Lecture Notes From Summer Institutes

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Early 20th Century

DIRECTIONS: Read each question carefully, fully and analytically. Then choose ONE response to mark as your answer.
1. The historical practice of one nation, attempting to control another through political and economic controls is known as...

  1. nationalism

  2. mercantilism

  3. fanaticism

  4. capitalism

  5. imperialism

2. The “white man’s burden” refers to the idea that the white race...

  1. suffered from the threat of Mongol invasion of Europe

  2. had to take the lead in promoting the mixing of the races

  3. to show restraint in colonizing the non-white peoples of the world

  4. had to civilize the non-white peoples of the world

  5. had to avoid contact with the Africans

  1. The Social-Darwinists supported imperialism because

  1. Anglo-Saxons owed their superiority to the process of ontology

  2. believed that there was a divine mandate to conqueror the world

  3. contact with “noble savages” would vitalize western culture

  4. the process of evolution determined that the fittest races should dominate

  5. Anglo-Saxons and Teutonic people were inferior to Slovak and Asian peoples

4. The Venezuelan Crisis was important because it showed

  1. the United States had no interest in Latin America

  2. Europeans that they must respect the Monroe Doctrine

  3. the United States wished to share its influence with the British

  4. Europeans that the Monroe Doctrine was now superseded

  5. the United States that they could no longer hold Latin America hostage

5. Russia and the United States became rivals over China in part because the

  1. Americans allied more closely with Great Britain

  2. Russians opposed American plans to develop Manchuria

  3. Russians signed a treaty to share Manchuria with Japan

  4. Russians supported England’s treaty with Japan

  5. United States wanted to isolate Russia by using China as a buffer.

6. The ideology of progressivism, insofar as it had one, generally

  1. backed silverite monetary reforms

  2. backed the hard money policies of the 19th century gold standard

  3. mixed a liberal concern for the poor with a conservative wish to control social chaos

  4. called for redistribution of incomes from the wealthy and a social approach to government

  5. was anti-labor union and pro-industrialist in orientation

7. As moderate modernizers, Progressives

  1. insisted on a standard of absolute truth

  2. emphasized the evolution of values and pragmatic solutions

  3. reaffirmed the Calvinist view on innate evilness of mankind

  4. looked to the modern corporation to solve the problems of the poor

  5. advocated that the Supreme Court become much more active in reform

8. Hay’s original Open Door proposal

  1. met with widespread approval among Asian nations

  2. met with enthusiastic acceptance by all the major powers

  3. was remarkably successful in China

  4. was a novel twist to American policy in Latin America

  5. advocated fair competition among foreigners in China

9. Theodore Roosevelt’s contributions to world peace included all of the following EXCEPT:

  1. framing the “Gentleman’s Agreement”

  2. negotiating the Treaty of Portsmouth

  3. preventing European intervention by the Roosevelt Corollary

  4. ending the Boxer rebellion

  5. participating in the Morocco dispute

10. The “Gentleman’s Agreement”

  1. resulted in the development of the Open Door Policy

  2. control of Japanese immigration

  3. ended the Russo-Japanese War

  4. paved the way for an Isthmian canal

  5. was an agreement between England and India

11. The Roosevelt Corollary of the Monroe Doctrine

  1. hampered debt collections

  2. prohibited European investments in Latin America

  3. heartened the Latin Americans

  4. caused peace to be achieved between Colombia and Panama

  5. sanctioned preventive intervention by the U.S

12. Josiah Strong’s Our Country, became a classic articulation of

  1. economic imperialism

  2. a religious justification of imperialism

  3. anti-imperialistic views

  4. statehood for new territories such as Hawaii and Alaska

  5. mild nationalistic concern over issues of race and religion

13 “[God] has made us the master organizer of the world to establish a system where chaos reigns...He has made the American people as His chosen nation to finally lead in the regeneration of the world.” These words, spoken by a United States Senator at the turn of the century, are a clear expression of

  1. Social Darwinism

  2. Economic determinism

  3. Anglo-Saxons

  4. the Social Gospel

  5. Populist campfire rhetoric

14. Admiral Alfred Thayer Mahan

  1. was among the most influential imperialists of the late 19th century in America.

