Lecture Notes From Summer Institutes

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1800 to 1850
DIRECTIONS: Read each question carefully, fully and analytically. Then choose ONE response to mark as your answer.
1. All but one of the following principles were put forward by Thomas Jefferson in his Inaugural Address EXCEPT

  1. economy in government

  2. repeal of Hamilton’s financial program

  3. to engage in no entangling alliances

  4. guarantee to citizens majority rule with minority rights

  5. guarantee of fundamental fairness to all

2. The strongest opposition to the war with England in 1800 came from

  1. southern planters

  2. western frontiersmen

  3. New England commercial interests

  4. the professional standing army

  5. the mid-Atlantic artisans & workers

3. In the case, Marbury vs Madison the Supreme Court

  1. ordered Marbury’s commission be delivered to him

  2. held a state law to be unconstitutional

  3. reversed a decision of the Virginia courts

  4. held part of act of Congress to be unconstitutional

  5. established the supremacy clause of the Constitution

4. The purchase of Louisiana occurred with which European nation?

  1. Holland

  2. England

  3. Germany

  4. Spain

  5. France

5. Jefferson’s Democratic-Republican party

  1. was a division of the Federalists

  2. appealed to workers in the cities

  3. was led by John Jay and Aaron Burr

  4. appealed to fears of commercial and urban interests

  5. wanted France to intervene militarily in US affairs

6. In response to France’s hostile actions, John Adams

  1. negotiated the Treaty of Versailles

  2. negotiated an alliance with Britain known as the XYZ Affair

  3. authorized the army to invade French Louisiana

  4. asked Congress to declare war against Napoleonic France

  5. conducted unofficial naval warfare on the high seas with France

7. The general concern of the XYZ Affair was

  1. England abandoned forts in the Northwest territory against treaty commitments

  2. French government demanded a bribe to open negotiations with US

  3. Adams broke with his party and their peace commission

  4. John Adams fired Hamilton from his cabinet

  5. Indians began a new round of warfare in Pennsylvania

8. The election of 1800 was finally settled by

  1. the Supreme Court

  2. the electoral college of the states

  3. the Senate of the US

  4. the House of Representatives

  5. the secret ballot of the Adams Administration cabinet officers

  1. According to the Virginia & Kentucky Resolutions, the power to review conflicts was to be decided by

  1. the Supreme Court

  2. the Senate

  3. the States

  4. the House of Representatives

  5. the council of state supreme courts

10. Once Jefferson ascended to power in the White House he

  1. dismantled Hamilton’s economic program

  2. appointed John Marshall as Chief Justice of the Supreme Court

  3. announced that he was changing parties to become a Federalist

  4. increasingly adopted the concept of broad construction of the Constitution

  5. became very narrow and reclusive choosing to delegate power to the governors

11. Ornithologists and ichthyologists have long appreciated the work and study of...

  1. Alexander Hamilton and Aaron Burr

  2. John Paul Jones and James Madison

  3. Lewis and Clark

  4. Henry Clay and Daniel Webster

  5. Noah Webster and John Quincy Adams

12. Thomas Jefferson worried that the purchase of Louisiana had gone far beyond

  1. the authority of the Constitution

  2. the doctrine of nullification

  3. the social compact theory in the South Carolina Exposition & Protest

  4. the legal limits of taking land from the Indians for the right of eminent domain

  5. the minimal risks of war with France

13. Which of the famous Marshall decisions upheld the doctrine of implied powers and proclaimed national supremacy over the states?

  1. Marbury vs Madison

  2. Dartmouth College vs Woodward

  3. Gibbons vs Ogden

  4. Cherokee Nation vs Georgia

  5. McCulloch vs Maryland

14. The powers of______declined in relation to the power of the______.

  1. Congress : presidency

  2. national government : states

  3. Supreme Court : state courts

  4. Federalists : Republicans

  5. Western immigrants : Southern slaves

15. During the period 1800 to 1820, which of the following issues dominated national government concerns?

  1. Indian removal

  2. Western expansion

  3. Tariff issues

  4. New England’s success with nullification

  5. successful foreign policy changes with France & Italy

16. Which is the correct order of occurrence of A) Louisiana Purchase, B) Election of 1800,

C) Marbury vs Madison, D) the Burr Conspiracy?

A. A, B, C, D

B. B, C, A, D

C. C, A, D, B

D. A, D, C, B

E. C, B, D, A
17. The battle between the Chesapeake and the Leopard

  1. was perhaps initiated by the French

  2. was initiated by the Americans

  3. prompted President Jefferson to propose an embargo on nearly all goods

  4. was followed by an apology from the British

  5. was followed by a threat to intervene by Germany in the War of 1812

18. The Rush-Bagot Treaty

  1. provided for America to purchase Florida from Spain

  2. was perhaps, the first disarmament treaty in the world

  3. determined the boundary line between Canada and Maine

  4. ended the War of 1812

  5. helped Italy to avoid war with France

19. The British and the Americans agreed to a ten-year joint occupation of the Oregon country through

  1. Adams-Onis Treaty

  2. Treaty of Ghent

  3. Rush-Bagot Agreement

  4. Treaty of Paris 1819

  5. Convention of 1818

20. According to the Constitution, for an individual to convicted of treason,

  1. the charge must be established by two or more witnesses to the same overt act

  2. the defendant must confess before the Congress

  3. the defendant must be tried in the presence of the Supreme Court

  4. the defendant must be impeached by Congress

  5. the charge has to agreed upon by two or more states and indicted by the federal government

