists in order to pay off debt acquired fighting the French and Indian War (government expenditures). Instead of choosing other options, such as not taxing the colonists or allowing them to send representatives to Parliament, the British chose to forcefully create new taxes (government revenues) in order to pay the military defense costs of protecting the colonists.




  1. Explain to students that British taxation of the colonists and British implementation of policies like the Navigation Act hindered colonists from participating in free trade. These factors led many colonists to rebel against Great Britain.




  1. Explain to students that the Tea Act of 1773 was an example of a price incentive, and the tea actually cost less under this act. However, contrary to most price incentives (price goes down and quantity demanded goes up) the colonists chose to protest the Tea Act and instead quantity demanded went down. Ask students why colonists purchased less tea even after prices were lowered. (Some colonists did not want to support the British because they did not have political representation in the British Parliament.)




  1. Tell students to complete the New Class Rules/Acts and Taxes Comparison Worksheet and answer the discussion questions.




  1. Display the historical propaganda images for students to examine. Explain to students that propaganda can be used to persuade people to behave in both positive and negative ways. Explain that much of the advertising that students see today can be considered forms of propaganda. Ask students to give some examples of modern day advertising that may be considered propaganda.




  1. Distribute the Revolutionary War Propaganda (Patriot) Handout to one half of the class and Revolutionary War Propaganda (Loyalist) Handout to the other half of the class. Tell students to create a propaganda drawing that is sympathetic to the side listed on their handout.




  1. Hang all student propaganda drawings somewhere in the classroom. Give students the opportunity to walk around and look at all of the drawings.




  1. Discuss common themes and images found in the propaganda drawings. Encourage the students to discuss their drawings.




  1. Give each student a copy of the “To Fight or Not to Fight” Worksheet. Have the students complete the two decision grids and answer the questions. Discuss the different decision making processes of each man.




  1. Once students have completed the activity, review the answers and discuss why so many people would be against the American Revolution in Georgia (question #4).

Conclude the lesson with a recap of the costs of “unfair” taxes and the reasons for colonists’ displeasure with the British.



The New Georgia Encyclopedia For more background information to support this lesson, read these entries:

Battle of Kettle Creek

Revolutionary War in Georgia

Thomas Brown (1750-1825)

Elijah Clarke (1742-1799)

Trans-Oconee Republic


EconEdLink Online Lessons

For more student activities on economic history in a U.S. context, use these lessons:
Taxation Without Representation

http://www.econedlink.org/lessons/index.php?lesson=EM356&page=teacher
Taxation Without Representation Matching Game

Http://www.econedlink.org/lessons/popup.php?lesson_number=356&&flash_name=356_popup Activity.swf


Assessment
1. Which economic concept was not limited by the Navigation Act of 1763?

A. free trade

B. competition
C. mercantilism*
D. voluntary exchange
2. The collection of taxes is a major source of
A. competition.
B. opportunity cost.
C. government revenue.*
D. government expenditure.

3. The Tea Act of 1773, which resulted in the Boston Tea Party, was an example of

A. scarcity.
B. free trade.
C. a price incentive.*
D. voluntary exchange.



N

ew Classroom Fees Handout





    1. Class and Homework Assignments: All assignments will cost 10

cents. No assignment will be handed out unless it is paid for in advance.

Please bring $1.00 in advance to cover the first 10 assignments.



    1. Lost Assignments: If a student loses an assignment, it will cost 20 cents to cover the cost of a makeup assignment. This fee must be paid in advance.

    2. Tardy Policy: 10 cents for every minute a student is late for class.

    3. Pencils and Pens: If a student borrows a pencil or pen from the teacher, he or she will pay the teacher 25 cents for the use of the pen or pencil. This fee will cover the loss of pens and pencils and any other damage incurred by chewing on the pencil.

    4. Late Assignments and Misconduct in the Classroom: Janitorial duty will be assigned to those students who turn in late assignments or who cause problems in the classroom. Check with the teacher or principal for these assignments. (Assignments may include cleaning the restrooms, gym area, gardening, etc.)

    5. Hall Pass Use: Students will be charged $1.00 each time they need to use a hall pass, regardless of the reason.

    6. Books: If a student fails to bring a book to class, there will be a $1.00 rental charge to acquire a new book.

    7. Desk Use Fee: Students will be required to pay a $10.00 yearly fee for the use of their desk. This fee will cover the cost of removing gum and other substances from the bottom of desks, and any writing on the top of desks that may have been done by students. This fee must be paid immediately.

    8. Pencil Sharpener Fee: A fee of $1.00 per year will be charged for the use of the pencil sharpener. District costs have skyrocketed, and they can no longer provide such services without charging.

I understand all of the above classroom rules and regulations and will abide by them:


Student Signature ________________________________________
Parent or Guardian Signature ________________________________
Date ____________________________________________________


The Economic Causes of the American Revolution Handout


Because of discontent in the colonies, the French and Indian War cost the British a lot of money, In order to help pay for it, they decided to tax the colonists.
The Navigation Act of 1763: the colonists could only use British vessels to ship their goods.