  2. provided a systematic critique of imperialistic adventure.

  3. warned against the dangers of having a large modern navy

  4. advocated the immediate annexation of Samoa, Cuba, Hawaii, and the Philippines

  5. preached white racism to the black and yellow nations of the world

15. The Teller Amendment did which of the following?

  1. It convinced Spain that American intentions were peaceful

  2. It announced that the United States intended to annex Cuba.

  3. It boldly declared that Cuba should rightfully be independent

  4. It rejected the principles of the Monroe Doctrine, the Roosevelt Corollary, and the Clark Memorandum.

  5. It declared that Cuba should rightfully be independent

16. The Platt Amendment

  1. convinced Spain of America’s peaceful intentions in world affairs

B. was included in the Cuban Constitution, at U.S. insistence, gave the United States the right to intervene in Cuban affairs

C. was never enforced

D. guaranteed the U.S. economic advantages in the island

  1. was applauded by the over-wheeling majority of Cubans

17. Which of the following had the most lasting affect upon American diplomacy and subsequent history?

  1. Alabama claims

  2. Boxer Rebellion

  3. Russo-Japanese War

  4. Spanish-American War

  5. Roosevelt Corollary

18. All of the following were objectives of Progressivism EXCEPT:

  1. replacing capitalism with socialism

  2. improving the working conditions of the factory laborers

  3. fighting corruption in municipal governments

  4. protecting the interests of consumers

  5. making the government more directly responsible to the electorate

19. The Spanish-American War did all of the following EXCEPT:

  1. brought the North and South closer together

  2. prepared for the conquest of yellow fever

  3. stimulated big navyism

  4. restricted Venezuela by the provisions of the Platt Amendment

  5. strengthened the military position in the Far East

20. The most unexpected long-range strategic result of the Spanish American War involved

  1. the invasion of Argentina

  2. the invasion of Cuba

  3. the capture of Puerto Rico

  4. the naval defeat victory of Admiral Dewey

  5. the crushing defeat of the Spanish Admiral Cervera off Santiago.

21. The Spanish American War of 1898 revealed that

  1. Spain was a well prepared foe

  2. the U.S. Army was wretchedly unprepared

  3. the American people were in a sober mood

  4. the Secretary of War was an able administrator

  5. there was anti-Latin ethnocentrism all across the U.S.

22. Which of the following Amendments to the Federal Constitution was not proposed and promoted by the Progressive Era political leaders?

  1. Authorizing a federal income tax

  2. Providing for election of U.S. Senators directly by the people of the state

  3. Giving women the right to vote

  4. Establishing the two-term limit upon U.S. Presidents

  5. Prohibiting the sale, consumption, and distribution of liquor

23. What group tended to be disproportionately prominent in the crusade against alcohol

  1. women

  2. Black Americans

  3. white ethnic communities

  4. those who sought for national prohibition

  5. those who manufactured soft drinks

24. Theodore Roosevelt’s approach to handling antitrust issues was to

  1. “speak softly and carry a big stick”

  2. follow Supreme Court distinctions between commerce and manufacturing

  3. regulate rather than prosecute, whenever possible

  4. encourage private, rather than public, lawsuits-filed under existing laws

  5. aggressively interfere and take direct decisive action

25. “Corporations and combinations have become indispensable in the business world...

it is folly to try to prohibit them, but it is also folly to leave them without thorough-going control.” This quotation reflects the ideas and opinions of...

  1. Woodrow Wilson

  2. William Jennings Bryan

  3. William McKinley

  4. Robert LaFollette

  5. Theodore Roosevelt

26. In what respect were the populist and progressive movements similar?

  1. both were primarily urban movements

  2. both were intended to bring about inflation by backing the currency with gold

  3. both fought against segregation and other forms of racial discrimination

  4. both advocated government intervention in economic matters to handle problems arising out of industrialization

  5. both began at the local level and grew into national political movements.