21. The basic long-range causes of war include ALL EXCEPT which of the following?

  1. nationalism

  2. imperialism

  3. liberalism

  4. militarism

  5. fanaticism

22. In the election of 1810, the country turned to a new generation of leaders that would lead the country for the next forty years. They included ALL EXCEPT:

  1. Henry Clay

  2. Alexander Hamilton

  3. Daniel Webster

  4. John C. Calhoun

  5. Andrew Jackson

23. The success of the Monroe Doctrine was almost dependent upon

  1. the active popularity of President Monroe

  2. the active support of Spain

  3. the active support of England

  4. the approval of the American people through public opinion polls

  5. the approval of all three branches of the American government: Congress, Presidency, & the Supreme Court

24. The Missouri Compromise involved the issue of

  1. war with the Indians

  2. border dispute with Spain

  3. the tariff

  4. slavery

  5. nullification

25. The Monroe Doctrine was issued in response to

  1. the threat of war with England

  2. the threat of war with Austria

  3. the purchase of Florida

  4. the invention of the cotton gin

  5. threat of Quadruple Alliance to reestablish Spanish Power

26. The battle of New Orleans

  1. destroyed the Creeks Indian tribe

  2. forced the British to sue for peace with the US

  3. cause the British to evacuate Washington

  4. led to a surge in American nationalism

  5. led to the development of sectionalism in America

27. Although the Monroe Doctrine carries President Monroe’s name, it was most likely the work of

  1. George Canning

  2. Henry Clay

  3. John C. Calhoun

  4. James Madison

  5. John Quincy Adams

28. “King Cotton” plantations in the Antebellum South

  1. involved in low concentrations of slave labor

  2. were relatively profitable compared to northern industry

  3. were more profitable than sugar or tobacco plantations

  4. seldom used female slave labor

  5. experienced widespread shifting of slaves to breakup families and gangs

29. Slave diets in the South contained all EXCEPT:

  1. peanuts

  2. soybeans

  3. vegetables

  4. fruits

  5. meat-especially pork, chicken & catfish!

30. Actual violence by masters against slaves in the South was

  1. extremely rare

  2. often held in check because the high cost of slaves

  3. seldom a part of plantation discipline

  4. frequently an issue in Southern port cities

  5. a daily routine for most slaves

31. Slaves who ran away from their masters were usually

  1. unattached young men

  2. heads of households

  3. field hands in the lower South

  4. women who were house servants

  5. pregnant women who sought to be in the North when a baby was born

32. Gabriel Prosser (1800), Denmark Vesey (1800), and Nat Turner (1831)

  1. wrote slave autobiographies

  2. became abolitionists after running away along the Underground railroad

  3. planned violent slave revolts

  4. helped return runaways to their masters

  5. came from the border states along the Ohio River

33. Slave revolts were usually led by

  1. skilled literate slaves and free blacks

  2. field hands

  3. southern whites who were opposed to slavery

  4. female slaves with families

  5. blacks who immigrated from Europe

34. Early turnpikes were financed mostly by

  1. federal taxes

  2. state and local revenues

  3. private investors

  4. import duties on manufactured items

  5. usage fees

35. Early 19th century transportation featured ALL EXCEPT:

  1. sailing vessels

  2. Conestoga wagons

  3. river boats

  4. horse back

  5. railroads

36. The most successful canal building projects were in

  1. New York

  2. Pennsylvania

  3. Virginia

  4. Ohio

  5. Massachusetts

37. The majority opinion in Dartmouth College vs Woodward, (1819)

  1. strengthened the sanctity of private contracts

  2. upheld the results of the election of 1816

  3. dealt with the issue of implied powers clause

  4. undermined the powers of the president as commander in chief

  5. dealt with Indian removal issues

38. Which state was NOT formed from the territory of the Louisiana Purchase

  1. Montana

  2. Missouri

  3. Iowa

  4. Arkansas

  5. Arizona

39. All of the following are true statements about Frederick Douglass EXCEPT that he

  1. had once been a skilled craftsman

  2. was an abolitionist speaker

  3. escaped from slavery

  4. was executed for leading a slave revolt

  5. was a slave who availed himself of education

40. The central figure in the passage of the Missouri Compromise was

  1. John C. Calhoun

  2. Abraham Lincoln

  3. Daniel Webster

  4. Andrew Jackson

  5. Henry Clay

41. The Adams-Onis Treaty ceded to the United States the territory of

  1. the Gila Peninsula

  2. much of the Pacific Northwest

  3. Louisiana

  4. Texas

  5. Florida

42. The revival of the two-party system in the election of 1828 was the result of all EXCEPT:

  1. the results of the election of 1824

  2. the attractiveness of Andrew Jackson

  3. the gradual removal of suffrage restrictions

  4. the emphasis on issues rather than people

  5. the appeal to grant universal manhood suffrage

43. Which of the following major cases, treaties, or laws did NOT deal with Indian affairs and rights?

  1. the treaty of Holston

  2. Cherokee Nation vs Georgia

  3. Worcester vs Georgia

  4. doctrine of nullification

  5. