Lecture Notes From Summer Institutes



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Late 19th Century

1850-1900
DIRECTIONS: Read each question carefully, fully and analytically. Then choose ONE response to mark as your answer.
1. The Treaty of Guadeloupe Hidalgo ended temporarily, America’s march westward under the guise of Manifest Destiny so that the country then turned its attention to which of the following issues:

A. imperialism

B. colonialism

C. extension of slavery in the territories

D. abolition of slavery in the South

E. internal settlement of the Midwest


2. Stephen A. Douglas salvaged the Compromise of 1850 by

A. winning a public endorsement of the Compromise from President Zachary Taylor

B. ultimately allow southerners to dictate the terms of the Compromise

C. passing different parts of the Compromise in different legislative bills

D. threatening to remove the Democrats who opposed the Compromise from congressional committees

E. impeach the President of the United States if he did not sign it.


3. In Uncle Tom’s Cabin, Harriet Beecher Stowe

A. denounced slaveowners as immoral and sinful

B. brought the issue of slavery to the attention of many who had never before considered it serious.

C. won the acceptance of Illinois politician Abraham Lincoln

D. condemned the national government for condoning and allowing slavery to continue

E. was a major manifestation of transcendental writing


4. The Kansas-Nebraska Bill was sponsored by

A. Henry Clay

B. John Calhoun

C. Franklin Pierce

D. Daniel Webster

E. Stephen A. Douglas


5. The specific provision of the Compromise of 1850 that led to the sectional controversy was:

A. the national Fugitive Slave law

B. the admission of California as a free state

C. the settlement of the Texas boundary controversy

D. the abolition of the Washington D.C. slave trade

E. the establishment of Mormonism in Utah


6. Republican political ideology of the 1850’s emphasized the importance of

A. limited government

B. overseas colonies

C. free labor

D. immigration to the US

E. development of urbanization


7. The most divisive issue in the off-year elections of 1858 was

A. Dred Scott case

B. Election of James Buchanan

C. Defeat of Stephen A. Douglas

D. Lincoln-Douglas Debates

E. Admission of California to the union


8. According to some historians of the ante-bellum period, Southerners went off to war in a mood of

A. tension and anxiety

B. nationalistic fervor and military superiority

C. optimism and gaiety

D. passivity and resignation

E. anger and fear


9. The growth of the railroad network in the 1850’s

A. occurred mostly in the South

B. slowed down compared to the 1840’s

C. shifted western trade from South to East

D. occurred without government aid

E. politically insignificant
10. The Kansas-Nebraska Act

A. repealed the Missouri Compromise

B. forced the passage of the Crittenden Compromise

C. prohibited slavery in Kansas and Nebraska

D. allowed slavery in Kansas but not Nebraska

E. passed only because of strong northern support


11. The Dred Scott decision of 1857

A. struck down the Kansas-Nebraska Act

B. endorsed the Wilmot Proviso

C. upheld the Missouri Compromise

D. aided the political clout of the Know-Nothing Party

E. declared Congress could not prohibit slavery from a territory




  1. In its decision in the Dred Scot vs Sanford case. the Supreme Court ruled ALL OF THE FOLLOWING EXCEPT:

A. blacks could not be citizens of the United States

B. the Republican party was illegal

C. the Missouri Compromise was unconstitutional

D. that slavery was constitutional

E. blacks had inferior rights to whites
13. The successor to Henry Clay’s brilliant record as a sectional compromiser was

A. Zachary Taylor

B. John C. Calhoun

C. Daniel Webster

D. Stephen A. Douglas

E. Andrew Johnson


14. Which of the following does NOT apply to the Confederacy?

A. produced only a few staple crops

B. had 22,000 miles of railroads

C. was forced to retreat at the Battle of Gettysburg



  1. site of the Andersonville prison camp

15. Which of the following does NOT apply to the Union?

A. appealed to Britain and France for aid and recognition

B. apologized to Britain over the Trent Affair

C. experienced rioting over its draft

D. developed the ironclad Moniter

E. was heavily industrialized
16. The development of the modern rifle changed military tactics by giving the advantage to troops