27. McClure’s, Harpers, and Atlantic Monthly were noted for their publication of

  1. pragmatic philosophers and their works such as Dewey and James

  2. muckraking exposed the corruption of political and corporate greed

  3. supported traditional Republican causes

  4. fashionable profiles of America’s industrial elite

  5. low level street reading to encourage the illiterates to read

28. The political, economic, and social reforms of the progressive era came to a head in the passage of...

  1. Newland Act

  2. Bland -Allison Act

  3. Sherman Anti-Trust Act

  4. Clayton Act

  5. Pure Food and Drug Act

29. Which of the following late 19th century and early 20th century Presidents filed the greater number of anti-trust suits....

  1. William McKinley

  2. Theodore Roosevelt

  3. William Howard Taft

  4. Woodrow Wilson

  5. Grover Cleveland

30. The Ballinger-Pinchot controversy was concerned with

  1. whether government lands should be conserved under federal or state regulation

  2. how low tariffs should be dropped during a recession

  3. how strictly railroads should be regulated

  4. whether child labor laws should be strictly enforced

  5. progressive urban-renewal projects

31. In the attitudes of American voters in 1912, Progressives were given

  1. a bitter defeat

  2. a resounding endorsement

  3. a mild-setback

  4. a half-hearted endorsement

  5. a chance to completely reform the government toward socialism

32. Which of the following people was not a major player in the progressive reform movement?

  1. Robert LaFollette

  2. Oliver Wendell Holmes

  3. Margaret Sanger

  4. Joseph G. Cannon

  5. Louis Brandeis

  1. What is an accurate comparison of the two competing brands of political progressivism in the 1912 presidential campaign (Roosevelt’s “New Nationalism” and Wilson’s “New Freedom”)

  1. The New Nationalism accepted concentrations of capital, labor and government;

but the New Freedom stressed competition among small business and reduced government power

  1. The New Nationalism supported business and ignored social justice concerns while the New Freedom held to the reverse emphasis

  2. Both welcomed assertive federal power and encouraged business growth

  3. They were not economic and political movements, rather they were oriented toward diplomacy and foreign policy issues.

  4. Neither was truly progressive in nature

34. On consumer protection matters such as regulating the food processing industry. Roosevelt_______________; in conservation he ___________________________

  1. refused to support legislative action...sought protection for natural resources

  2. came slowly to support moderate regulatory reform...showed aggressive leadership

  3. proposed creation of federal regulatory agencies...opposed any action that would lock up the nations resources.

  4. asserted Presidential power effectively....deferred to congressional action.

  5. appealed to the courts for guidance....took the side of big business

35. Progressive era literary developments included all of the following EXCEPT:

  1. The Theory Of The Leisure Class

  2. The Jungle

  3. The Single Tax

  4. Sister Carrie

  5. The Grapes of Wrath

36. Major cultural and social leaders of the progressive movement included all EXCEPT:

  1. John Muir

  2. J.P. Morgan

  3. John Dewey

  4. William James

  5. Lincoln Steffens

37. The main objective of the Muckrakers was to

  1. institute socialism

  2. establish communism

  3. reestablished Jackson’s “Spoils System”

  4. cleanse capitalistic society of evil and mediocrity

  5. create a society like Alice In Wonderland

38. Major cultural and political voices for change during the progressive era were all EXCEPT:

  1. Robert LaFollette

  2. Frank Norris

  3. Henry Demarest Lloyd

  4. Ernest Hemingway

  5. Jacob Riis

39. Which of the following women is incorrectly paired with the movement she led or was prominently associated:

  1. Frances E. Willard - Anti-Saloon League

  2. Jane Addams - Hull House of Chicago

  3. Margaret Sanger - Founder of the Red Cross

  4. Carrie Chapman Catt - National American Woman Suffrage Association

  5. Alice Paul - National Women’s Suffrage Movement

40. The progressives---both Republican and Democrats---were weak in their support of

  1. women

  2. immigrants

  3. educators

  4. ex-southern confederates

  5. blacks

41. Theodore Roosevelt acquired territorial rights in Panama by means of

  1. persistent negotiations with Colombian authorities

  2. abetting revolution in Panama

  3. threatening Panamanian political leaders

  4. seizing Panamanian territory by force

  5. by outright purchase from Venezeula

42. Progressive diplomacy embodied all EXCEPT:

A. a belief in moralism in international affairs

B. a belief in the superiority of Anglo- American institutions, and therefore in America’s mission to help civilize the non-western world

