Lecture Notes From Summer Institutes

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The New Deal, WWII, Cold War/Korean War, Civil Rights, Vietnam, Collapse of Communism

DIRECTIONS: Read each question carefully, fully and analytically. Then choose ONE response to mark as your answer.

  1. In his first inaugural address, President Franklin Roosevelt said

  1. that it was time to reconsider the viability of democratic capitalism

  2. that experiments in Germany, Italy, and the Soviet Union were worthy of study

  3. that the American system was essentially sound

  4. that amendments to the Constitution were required to overcome the depression

  5. that America needed to undertake a systematic adjustment to socialism

  1. Franklin D. Roosevelt was:

  1. America’s most ideological President.

  2. very athletic and boisterous

  3. remote and aloof

  4. committed to the political blue print when he took office

  5. pragmatic and flexible as a political leader

3. Roosevelt’s theory of governing stressed:

  1. blind obedience of the people to the direction of his policy makers

  2. a reliance on the states as legislative agents of policy change

  3. the White House’s responsibility for initiating policy

  4. Congress’s role in devising legislative programs

  5. the role of popular referendums and amendments to the Constitution

  1. During his first hundred days, President Roosevelt tried to uplift the people by all of the following EXCEPT:

  1. nationalizing American steel, oil, and automobile companies

  2. engaging in radio conversations with the American people called “Fireside Chats”

  3. reassuring the farmers that they would be aided and protected

  4. reassured the American people that the banks were safe

  5. legalizing beer

  1. The first relief measures taken by the administration dealt with all of the following agencies EXCEPT:

  1. CCC

  2. NYA

  3. FERA

  4. WPA

  5. TVA

  1. Codes of fair practice were part of which of the following New Deal Agencies

  1. FDIC

  2. HOLC

  3. NRA

  4. PWA

  5. FHA

  1. The “Blue Eagle” was the symbol of compliance for the…

  1. NRA

  2. FERA

  3. WPA

  4. NYA

  5. AAA

  1. The goal of the Agricultural Adjustment Act was to raise farm income by

  1. cutbacks in consumption

  2. intensive farming regulations

  3. marketing quotas

  4. cutbacks in productions

  5. state and federal subsidies paid to farmers

  1. Among the objectives of the Tennessee Valley Authority were all of the following EXCEPT

  1. production of cheap electricity

  2. flood control

  3. the development of transportation

  4. irrigation aid to the Southeast US

  5. soil conservation and forestry

  1. Which of the following was NOT part of the 2nd New Deal

  1. Banking Act of 1935

  2. National Industrial Recovery Act

  3. National Labor Relations Board

  4. Social Security Act

  5. Lend Lease Act

  1. The NLRB was established as the result of

  1. United States vs Butler court case

  2. Schecter Poultry vs U.S.

  3. the Wagner Act

  4. the Banking Act

  5. the Wagner Act

  1. The Trilogy U.S.A. was a masterful tome

  1. Charles Coughlan’s long-winded critique of FDR

  2. a large-scale statistical survey of Americans in the workforce

  3. John Dos Passos vision of an America divided into two nations

  4. John Steinbeck’s epic novel of migrant workers in the Dust Bowl

  5. about how the Republicans recaptured the Congress in 1938

  1. Richard Wright was

  1. the foremost Black historian of the early twentieth century

  2. author of In Dubious Battle, about the fruit pickers in California

  3. author of Native Son, a story of racial prejudice

  4. a prolific photographer of Blacks in the American work place

  5. an up-and-coming Black musician who developed the Jazz style of music

  1. The origins of World War II really began with ALL of the following EXCEPT:

  1. diplomatic failures of the peacemaking process from WW I

  2. diplomatic bungling during the decade of the 1920’s

  3. The rise of world fascism

  4. the development of a decade long era of depression and xenophobia

  5. the failure of American Presidents to deal effectively with foreign policy

15. From the stand point of women in history, the appointment of____was a major step forward for modern women in the post- war era

  1. Jane Addams

  2. Elizabeth Dole

  3. Frances Perkins

  4. Oveta Culp Hobby

  5. Ivy Baker Priest

  1. Which of the following most correctly describes what happened to the birthrate during the depression and war years?

  1. shot upward dramatically

  2. rose moderately

  3. stayed the same

  4. followed the yo-yo effect up & down

  5. declined rather significantly

  1. The Kellogg-Briand Pact was significant because it

  1. outlawed war among the signatory nations as an instrument of national policy

  2. reduced the Allied war debt

  3. limited the size of America’s standing army

  4. was defeated in the U.S. Senate similarly to the Versailles Peace Treaty

  5. was a major defeat for democracy in the modern world

  1. The “Good Neighbor Policy” of Hoover and Roosevelt

  1. Had little effect upon Mexico

  2. proclaimed equality and cooperation with Latin America and the U.S.