Georgia Connection

  • This act was not a problem for Georgia because all of its goods were shipped to England.


The Stamp Act of 1765: Was passed to raise money to pay for the War.

  • Placed a tax on all newspapers, legal documents, and licenses.

  • The reaction in the Colonies was violent.

Georgia Connection

  • A Stamp Act Congress met in Boston, but no representative from Georgia attended.

  • On November 6, 1765, a group of Georgians came together to oppose the Stamp Act. The group was called the Liberty Boys. This group was part of the Sons of Liberty.

  • Georgia was the only colony to sell the stamps, but they did not sell many.


The Proclamation of 1763:

  • Issued by King George II after the end of the French & Indian War.

  • The purpose of the proclamation was to establish Britain's vast new North American empire and to stabilize relations with Native Americans by regulating trade, settlement, land purchases.

  • Forbid colonists of the thirteen colonies from settling or buying land west of the Appalachian Mountains.

Georgia Connection

  • Georgia gained land and water access from the Creek and Cherokee near Augusta.

  • Provided good farmland, timber, and naval stores resources.


Intolerable Acts: Parliament punished Massachusetts for the Boston Tea Party by passing these acts.

  • The acts were made up of 4 laws:

    • The British closed the Port of Boston until payment for tea was received.

    • Could not have any town meetings unless authorized by the Governor.

  • Any British officials that committed capital crimes would be tried in England.

  • Quartering Act: Citizens had to house and feed British Soldiers at their own expense.

Georgia Connection

  • Because of these acts, 12 out of the 13 colonies sent representatives to the 1st Continental Congress in 1774 (Georgia did not send anyone).

Acts and Taxes Worksheet

Acts and Taxes Worksheet KEY



New Class Rules/Acts and Taxes Comparison Worksheet





Types of Acts/Taxes

Reactions to Acts/Taxes?

Punishments for Disobeying Acts/Taxes

Avoidable?

New Class Rules













American Revolution















Discussion Questions
1. In what ways were the New Class Rules fines and the American Revolution taxes similar?

2. What was the opportunity cost for colonists in their decisions to rebel against the British?

3. Assume for a moment that you refuse to pay the class fees listed on the New Classroom Rules

sheet. What is your opportunity cost in this decision?

4. Were your own reactions to the New Classroom Rules more like the acts of the colony of

Massachusetts or the colony of Georgia? Explain?

5. Why do you think taxes were such a major issue during the American Revolution? Are taxes

still an important issue today? Explain?



New Class Rules/Acts and Taxes Comparison Worksheet KEY





Types of Acts/Taxes

Reactions to Acts/Taxes?

Punishments for disobeying Acts/Taxes

Avoidable?

New Class Rules

Pencil sharpener

Desk

Pencil or pen

Copies

Tardy

Hall pass

Books

Assignments



Answers will vary

ISS

Referrals

Custodial Duty

Yes and no…

Some students are (they bring books, don’t use pencil sharpener, they aren’t tardy);
Some students are not (must pay for assignments or you do not pass, almost need to use a desk daily)

American Revolution

Navigation: Only use British Ships

Stamp: newspapers, legal documents, licenses

Proclamation: cannot settle west of Appalachian Mountains

Boston Tea Party

Boycotts

Protest

Continental Congress


Fines

Jail

Banning Assembly

Intolerable Acts

Yes and no…

Some are (do not drink tea or paint your house)
Some are not (had to use British vessels, legal documents are needed and used often).


Discussion Questions
1. In what ways were the New Class Rules fines and the American Revolution taxes similar?

Answers will vary.
2. What was the opportunity cost for colonists in their decision to rebel against the British?

Answers will vary.
3. Assume for a moment that you refuse to pay the class fees listed on the New Classroom Rules

sheet. What is your opportunity cost in this decision?



Answers will vary.
4. Were your own reactions to the New Classroom Rules more like the acts of the colony of

Massachusetts or the colony of Georgia? Explain. Answers will vary.


5. Why do you think taxes were such a major issue during the American Revolution? Are taxes

still an important issue today? Explain. Answers will vary.


Boston Massacre Transparency


Source: Archiving Early America: http://www.earlyamerica.com/review/winter96/enlargement.html



Join or Die Transparency

Source: Archiving Early America: http://www.earlyamerica.com/review/winter96/enlargement.html


The Gadsden Flag Transparency

Source: Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Gadsden_flag.svg
The Repeal or Funeral of Miss Ame-Stamp (1766) Transparency

Source: Library of Congress: http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/british/brit-2.html
Bloody Butchery of British Troops Transparency

Source: Library of Congress: http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/british/brit-2.html

Revolutionary War Propaganda (Loyalist) Handout
You have been selected by Governor James Wright to create a work of propaganda illustrating how British taxation is good for the entire British Empire. Your work should show that the colony of Georgia should be willing to contribute based on love of country, obligation to the King, and in payment for colonial defense. Chose one of the acts discussed in class (Navigation Act, Stamp Act, Proclamation Act, Tea Act, or Intolerable Acts) and create a poster explaining to the colonists in Georgia why they should accept these acts and pay their taxes.