A. attacking in solid frontal ranks

B. defending in protected, well-supplied positions

C. on horseback

D. who had no training in military affairs

E. by abandoning the concept of guerrilla warfare


17. At the battle of Bull of Run (Manassas Junction)

A. was won by the North

B. caused a decline in southern morale

C. increased cockiness of the Southern males

D. involved two well-organized and well-trained armies

E. scared Northerners that the war would be fought on their territory


18. Which of the following statements is TRUE about the Civil War?

A. It was the most destructive war on the face of the earth

B. It was assumed that the war would be short and quick

C. The chances of wounded soldiers surviving were remarkably good

D. Soldiers in the war did not romanticize and glorify the fighting

E. Rifles introduced a higher casualty rate than ever before
19. Because of the demands of the war, the rural South

A. became even more rural than before the war

B. became increasingly urbanized during and after the war

C. became a more intensely producer of agricultural products

D. over-produced consumable goods thereby going bankrupt

E. traded heavily with Latin American countries


20. Southern women during the war...(contrary to the romanticized image in “Gone With The Wind”)

A. failed to break free of pre-war social and economic attitudes

B. ran farms and plantations while the men were away

C. lost confidence in their own abilities as human beings

D. were refused jobs in the Southern Confederate bureaucracy

E. were sexually assaulted by northern army troops


21. The most dramatic economic difference in the two warring sides during the war was

A. Southern industry grew while Northern commerce decline rapidly

B. Northern civilians suffered more than southern ones

C. northern agriculture declined and southern agriculture leaped forward

D. Blacks became poor in the North and showed signs of prosperity in the South

E. the South became poorer while Northern industry increased in all areas.


22. In the North, the Civil War caused....

A. mechanization of agriculture to slow down

B. farmers mechanized faster than before

C. considerable hunger in the cities as agricultural production dropped off and food became scarce

D. women to suffer greater hardships than southern women

E. urban race riots to flare up

23. One fundamental political fact of truth that was discovered by both Lincoln and Davis was:

A. war requires active leadership

B. congress works best without presidential leadership’

C. decentralization of power is most efficient

D. that the President of any country in war is bound by the constitutional restrictions that apply in peace time.

E. they both had political security and confidence of their constituents


24. In the North during the Civil War conflict

A. cotton mills grew in great numbers

B. railroad construction expanded

C. government spending declined

D. there was not migration west as before the war

E. heavy industry grew dramatically


25. Lincoln’s original plan for emancipation was

A. to free all the slaves the minute the war started

B. to keep slavery in all areas except the West

C. to abolish slave on the national level but not at the state level

D. ignore the issue of slavery altogether

E. to emancipate slaves gradually, with compensation.


26. Before Lincoln could issue the Emancipation Proclamation he needed to

A. overwhelmingly vote through Congress

B. a southern victory to show how desperate the situation was

C. a northern victory to show that he was not acting desperately

D. the support of Fred Douglass

E. needed support from northern generals

27. Jefferson Davis

A. was a masterful war leader

B. communicated better with common people than with of the planter class

C. was warm, amiable, and courageous

D. he did not have the personality of great war leader

E. he was a master military tactician the like of a Douglas MacArthur


28. Abraham Lincoln

A. lacked political flexibility

B. never objected to criticism

C. could talk easily to common people of the North

D. suffered, but never made his suffering public

E. was a cold-blooded Machiavellian


29. Slavery in the United States was ended by

A. Lincoln-Douglas Debates

B. the Emancipation Proclamation

C. an act of Congress in 1870

D. Presidential executive order in 1861

E. ratification of the Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution


30. In order to win their independence, Southerners would have had to

A. capture Washington D.C.

B. prevent subjugation by the North

C. invade and occupy large parts of the North

D. free their slaves

E. seek military help from the British


31. The pioneer photographer who risked his life to take battlefield pictures was

A. Matthew Brady

B. John C. Fremont

C. Irvin McDowell

D. Thomas Jackson

E. Thomas Edison


32. The incident in which a Union warship stopped a British steamer and removed two Confederate diplomats became known as the:

A. Slidell Affair

B. Merrimac Affair

C. Seward Affair

D. Trent Affair

E. Dryfeuss Affair


33. The military victory by General Grant to control the Mississippi River was

A. Port Hudson

B. Port Huron

C. New Orleans

D. Vicksburg

E. Fort Henry


34. What is mot likely the reason that the states of the upper South waited until April 1861 to secede?

A. They waited until they were convinced that the Confederacy enjoyed military superiority

B. They waited until Lincoln showed that he would use force against the seceded states

C. They waited until they were sure the other slave-holding states had seceded

D. They waited until Lincoln had broken the law

E. They waited untied England declined to send troops to America to help the North


35. Why did most people in the North think that the rebellion of the South would be quickly crushed?

A. The North’s greater economic resources and population

B. Northerners knew President Abraham Lincoln was great and Ulysses S. Grant was a genius.

C. They knew the North could blockade the Southern ports

D. They thought and feared a slave rebellion might breakout

E. They were aware that France was secretly providing arms to the North.


36. Lincoln’s suspension of the “Writ of Habeus Corpus” demonstrated he

A. would use almost any reason to save the Union

B. viewed the Civil War as an opportunity to vastly increase his powers as President

C. cared little about the rights of secessionists

D. knew nothing about constitutional law

E. he would act as dictator with decree power to maintain his control


37. Hinton R. Helper is most accurately know and described as

A. an abolitionist who hated the South and slavery

B. a free soiler who rejected slavery and black people

C. a northern Democrat who supported slavery

D. a southerner who attack slavery on economic, but not racial grounds

E. a mugwump southern reformer advocating women’s rights


38. Black soldiers in the Union army

A. served in the military for the first time

B. usually were in unimportant supportive roles

C. rarely had any direct contact with war

D. were frequently used in non-combatant roles

E. were never a significant number for either side


39. “With malice toward none; with charity for all; with firmness in the right, as God gives us to see the right, let us strive to finish the work we are in: to bind up the nations wounds....” These words reflect the viewpoint of

A. Charles Sumner

B. Thaddeus Stevens

C. Andrew Johnson

D. Robert E. Lee

E. Abraham Lincoln


40. Reconstruction has been considered by many historians to be more devastating to the South than the War was... Which of the following aspects became a major asset to southern reconstruction?