  3. announced the right of the U.S. to intervene to keep and maintain order in Latin America

  4. led to civil war in China

  5. had an especially harmful effect upon Canada

  1. The Stimson Doctrine was a response to

  1. Mussolini’s rise to power in Italy

  2. the mobilization of Germany’s military force

  3. Japanese aggression in China

  4. the rise of Peron in Argentina

  5. the fall of Spain to fascism

  1. The National Socialist Party war led by

  1. Juan Peron

  2. General Francisco Franco

  3. Il Duce

  4. Gen. Heidiko Tojo

  5. Adolph Hitler

  1. In the 1938 agreement signed in March in Berchesgarten’s “Eagles Nest”

  1. Mussolini agreed not invade Albania

  2. Britain & France agreed to let Hitler have the Sudentenland

  3. Austria was to be allowed neutrality from war

  4. Japan joined the “Anti-Comintern Pact”

  5. Russia agreed to let Germany expand with not consequence to the Russians

  1. The neutrality acts of 1935 and l939 had contradictory provisions. Which of the following is CORRECT?

  1. 1935 directed against Japan - 1939 renewed American isolationism from Japan

  2. stopped sale of munitions - allowed US to sell arms on a cash and carry basis

  3. allowed the Navy to search & seize - renewed American isolationism

  4. was passed over FDR’s veto - FDR signed it approving the law

  5. was declared null & void - Supreme Court upheld it unanimously

  1. A clear overt action on the part of the US and Britain that troubled the Fascist nations of Europe was

  1. Kellogg-Briand Pact

  2. Panay incident

  3. Actions of the Nye Committee

  4. Lend-Lease Act

  5. Peron’s conquest of power in Argentina

  1. Social affects of World War II included all EXCEPT:

  1. women participating in the Armed Services

  2. integration of Blacks in military

  3. Native Americans became our “Code Talkers”

  4. Relocation of Japanese Americans

  5. Failure of the bracer program

25 America’s decisive action to enter the war came after

  1. Monte Casino in Italy

  2. El Alamein in North Africa

  3. Pearl Harbor in Hawaii

  4. Battle of Midway

  5. Signing the Atlantic Charter

  1. The area of the US that grew the fastest in urban growth and changed the most was:

  1. the Far West

  2. the upper Midwest

  3. New England

  4. deep South

  5. Texas & Southwest

  1. Franklin Roosevelt and Winston Churchill devised a unified plan to strike at the fascists

  1. across the English Channel

  2. on the Eastern Front

  3. in Southeast Asia

  4. in Scandinavia

  5. in North Africa

  1. Following General Patton’s victory in Messina, the war was carried

  1. up the peninsula of Italy

  2. direct invasion of Rome

  3. stalled in Naples

  4. Italy joined the Allies

  5. to a naval invasion of Venice

  1. The summit conference of the Big Three (Stalin, Churchill, & Roosevelt) was held_____to plan the invasion of France

  1. Teheran

  2. Paris

  3. Geneva

  4. Casablanca

  5. Potsdam

  1. The Battle of Leyte Gulf

  1. was the largest naval engagement in history

  2. caught Hitler off guard

  3. was a major victory for the Japanese

  4. began with German submarines the Mongoose, an American aircraft carrier

  5. was a disastrous naval defeat by the Japanese over Britain

  1. Operation “Overlord “ was the

  1. top-secret work of American cryptanalysts (code breakers)

  2. D-Day Invasion at Normandy

  3. Allied invasion at Italy

  4. Allied invasion of North Africa

  5. firebombing of Japanese Islands

  1. The Yalta Conference

  1. was the only time that Allied leaders met with their Axis counterparts before the surrender