C. a nationalistic commitment to remaining aloof from global power politics in Europe, Latin America, and Asia

D. a pragmatic commitment to preserving and enlarging opportunities for international trade

43. Under the “Roosevelt Corollary” the U.S.

  1. agreed to abstain from interfering in the internal affairs of the Caribbean nations.

  2. declared the canal zone open to all nations

  3. established a system of mutual financial and commercial obligations with Panama

  4. promised to make Cuba a state within the United States

  5. justified intervention in the internal affairs of Caribbean countries

44. Taft’s “Dollar Diplomacy” was intended to accomplish all of the following, EXCEPT:

  1. encourage private corporations to invest abroad

  2. foster prosperity in nations abroad

  3. tied debt-ridden nations to the U.S. instead of Europe

  4. promote American corporate interests overseas through regular use of armed forces

  5. was arrangement with European nations to protect open tariff policies in the U.S.

  1. Among the “homefront” impacts of the First World War were all EXCEPT:

  1. a spirit of unity that reduced racial and ethnic tensions

  2. a government-business partnership to manage the war economy

  3. a draft to provide military manpower

  4. a government information agency designed to stir up patriotic support for the war

  5. establishment of an income tax to help defray the war costs

46. When the draft began as a means to ensure adequate troops for the war, American public opinion

  1. was overwhelmingly opposed to it.

  2. ranged widely from strong opposition to enthusiastic support

  3. was enthusiastically approving

  4. was apathetic since it affected relatively few Americans.

  5. was strong in the eastern U.S. and weak in the western states

47. What is the best judgment about attitudes in the Senate toward the Treaty of Versailles?

  1. Few supported it

  2. Most supported it in some form

  3. About half supported it as Wilson submitted it, the other half was irreconcilably opposed to it

  4. Democrats uniformly voted for it’s amended version against Wilson’s express instructions; Republicans consistently voted against it

  5. the Senate asked the Supreme Court to overturn it on Constitutional grounds

48. Woodrow Wilson’s first foreign policy crisis involved

  1. an invasion of Haiti

  2. the Mexican Revolution

  3. a Canadian boundary dispute

  4. the building of the Panama Canal

  5. the annexation of Hawaii

49. The Triple Entente was a European defense pact that linked all of the following EXCEPT:

  1. Austria-Hungary

  2. Russia

  3. Great Britain

  4. France

  5. Italy after 1917

50. Which one of the following was NOT part of the Triple Alliance?

  1. Italy

  2. Germany

  3. Austria-Hungary

  4. Turkey

  5. France

51. Americans found German harassment of U.S. shipping on the high seas particularly obnoxious because Germans

  1. often assumed an unreasonable definition of contraband

  2. forced American ships into ports for searches

  3. sometimes seized contraband goods

  4. used U-boats to sink commercial vessels

  5. recruited Dutch navel personnel to make attacks on U.S. Vessels in the North Sea

52. The sinking of the French vessel,, Sussex, resulted in

  1. America’s declaration of war against Germany

  2. an American ultimatum that unrestricted U-boat attacks would mean war with Germany