A. Sharecropping

B. Crop Lein System

C. Development of steel mills in the South

D. Negro exodus to both the North and West

E. Jim Crow laws


41. The term Black Reconstruction refers and applies to the reconstruction process

A. leading to the impeachment of Andrew Johnson

B. at the state level where African-Americans played a prominent role in politics

C. as seen by white southerners who resented radical interference

D. goals of the radicals in Congress

E. education of Blacks in schools and colleges


42. Black political participation

A. was almost always with the Democratic Party

B. was deeply attached to the Mugwumps

C. was almost always associated with the Republicans

D. was often a third party issue

E. was rare and ineffectual


43. Historian William A. Dunning, the novelist Thomas Dixon, and the film, Birth of A Nation were all influential in

A. popularizing the image of the Old South

B. creating the myth of the New South

C. perpetuating the view the Reconstruction was a mistake

D. condemning the Ku Klux Klan

E. voices of vengeance for the North


44. In Reconstruction jargon, a Scalawag was

A. a white southerner who aligned themselves with the Republican Party

B. former slave who voted Democratic

C. northern Democrat who voted Republican

D. northern Republican who joined the Democratic Party during Reconstruction

E. Mexicans who supported Blacks

45. The term Copperhead

A. was applied to a Northern opponent of the War by Republicans

B. was a nickname for southern soldiers because of their sun tans

C. was a new coin issued by the federal government to finance the war

D. referred to government income tax collectors

E. northerners who supported Blacks


46. The black codes enacted in the South

A. Instituted sharecropping

B. gave black citizens civil and political rights

C. were designed to protect Whites from Blacks

D. were passed at the instigation of Andrew Johnson

E. were designed to keep Blacks an economically dependent class


47. The advantages of steel over iron are that

A. steel costs less than iron

B. steel is lighter and stronger than iron

C. steel is easier to produce than iron

D. steel is more abundant than iron

E. steel is more malleable and flexible than iron


48. All of the following EXCEPT were factors that contributed to a favorable climate of industrial development

A. abundant natural resources

B. development of technology

C. a sympathetic government

D. a cheap labor supply

E. development of universal education


49. Army soldiers, urban idealists from the North, and profiteers were known as...

A. Carpetbaggers

B. Scalawags

C. Copperheads

D. Sharecroppers

E. Creoles


50. The year 1862 was a watershed year. All of the following laws or events took place in that year EXCEPT:

A. Homestead Act

B. Pacific Railway Act

C. Morrill Land Grant Act

D. Battle of Moniter vs Merrimac

E. Lincoln’s Emancipation Proclamation


51. The single greatest industrial development after the Civil was the expansion of...

A. railroads

B. oil industry

C. vertical consolidation of trusts

D. meat packing industry

E. labor unions


52. The concept of vertical integration refers to the practice of

A. employing all kinds of ethnic workers

B. controlling industry from extraction of raw material to the marketing of finished products

C. extinguishing competition through watering stock

D. bribing politicians from the White House to city hall

E. unification of the American courts from the Supreme Court to Justices of the Peace


53. Andrew Carnegie did for the steel industry, as ____________ did for the petroleum industry

A. J.P. Morgan

B. James B. Duke

C. Cornelius Vanderbilt

D. John D. Rockefeller

E. Henry Bessmer


54. “Morganization’ was a concept of...

A. bribery of public officials

B. consolidation of corporate control

C. proliferation of small competitive companies

D. stock watering

E. expansion of the meat packing industry


55. The device of the railroad to “pool” was designed to

A. avoid taxes

B. encourage small shippers

C. comply with regulatory legislation

D. consolidate several companies under one parent company

E. reduce the destructive nature of intense competition


56. The Credit Moblier was a

A. large banking firm

B. the first petroleum company

C. large and corrupt railroad construction company

D. government agency that loaned money to immigrants and Indians

E. billion dollar American corporation


57. Developments and contributions of electricity centered around the inventions of

A. Andrew Carnegie

B. Henry Bessemer

C. John D. Rockefeller

D. Albert Michaelson

E. Thomas A. Edison


58. Females made up more than half the workers in all of the following occupations EXCEPT:

A. typists

B. nursing

C. textile workers

D. steel workers

E. telephone operators


59. The first group of unions that emerged in 19th century America represented

A. skilled craftsmen

B. agriculture

C. office and clerical workers

D. meat packers

E. unskilled workers


60. The Knights of Labor

A. organized black and white workers

B. recruited skilled and unskilled workers

C. openly embraced the strike as a weapon against management

D. became the largest workers union by 1880

E. was an imported group of British unionist in the railroad industry


61. Horizontal consolidation was the end result of the corporate tactics of

A. J.P. Morgan

B. James B. Duke

C. Leland Stanford

D. Andrew Carnegie

E. John D. Rockefeller




  1. The National Labor Union founded under the direction of Uriah Stephens, established in

A. 1866 centered most its activities on securing

B. the eight hour work day

C. higher wages

D. vacation pay with benefits

E. medical benefits

63. The American Federation of Labor

A. organized only skilled craftsmen

B. embraced freed Black slaves

C. concentrated on raising wages, reducing hours and improving conditions

D. rejected socialism and other forms of political radicalism

E. helped to found the communist party of the United States
64. Social Darwinism encouraged all of the following attitudes EXCEPT:

A. the belief in laissez-faire government

B. social welfare legislation

C. an acceptance of great wealth as a natural product of industrialization

D. the Gospel of Wealth

E. a modern manifestation of Machiavellianism


65. The most distinguishing characteristic of the Plains Indians vs the Eastern Woodland Indians was

A. their concept of private property

B. their religious ceremonies

C. matrilineal society

D. stationary and permanent type of living

E. their use of horses


66. “Hear me my chiefs, I am tired, my heart is sick and sad. From where the sun now stands, I will fight no more forever.” These are the words of the great Indian chief...