  2. discussed wartime economic cooperation

  3. discussed the status of Poland after the war

  4. discussed the long-awaited cross-channel invasion against Germany

  5. gave Russia control of eastern Germany

  1. V-E Day

  1. celebrated the defeat of Italy

  2. celebrated the defeat of Japan

  3. celebrated the downfall of Russia

  4. celebrated the Allied victory of Iwo Jima

  5. celebrated the Allied victory over Germany

  1. The development of the atomic bomb that was dropped on Japan at Nagasaki and Hiroshima

  1. was opposed by most Americans

  2. was the responsibility of the Manhattan Project

  3. was the main topic at the Geneva disarmament conference in 1944

  4. began in the spring of 1945

  5. began with the German discovery of atomic energy in 1942

  1. The total cost of World War II in terms of human live

  1. about 36-38 million military and civilians.

  2. was less than the one-half the number of lives lost in WW I

  3. was greater for the United States because of the proportion to its population

  4. has never been adequately or correctly accounted for

  5. was more than three times heavier on the Japanese side than the German Theatre

  1. Which of the following five navy admirals was in charge at Pearl Harbor?

  1. Halsey

  2. Nimitz

  3. Kimmel

  4. Radford

  5. Stark

  1. The political constituency that was least successful in mobilizing itself during the New Deal was:

  1. labor

  2. women

  3. Blacks

  4. Hispanics

  5. Jews

  1. The least dependable constituency in the political coalition built by the Democrats in the 1930’s was:

  1. southern whites

  2. ethnic whites

  3. northern blacks

  4. organized labor

  5. Native Americans

  1. During the New Deal welfare benefits:

  1. reached all needy Americans

  2. varied widely from state to state

  3. equaled those provided by West European nations

  4. were more comprehensive than those provided by the Great Society of the 1960’s

  5. inconsistent from urban states matched against the rural states

  1. The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) won the support of all of the following EXCEPT:

  1. conservationists

  2. labor leaders in the midwest

  3. progressives

  4. rural southerners

  5. private utility companies

  1. Cultural manifestations of the New Deal were revealed by all of the following EXCEPT:

  1. The Federal Theatre Project

  2. The Federal Art Project

  3. The Federal Music Project

  4. The Federal Writers Project

  5. The Federal Opera Workshop

  1. Which of the following BEST describes American attitudes toward the European war in 1939?

  1. Most Americans favored the Allies but did not want the US to enter the war

  2. Polls indicated that Americans supported the Allies by a small margin

  3. Nearly half of the Americans polled declared no preference for the Allies or the Axis

  4. Nearly two-thirds believed the US should enter the war and help England and France

  5. General apathy prevailed among the American people

  1. In comparison with the federal budget of 1939 to that of 1945 American defense spending increased more than:

  1. fourfold

  2. sixfold

  3. tenfold

  4. twofold

  5. twentyfold

  1. World War II draft boards rejected any potential inductee who:

  1. weighed less than a 120 lbs.

  2. had a venereal disease

  3. had fewer than half of their natural teeth

  4. was less than 5’ 4” tall

  5. was a conscientious objector

  1. Women who worked in defense factories faces which of the following problems?

  1. child care problems they couldn’t resolve

  2. travel restrictions

  3. faced wage discrimination

  4. were absent from work more than men

  5. were more prone to subversion and espionage

  1. Organized labor under the National War Labor Board

  1. maintained its strength of union membership during the life of the contract

  2. provided for the open shop

  3. provided for the closed shop

  4. provided for the union shop

  5. became the referee between unions and management

  1. On the home front in World War II , historian Gary Hess maintains that

  1. most Americans sacrificed material comfort for the war effort

  2. the birth rate declined, a most young men were away in the armed forces

  3. many of the war bond drives filed to meet their goals

  4. per capita income more than doubled and unemployment \virtually disappeared

  5. there was a major move of population to the areas of the midwest.

  1. The Atlantic Charter of August 1941

  1. called for the Allies to divest themselves overseas colonies

  2. exempted the Soviet Union from national self-determination

  3. was silent on the principle of collective security

  4. called for free trade and condemned retention of foreign territory seized during war

  5. was a colossal failure of the US and Germany to try to avoid the war.

  1. The United States owed its major naval victories in the Pacific primarily to:

  1. its submarines

  2. planes launched from it aircraft carriers

  3. its destroyers

  4. battle ships left over from World War I

  5. guided missiles

  1. The Grand Alliance that won World War II disintegrated after the war for all of the following reasons EXCEPT:

  1. the refusal of the Soviets to join the United Nations organization

  2. differences over Eastern Europe

  3. misunderstanding about the Yalta agreement

  4. a clash over the future of Germany

  5. a clash in political ideology

  1. The postwar economic goals of the United States included:

  1. negotiation of trade agreements with Greece and Turkey

  2. negotiation of trade agreement with oil-rich Iran

  3. concentration on development of Third World countries

  4. development of a common market in Europe

  5. a radical restructure of the United Nations by Africa, Latin America, and Eastern European countries

  1. An important difference between the attitudes of Franklin Roosevelt and Harry Truman regarding the Soviet Union was that Roosevelt was keenly aware of

  1. the Russian postwar military threat.

  2. the potential of Russian nuclear potential

  3. the necessity to keep Russians in the war

  4. the importance of Russian economic influences in postwar Europe.

  5. China’s post-war aggressiveness

  1. Truman’s attitude toward the Soviets can most accurately be described as

  1. evasive

  2. passive

  3. cordial, though distant

  4. indifferent

  5. aggressive

  1. he first—ant last—international summit attended by Harry Truman was

  1. Tehran

  2. Yalta

  3. Dumbarton Oaks

  4. Postdam

  5. Cairo

  1. George F. Kennan’s “Containment Policy” was based on all the following assumptions EXCEPT:

  1. Soviet totalitarianism was internally weak

  2. Soviet leaders were more concern about staying in office than strict enforcement of Marxism

  3. the U.S. should ignore Soviet expansionism and let it run its course unopposed

  4. Soviet policy makers needed a hostile U.S. to justify themselves

  5. Kennan was a shrewd, sharp, and skilled observer of Russian maneuvers

  1. The best example of military containment as practiced by the United States was

  1. the Marshall plan

  2. Pan American Union

  3. Organization of American States

  4. NATO

  5. SEATO

  1. In Korea, Gen. Douglas MacArthur’s brilliant success came

  1. through brilliant frontal assault that broke through North Korean lines near Seoul

  2. at Inchon after a daring amphibious landing behind North Korean lines

  3. as ordered the invasion of North Korea

  4. when he suggested bombing targets in China, especially the Yalu River dams

  5. when he invaded Hong Kong in southern China to take the Chines out of the conflict

  1. The postwar goal of the United States in Germany was:

  1. a divided Germany

  2. a deindustrialized Germany

  3. an isolated Germany

  4. immediate reunification

  5. a reindustrialized Germany

  1. In 1945, Korea:

  1. was within the United States ‘ defensive perimeter

  2. was divided at the 38th parallel

  3. was “corrupt, reactionary, and inefficient”

  4. was within the economic sphere of Japan

  5. came under Chinese dominion

  1. Harry Truman won an upset victory in 1948 for ALL of the following reasons EXCEPT:

  1. he appealed to the people effectively

  2. he received support from labor and ethnic groups

  3. he won a majority of Black votes

  4. he won the support of Eastern intellectuals

  5. he retained the allegiance of the Solid South

  1. All of the following were Blacklisted EXCEPT:

  1. Pete Seeger

  2. Whittaker Chambers

  3. Zero Mostel

  4. Arthur Miller

  5. Robert Oppenheimer

  1. The most famous member of the House Committee on Un-American Activities was:

  1. Robert A. Taft

  2. Karl Mundt

  3. John J. Sparkman

  4. Joseph McCarthy

  5. Richard Nixon

63. President Eisenhower’s presidential style has been characterized as:

  1. deft

  2. confrontational

  3. activist

  4. charismatic

  5. evasive and unsure

  1. The “Eisenhower Doctrine” applied to

  1. Latin America

  2. the Middle East

  3. Northern Europe

  4. Southeast Asia

  5. Eastern Europe

  1. Eisenhower’s Farewell Address,

  1. he cautioned against entangling alliances

  2. he warned Americans about the “military-industrial complex”

  3. he urged Americans to stop the spread of communism in Latin America

  4. he advocated bipartisanship in foreign policy

  5. he became deeply involved in economic planning of the future,

  1. The first modern computers were developed during the decade of…

  1. the 1920’s

  2. the 1930’s

  3. the 1940’s

  4. the 1950’s

  5. the 1960’s

  1. The major issue involved in the Brown vs Board of Education court decision was:

  1. legalization of abortion

  2. the guarantee of equal rights of minors with those of adults

  3. segregation

  4. integration

  5. reverse-discrimination

  1. The growth and development of “suburbia” in America came in all of the following EXCEPT:

  1. Michigan

  2. Florida

  3. Texas

  4. California

  5. Illinois

  1. By the 1970’s all of the following characterized farming in America EXCEPT:

  1. mechanization

  2. proliferation of the family farm

  3. increased production

  4. improved chemical fertilizers

  5. corporate take-over of the food industry

  1. President Eisenhower did all of the following EXCEPT:

  1. nominate Earl Warren to the Supreme Court

  2. ended one war and avoided all others

  3. led a moral crusade for civil rights

  4. helped preserve the two-party system.

  5. provided middle-of-the-road leadership

  1. The election of 1960 featured ALL of the following EXCEPT:

  1. television debates

  2. defeat by incumbent sitting president

  3. was a political squeaker thus taking much punch power away from Kennedy

  4. media that was openly partisan to Kennedy

  5. strongly supported by American intelligensia

  1. Which of the following was NOT a major crisis during the Kennedy Presidency

  1. Bay of Pigs invasion

  2. Cuban Missile Crisis

  3. The Berlin Confrontation

  4. Failure to not legislate civil rights laws as promised

  5. Escalation of Vietnam struggle

  1. The “new politics” stressed All of the following EXCEPT:

  1. issues

  2. charisma

  3. style

  4. personality

  5. educational elitism

  1. In the 1960 the Supreme Court expanded the rights of criminal defendants in all but which of the following cases:

  1. Gideon vs Wainwright

  2. Baker vs Carr

  3. Escobedo vs Illinois

  4. Miranda vs Arizona

  5. In Re Gault

  1. As Kennedy’s successor, Lyndon Johnson brought to the White House:

  1. the same sort of charisma as Kennedy

  2. a wealth of insider political experience

  3. the limitation of a narrow electoral victory in 1964

  4. a limited interest n the New Deal legacy

  5. complex personality that required major beltway adjustment

  1. The Kennedy Assassination in Dallas has been characterized by All EXCEPT:

  1. a debate over who was responsible for the assassination

  2. evidence of a powerful identification with the youthful president

  3. a period of self-examination

  4. an avoidance of mythologizing

  5. many complicated unanswered question

  1. The American presence in South Vietnam did all of the following EXCEPT:

  1. help to reform the government of South Vietnam

  2. sparked skyrocketing inflation in South Vietnam

  3. devastated South Vietnam’s environment

  4. destroy many villages and the annihilation of tens of thousands of peasants

  5. precipitated the social problem of the rejected Amer-Asian racial ethnic conflict

  1. In fighting the war, American soldiers:

  1. faced constant pitched battle.

  2. measured success by territory gained

  3. found it easy to distinguish friendly from unfriendly Vietnamese

  4. judged their success in “body counts” and “kill ratios”

  5. were carefully deprogrammed to avoid “wartime” xenophobia”

  1. The Tet Offensive was ALL of the following EXCEPT:

  1. a military victory for the Vietcong

  2. a psychological victory for the Vietcong

  3. a major factor in the shift of American public opinion about the war

  4. a major factor in a shift in the conduct of the war

  5. increased the frequency of American bombing missions

  1. The Tonkin Gulf resolution

  1. demanded American troops withdraw from Vietnam

  2. was defeated in the Senate

  3. gave sweeping authorization to the President

  4. was vetoed

  5. was an internal conflict in North Vietnam

  1. Kennedy’s New Frontier consisted of all of the following EXCEPT:

  1. to expand military spending

  2. modest increases in Social Security.

  3. bold civil rights moves

  4. minimum wage hikes

  5. foreign policy crises of major importance to the world

  1. John Kennedy’s willingness to use presidential power was most evident in

  1. civil rights

  2. social welfare legislation

  3. dealing with Congress

  4. foreign policy

  5. controlling labor conflicts

  1. The most prominent civil rights organizations for women in the 1960’s and 1970’s

  1. SCLC

  2. NAACP

  3. SNCC

  4. NOW

  5. CORE

  1. What was the term used by Kissinger and Nixon to describe the new relationship with China

  1. confrontation

  2. brinkmanship

  3. containment

  4. disengagement

  5. détente

  1. The new environmentalilsm differed from the conservation championship by Theodore Roosevelt in that

  1. its supporters used mass marketing techniques like Earth Day

  2. it blended conservation of responsible use with preservationist restraint of ecology

  3. it opposed federal government management and oversight

  4. it was a movement of the poor and powerless

  5. it was an aggressive quasi-violent response to the status-quo

  1. Modern Republicanism in practice meant

  1. social liberalism

  2. selective cutbacks in New Deal programs like farm price supports

  3. to follow the domino theory

  4. fiscal conservatism

  5. to be in favor of aggressive civil-rights legislation.