  3. new respect for the American navy and its ability to protect itself

  4. the resignation of Secretary of State William Jennings Bryan

  5. Dutch treaty with Germany against the Entente powers

53. In the presidential election of 1916

  1. the Republicans successfully exploited the strong anti-war sentiment

  2. Wilson became pacifist on the war issue

  3. women demonstrated their preference for Republican candidates

  4. Wilson campaigned on a hawkish pro-war platform

  5. Woodrow Wilson won a close election by winning the South and the West

54. The Zimmerman Telegram inflamed American public opinion because it appeared to

  1. insult the president

  2. turn Great Britain against the United States

  3. blame the war on American investments in France

  4. proposed an alliance between Mexico and Germany

  5. proposed an alliance with Argentina and Brazil against the U.S

55. The War Industries Board

  1. placed most industries under government ownership

  2. significantly increased American industrial output

  3. ended racial discrimination in the workforce

  4. is testimony to the failure of Bernard Baruch’s managerial skills

  5. placed severe restrictions on food consumption in the US

56. The Committee on Public Information headed by George Creel

  1. encouraged young men to avoid the draft

  2. promoted objective coverage of the war by American journalists

  3. was America’s first official propaganda agency

  4. was often accused by sympathizing with the Germans

  5. was a panel of newspaper editors advising President Wilson on war issues

57. Between 1914 and 1920 many African-Americans

  1. were admitted to previously all-white labor unions

  2. voted with full privileges of citizenship

  3. served in racially integrated units

  4. left the country rather than serve in the army

  5. moved to jobs outside the South

  1. Race relations during the war

  1. deteriorated and often led to violence

  2. improved thanks to the efforts of government programs

  3. were among President Wilson’s top priorities

  4. improved outside the South, but worsened in the South

  5. were not materially affect by the US entry into the war

59. The Treaty of Versailles

  1. was a proposal by Clemenceau and Lloyd-George

  2. embodied a majority of Wilson’s Fourteen Points intact

  3. met with Wilson’s warm approval

  4. was separated from the League Covenant

  5. represented a technical betrayal of Germany

60. Wilson’s decision to go to Paris in 1919 was

  1. without precedent in American experience

  2. a logical reaction to the election of 1918

  3. approved generally by the Republicans

  4. evidence of his waning leadership

  5. forced upon him by a hostile Congress-especially the House of Representatives

61. Wilson signed the Treaty of Versailles for the reasons EXCEPT ONE:

  1. it set up the mandate system

  2. at could be softened by the League of Nations

  3. it kept peacemaking separate from the League

  4. it partially achieved some of his Fourteen Points

  5. it was a product of his personal diplomacy in 1919

62. France’s main objective when the Paris Conference met in 1919 was

  1. obtaining Germany’s Pacific islands

  2. securing the German Rhineland

  3. holding a plebiscite for the Saar Valley

  4. upholding self-determination

  5. secure vengeance against Germany

63. The Treaty of Versailles was the following EXCEPT ONE:

  1. too harsh for a peace of accommodation

  2. too lenient for a peace of vengeance

  3. the result of virtually no compromise

  4. disappointing to liberal admirers of Wilson

  5. the product of Progressive era diplomacy

64. The mobilization of America’s economy during World War I had all of the following EXCEPT:

  1. high inflation

  2. a more equitable distribution of the nation’s wealth

  3. high corporate profits

  4. a substantial rise in the real income of farmers

  5. expansion of the number of new millionaires in the U.S.

65. The strongest impulse guiding the diplomacy of European leaders at the Versailles Peace Conference was

  1. idealism

  2. socialism

  3. justice

  4. nationalism

  5. communism

66. The economic dictator of the U.S. was

  1. John Pierpont Morgan

  2. Felix Frankfurter

  3. Samuel Gompers

  4. George Creel

  5. Bernard Baruch

67. An impact of World War I on the female population was that

  1. some formerly all-male medical schools admitted females

  2. a genuine watershed in the history of labor occurred

  3. the military accepted its first female recruits

  4. women were grateful for their new found opportunities to display their gender equity

  5. was that women finally won the right to have equal pay for equal work.

68. Which of the following American literary or labor leaders was dissimilar to the others?

  1. Eugene Debs

  2. William Z. Foster

  3. Big Bill Haywood

  4. Samuel Gompers

  5. Upton Sinclair

69. Conservative Republicans opponents of the Treaty of Versailles argued that the League of Nations would

  1. isolate the United States from postwar world affairs

  2. prevent the U.S. from seeking reparations from Germany

  3. violate President Wilson’s own Fourteen Points

  4. limited United States Sovereignty

  5. give England and France a greater role than the U.S. in maintaining world peace.

70. Most Progressives sought all of the following EXCEPT:

  1. democratization of the political structure

  2. reformation of children’s labor laws

  3. expansion of women’s rights

  4. legislative creation of a socialist commonwealth

  5. application of the “scientific method” to solve social problems

71. The Bolshevik Revolution of 1917

  1. took Russia out of the war.

  2. weakened the German military position

  3. gave the British and French a military advantage

  4. reinforced Woodrow Wilson’s view that the war must end in unconditional surrender

  5. brought the United States into the war

72. Woodrow Wilson’s Fourteen Points

  1. made it clear that America intended to collect war reparations from Germany

  2. suggested that if Germany would give her colonies in Pacific and Africa, peace was possible

  3. suggested unconditional surrender was the only possible resolution to the war

  4. provided an indictment of Germany for “War Guilt”

  5. amounted to a plea for peace without victory by either side

73. Wilson’s agenda at the Versailles peace conference

  1. never had any impact on the Germans

  2. allowed the Russians to re-enter the peace negotiations

  3. was cynically received by European diplomats

  4. was accepted in good faith only by the British and the Italians

  5. survived intact in the peace treaty

74. “Irreconcilable” were

  1. Democrats who supported the Treaty of Versailles

  2. Senators who opposed the treaty regardless of modifications

  3. supporters of the President who refused to compromise on anything

  4. Republicans who supported Henry Cabot Lodge’s reservations about the treaty

  5. US diplomats in Latin America who felt Wilson was surrendering to Clemenceau

75. “We desire no conquest, no dominion. We seek no indemnities for our ourselves, no material consumption for the sacrifices we shall freely make. We are but one of the champions of the rights of mankinD.” These words are typical of the rhetoric of

  1. Henry Cabot Lodge

  2. Gen. John J. Perishing

  3. Warren G. Harding

  4. Frankliln D. Roosevelt

  5. Woodrow Wilson

76. Henry Ford’s success in marketing the Model T automobile was traceable to his efforts to

  1. appeal to affluent consumers

  2. keep prices low

  3. sell snob appeal

  4. personalize production of every automobile

  5. unionize the automobile workers of America

77. Buying stocks on the margin meant essentially that stocks were being purchased

  1. with borrowed money

  2. fraudulently under an assumed name

  3. in very small amounts

  4. to guaranteed high returns

  5. at a deep discount to their actual value

78. By the end of the decade in the 1920’s all of the following were a direct result of making the automobile available to the American public

  1. traffic lights appeared in cities

  2. shopping centers developed

  3. supermarkets came into being

  4. skyscrapers were built

  5. railroads disappeared as transportation

79. The fictional character from classic American literature written in the 1920’s who personified materialist businessman was

  1. Jake Barnes

  2. Arthur Dimsdale

  3. Brett Ashley

  4. Nick Garraway

  5. George F. Babbitt

80. “The Lost Generation” of the 1920’s referred to all of the following EXCEPT:

  1. Gertrude Stein

  2. Bruce Barton

  3. Ernest Hemingway

  4. Scott Fitzgerald

  5. T.S. Eliot

  1. Which of the following writers is mis-matched with work?

  1. T.S. Eliot - “Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock”

  2. F. Scott Fitzgearld - The Great Gatsby

  3. Ernest Hemingway - Farewell To Arms

  4. John Steinbeck - “Death of A Salesman”

  5. Sinclair Lewis - Arrowsmith

82. The literary revolution that took place in New York’s black community was

  1. the rise of communism

  2. the rise of fascism

  3. the collapse of racism in America

  4. the impressionistic movement

  5. the Harlem Renaissance

83. The most popular stereotype of the rebellious and daring “flaming youth” among whites was the

  1. jazz musician

  2. yuppies

  3. flapper

  4. college frat rat

  5. athletic jock

84. The National Origins Act of 1924

  1. liberalized the immigration laws excluding Asians, Chinese in particular

  2. discriminated against Eastern and Southern Europeans

  3. strictly limited immigration to a quota system from the Western Hemisphere

  4. abandoned the quota system of immigration restriction

  5. applied only to the Japanese and no one else.

85. The 1920’s were characterized by the following EXCEPT:

  1. wild stock-market speculation

  2. high prices for farm products

  3. social, sexual, and literary liberalism

  4. scandals in Washington

  5. musical, sports, and literary explosion of major developments

86. American tariff legislation of the early 1920’s resulted in

  1. lowering American tariffs

  2. lowering European tariffs

  3. abolishing American tariffs

  4. prolonging the European tariff crisis

  5. reducing duties on many key manufactured products

87. The farm depression of the 1920’s was caused by

  1. mechanization and overproduction

  2. cheaper for imports

  3. the selling of farms for the tax bills

  4. efficient methods of production

  5. maldistribution of wealth among corporate America

88. Middle class America featured all of the following EXCEPT:

  1. the presence of Babbittry

  2. the prohibition movement

  3. the teachings of John Dewey

  4. the strong adherence to fundamentalism

  5. the development of sports

89. The Administration of President Calvin Coolidge was

  1. liberal and activist

  2. clearly pro-business and pro-wealth

  3. promoted “soaking the rich” taxing policy

  4. socially and economically progressive

  5. beset by scandals within the Democratic party

90. On the whole, the motion picture industry tended to

  1. promoted public morality

  2. provide children with wholesome education

  3. falsify the American image abroad

  4. diversify American tastes in the fine arts and culture

  5. be controlled by fundamentalist business interests

91. The automobile contributed to all of the following EXCEPT:

  1. rise in the standard of living

  2. increase geo-political mobility of people

  3. increase the crime wave

  4. increase in urbanization

  5. development of schools and churches

92. Which of the following tariff laws lacked significant public support?

  1. Fordney-McCumber Tariff

  2. Hawley-Smoot Tariff

  3. Underwood Tariff

  4. Payne-Aldrich Tariff

  5. Tariff of Abominations

93. The business ethic of the 1920’s was one of

  1. speculation and get rich quick

  2. cautious investment in heavy industry

  3. avoiding the overheated stock market

  4. seeking new markets

  5. regulation and restraint upon business

94. Jazz caused tremors in white, middle-class America because

  1. it originated the folk music of southern Europe

  2. it was the favorite form of music of European immigrants

  3. its lyrics were unabashedly revolutionary in sentiment

  4. it was dominated by Black American musicians

  5. it seemed to have illicit sexual overtones

95. John Scopes was put on trial over the volatile issue of

  1. prohibition

  2. evolution

  3. Nazism

  4. fascism

  5. free love

96. The Sacco-Vanzetti trial was affected by all of the following EXCEPT:

  1. xenophobia

  2. radicalism

  3. anarchism

  4. moderation and indifference

  5. nativism and ethnic prejudice

97. Andrew Mellon, Secretary of Treasury under Harding & Coolidge

  1. balanced the federal budget twice during his term office

  2. made his first concern the protective tariff

  3. was the leader in Anti-Communist activity

  4. revamped the Federal Reserve System

  5. campaigned for progressive tax reforms

98. Which of the following was not a legitimate American Hero of the 1920’s?

  1. Charles Lindbergh

  2. Babe Ruth

  3. Warren G. Harding

  4. Rudolph Valentino

  5. George Gerschwin

99. The Great Depression, for all its economic disaster, was a source of profit to some. All of the following did well in those years EXCEPT:

  1. the makers of cigarettes

  2. the mason jar industry

  3. the makers of contraceptives

  4. small farmers

  5. movie moguls

100. Hoover tried to stimulate the economy by

  1. encouraging private initiative

  2. lowering tariffs

  3. placing restrictions on consumption

  4. coercing Europeans to repay American war debts

  5. decrease spending on public works









































































































































































































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