A. Chief Joseph

B. Chief Sitting Bull

C. Chief Crazy Horse

D. Chief Black Hawk

E. Chief Red Cloud


67. Promontory Summit was the location of the

A. first cattle ranch in Idaho

B. most successful silver mine in Colorado

C. meeting place where the transcontinental railroad was conjoined

D. last battle with the plains Indians

E. site of Placer mining in California


68. The most controversial aspect of the Mormon settlement in Utah was ...

A. theocratic politics

B. irrigation

C. development of the intermontane basin

D. peaceful relations with Indians

E. polygamy


69. Indian resistance to the White man settling of the great plains manifested itself in all EXCEPT:

A. Battle of Wounded Knee

B. Battle of the Little Big Horn

C. Battle of the Washita

D. Battle of Vicksburg

E. Fetterman Massacre


70. The Dawes Severalty Act dealt with...

A. Indian culture spreading into the Black population of the South

B. aimed at assimilation of Indians into white society

C. undermined the Bureau of Indian Affairs

D. was universally accepted by the Indians

E. rejection of Indian land claims to lands of the Mississippi Valley


71. Population growth at the turn of the century was promoted by all EXCEPT:

A. a rural-urban shift

B. increased mechanization of labor

C. immigration

D. major developments in medicine

E. the Black birthrate exploded after moving to the north and west


72. In the late nineteenth century cities

A. the wealthy lived at the core

B. the poor were thrust to the outer fringes

C. residential patterns reflected the mingling of economic classes

D. affected by ghettos in the Midwest

E. the upper and middle classes lived in the outer suburbs
73. City transpiration was transformed by

A. the horse

B. electricity

C. the cable car

D. the suburbs

E. the subways

74. The long drive was

A. the first pony express

B. an overland cattle expedition from Texas to the cowtowns on the railroads

C. springtime journey across the Badlands in search of pastures

D. the Montana fall roundup

E. from the Texas panhandle to St. Louis


75. General George A. Custer and his men were slaughtered at the Battle of...

A. Sand Creek

B. Washita

C. New Ulm

D. Fallen Timbers

E. the Little Big Horn


76. W.E.B. DuBois

A. was a follower of Booker T. Washington

B. believed that equality required a struggle

C. thought Blacks should wait patiently for equal rights

D. organized the Back To Africa Movement

E. was a communist revolutionary


77. The court case U.S. vs E.C. Knight favored

A. consumers

B. manufacturers

C. racial minorities

D. women

E. immigrants


78. Populism had its roots in

A. urban discontent

B. agrarian discontent

C. black discontent

D. racial antagonism

E. religious tensions


79. The first American college founded exclusive for women was...

A. Oberlin

B. Stanford

C. Vasser

D. Johns Hopkins

E. University of Chicago


80. “The City is the nerve center of our civilization. It is also the storm center.” This quotation expresses the views of...

A. Mark Twain

B. Booker T. Washington

C. Louis Sullivan

D. Josiah Strong

E. Admiral Alfred Thayer Mahan


81. “...a brick building four to six stories high on the street, frequently with a store on the first floor...Four families occupy each floor.” This quote describes

A. a modern hotel

B. life in the suburbs

C. a tenement

D. a ghetto house

E. a dormitory
82. The Social Gospel Movement is most accurately described as

A. the reform wing of the Republican party

B. socialist reformer attempting to create a welfare state

C. Protestant clergymen concerned with the problems of the urban poor

D. a revivalist movement that swept the mining towns of the West

E. a movement among intellectuals in the new universities advocating equal rights or women


83. One “go-getting” cattleman who made the cow town of Abilene boom was

A. Charles Goodnight

B. Joseph G. McCoy

C. Frederic Remington

D. Charles M. Russell

E. Ignatius Donnelly


84. Mormons in Utah developed a new way to raise crops, known as...

A. open range farming

B. dry farming

C. public domain farming

D. sod farming

E. rotational crop farming


85. The mining frontier was significant because

A. the majority of miners made vast fortunes

B. it brought peace between the Indian and the white man

C. it demonstrated that the western states had few natural resources

D. it stimulated the cattle, lumber, and railroad business

E. it triggered the industrial revolution in the United States


86. All of the following were forms of business consolidation EXCEPT:

A. trusts

B. pools

C. mergers

D. interlocking directorates

E. proprietorships


87. Marshall Field, J.C. Penny, Sears, and Montgomery Wards were common ...

A. oil industries

B. meat packing industries

C. mail order houses

D. whole sale outlets

E. distributor centers


88. Henry George, the author of Progress and Poverty, made his reputation as a critic of Gilded Age society

A. by reforming education

B. calling for a reform of free-market capitalism

C. extolling the virtues of Social Darwinism

D. condemning private ownership of property

E. praising revolutionary anarchism


89. Jane Addams and Ellen Gates Starr were

A. midwestern pioneer women who championed the rights of immigrants

B. pioneers in the Settlement House Movement such as Hull House

C. advocates of racial equality

D. Tammany Hall politicians

E. urban architects and planners


90. William Marcy Tweed is most closely associated with the

A. Social Gospel movement

B. Tammany Hall politics

C. muckraking journalism

D. philanthropist supporter of Women’s Christain Temperance Union

E. John Hopkins University
91. European immigrants from all around the continent of Europe brought with them all of the following EXCEPT:

A. developments in music such as the founding of the Metropolitan Opera & New York Philharmonic

B. literature that stressed both realism and romanticism

C. educational developments that raised the US to highest level of literacy of any nation

D. industrial inventions and management organization

E. development in sports of the “old world”


92. Which of the following was NOT an major educational and scientific achievement of the Gilded Age?

A. Henry Rowland’s development of the “Electron theory of matter”

B. Albert Michaelson who correctly measured the speed of light and was a nobel laureate

C. Edward L. Pickering pioneer work in the science of astrophysics

D. Josiah Willard Gibb the discoverer of “physical chemistry”

E. Max Planck and his “quantum theory”


93. Major American educators to emerge in the Gilded Age were all EXCEPT:

A. Henry Barnard - founder of Barnard College

B. John R. Commons - the developer of modern sociology

C. Woodrow Wilson - brilliant young student of political science

D. Frederick Jackson Turner - historian of the West

E. Richard T. Ely - the young genius from Hopkins who developed modern economics


94. Which of the following institutions was NOT a major private university to be endowed by the Gilded Age industrialists?

A. Carnegie Institute of Technology

B. John Hopkins University

C. Ohio State University

D. University of Chicago

E. Stanford University


95. Which man is incorrectly paired with his achievement or development?

A. Edward L. Bok - Ladies Home Journal

B. Charles Darwin - Origin of the Species

C. Lester Frank Ward - Dynamic Sociology

D. William James - Pragmatism

E. Thorsten Veblen - Looking Backward


96. Which philosophical orientation influenced Gilded Age literature the most?

A. Realism

B. Romanticism

C. Hedonism

D. Pragmatism

E. Classicism


97. Painting in America became a major art form because of

A. education

B. social mobility

C. entrepreneurial philanthropy

D. European influences from Paris and Florence

E. developments in the Western U.S.


98. Classical music such as symphony, opera, and ballet came to America in the Gilded Age because of

A. widespread popular demand

B. educational development among the younger generation

C. technological developments in sound and sight

D. immigration from Europe

99. Which great American artist is mis-matched with his or her art form?

A. Charles Marion Russell - Painting (Western art)

B. Louis Sullivan - Architecture

C. Evan Stephans - Music (organ)

D. Theodore Dreiser - Music (vocal)

E. Winslow Homer - Painting (sea scapes)

F. Mary Cassatt - Painting (impressionism)


100. Perhaps the greatest American contribution to the develop of cultural history was in the arena of

A. music


B. sports

C. essay writing

D. journalism

E. religious developments




OBJECTIVE TEST ANSWER KEY

























1

C

26

C

51

A

76

B

2

C

27

D

52

B

77

B

3

B

28

C

53

D

78

B

4

E

29

E

54

B

79

C

5

A

30

B

55

E

80

D

6

C

31

A

56

C

81

C

7

D

32

D

57

E

82

C

8

C

33

D

58

D

83

B

9

C

34

B

59

A

84

B

10

A

35

A

60

C

85

D

11

E

36

A

61

E

86

E

12

B

37

D

62

B

87

C

13

C

38

D

63

A

88

B

14

B

39

E

64

B

89

B

15

A

40

C

65

E

90

B

16

B

41

B

66

A

91

E

17

C

42

C

67

C

92

E

18

C

43

C

68

E

93

A

19

B

44

A

69

D

94

C

20

D

45

A

70

B

95

E

21

E

46

E

71

E

96

A

22

B

47

B

72

E

97

C

23

A

48

E

73

B

98

D

24

E

49

A

74

B

99

D

25

E

50

E

75

E

100

B
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