  1. The suburban lifestyle flourished in 1950’s, 1960’s, and 1970’s but had a dark side having to do with

  1. pressures toward organizational conformity

  2. impoverishment of the inner city

  3. disruption of the nuclear family

  4. anxieties about juvenile delinquency.

  5. de-escalation of educational progress

  1. Alfred Kinsey’s famous mid-century research dealt with

  1. conformity

  2. juvenile delquiency

  3. business prosperity

  4. human sexuality

  5. domestic life of women

  1. Religion in American life from 1950 to mid l960’s

  1. was increasingly seen as unimportant

  2. was usually a unifying factor in conformist communities of suburbia

  3. was one way Americans maintained a sense of identity and community

  4. was marked by declining faith in official churches

  5. was an equal partner in American social life.

90. Jimmy Carter’s greatest asset in 1976 campaign and election was:

  1. his isolation from federal government

  2. his political experience

  3. his name recognition

  4. his credibility

  5. his expertise in foreign affairs

  1. During his presidency, Jimmy Carter’s advisers were:

  1. friends from Georgia

  2. leading scholars from academia

  3. veteran leaders of the Democratic party

  4. national business leaders

  5. ex-Vietnam War veterans

  1. The greatest legacy of the Reagan Presidency was:

  1. a greatly reduced federal bureaucracy

  2. reductions in entitlement programs

  3. the elimination of the trade deficit

  4. the creation of huge federal debt

  5. deregulate the nations commercial air industry

  1. Ronald Reagan brought to the presidency which of the following?

  1. A ban on abortion

  2. The death penalty

  3. School prayer

  4. Court-ordered busing

  5. The power of communications skills

  1. At the center of “Reagonomics” was a commitment to

  1. cut taxes

  2. increase domestic spending

  3. raise taxes

  4. solve domestic problems by government action

  5. ban abortion

  1. As America has become a pluralistic society, which of the following is NOT TRUE?

  1. Hispanics are becoming increasing powerful

  2. Native Americans are gaining social, political, and economic equity in 1980’s

  3. There is an increasing cultural diversity in America

  4. Minorities now account for approximately one-fourth of the population

  5. Asian Americans are the most successful new immigrants

  1. In Planned Parenthood vs Casey, the Supreme Court:

  1. struck down informed-consent requirements for abortion

  2. rejected a required 24-hour waiting period prior to an abortion

  3. reaffirmed the Roe vs Wade decision

  4. made it easier to get an abortion

  5. remanded the case back to the Pennsylvania courts for settlement

  1. George Bush upon becoming President of the United States presided over all of the following major issues in issues having to deal with foreign and defense policy EXCEPT:

  1. unification of Germany

  2. the Desert Storm conflict with Saddam Hussein

  3. the collapse of Soviet communism under Gorbachev

  4. the invasion of Panama

  5. the return of Hong Kong to China

  1. The Age ofTechnocracy in which America finds herself contemporarily was affected most by?

  1. Jesse Jackson

  2. Lee Iaocca

  3. Sandra O’Connor

  4. Betty Frieden

  5. Bill Gates

  1. A significant trend in post 1945 literature was

  1. abolition of the Nobel Prize

  2. emergence of Black authors who wrote about White experiences

  3. a renaissance of social romanticism

  4. wide spread sale of paper-back books

  5. a return to classic 19th century genre forms: novel, short story, poetry, & drama

  1. The following EXCEPT ONE are true of post-1945 American health:

  1. the incidence of mental health declined

  2. heart disease and cancer remain the leading killers of Americans

  3. organ transplants proved feasible

  4. the scourge of AIDS came upon the nation

  5. the cost of medical services have tripled the cost of living rates of the people, raising moral and serious economic questions about the nations health industry.










































































































































































































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