Revolutionary War Propaganda (Patriot) Handout
You have been selected by Samuel Adams to create a work of propaganda illustrating how bad British taxation is for the colony of Georgia. Choose one of the acts discussed in class (Navigation Act, Stamp Act, Proclamation of 1763, Tea Act, or Intolerable Acts) and create a poster explaining to the colonists of Georgia why they should protest against these acts.


To Fight or Not to Fight? Worksheet, page 1
Directions: On the following pages are the stories of two Georgians who are not sure whether they support the British or the Colonists. After each story is a decision grid. Read their stories and then complete the decision grid and the questions indicating how they should respond to the events occurring around them. After you complete both of the decision charts, answer the questions below.
What Do You Think?

Answer the following questions about the Revolutionary War in Georgia.




  1. Why would Georgians like Thomas Brown support the British?

________________________________________________________________________


________________________________________________________________________


  1. Georgia was still a young colony in 1776 and had many settlers who had been born in Great Britain. How might this influence which side they choose in the war?

________________________________________________________________________


________________________________________________________________________


  1. Why would a colonist like Elijah Clarke support the rebels?

________________________________________________________________________


________________________________________________________________________


  1. How did economic incentives play a role in which side people selected in the Revolutionary War?

________________________________________________________________________


________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________





To Fight or Not to Fight? Worksheet, page 2
Thomas Brown (1750-1825)

Born in 1750 in Whitby on the North Sea coast of England, Brown was the son of a wealthy merchant and alum manufacturer. When he was twenty-four, his father outfitted a ship for him, and he recruited more than 70 indentured servants in Yorkshire and the Orkney Islands for a voyage to Georgia. Brown and his servants established Brownsborough in St. Paul Parish, near Augusta, Georgia, in November, 1774. Governor James Wright appointed him a magistrate in that region. Brown enjoyed a strong relationship with the British government and began to build a successful plantation.

Brown’s arrival coincided with the increase of Revolutionary sentiment in Georgia. He strongly opposed the efforts of the Sons of Liberty to enforce the boycott against trade with Britain. As a result, the “Liberty Boys” made an example of him, almost killing him.
Evaluate each alternative as:

+ = Greater benefit than cost

? = Equal or questionable benefit and cost

- = Greater cost than benefit


Criteria


Alternative


Effect on freedom to live his life how he wants

Effect on ability to earn money

To maintain family loyalties

Effect on future opportunities for his children

Join British













Join Colonists













Remain Neutral












Using the decision grid, rank each alternative in order of preference.



  1. ___________________

  2. ___________________

  3. ___________________

What is the opportunity cost of your decision (remember the opportunity cost is your

second best option given up when a decision is made)? _________________________________
Explain why this is the best decision for Thomas Brown. ________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________



To Fight or Not to Fight? Worksheet, page 3
Elijah Clarke (1742 – 1799)

Elijah was born in 1742, the son of John Clarke of Anson County, North Carolina. He was an impoverished, illiterate frontiersman and in 1773 settled on ceded lands on what was then the northwestern frontier of Georgia. He lived with other frontier families very close to local Native Americans and often engaged in fights with the Native Americans. Elijah and other frontiersmen did not love the British as they were discouraging settlements in lands beyond the Appalachian Mountains.

Elijah’s name does appear on a petition supporting the king’s government in 1774, but he also joined the rebels and fought the Cherokees in 1776.
Evaluate each alternative as:

+ = Greater benefit than cost

? = Equal or questionable benefit and cost

- = Greater cost than benefit


Criteria


Alternative


Effect on freedom to live his life how he wants

Effect on ability to earn money

To maintain family loyalties

Effect on future opportunities for his children

Join British













Join Colonists













Remain Neutral












Using the decision grid, rank each alternative in order of preference.



  1. ___________________

  2. ___________________

  3. ___________________

What is the opportunity cost of your decision (remember the opportunity cost is your



second best option given up when a decision is made)? _________________________________
Explain why this is the best decision for Elijah Clarke. ________________________________
What do you Think? Worksheet KEY
Answer the following questions about the Revolutionary War in Georgia.


  1. Why would Georgians like Thomas Brown support the British? Answers can vary, but can include: They had received their jobs from the government and enjoyed economic benefits from trading with Great Britain.




  1. Georgia was still a young colony in 1776 and had many settlers who had been born in Great Britain. How might this influence which side they choose in the war? Their relatives and business partners were in Great Britain, and they would not support separating from family and friends.




  1. Why would colonist like Elijah Clarke support the rebels? The government was not much help in the frontier; and, with the Proclamation of 1763, it looked like the British would be more supportive of the Native Americans in conflicts with colonists.




  1. How did economic incentives play a role in which side people selected in the Revolutionary War? Economic incentives played a big role in which side people choose in the war. With many Georgians tied to Great Britain, there was less support for the revolution.


Georgia Council on Economic Education © 2008

Lesson 3

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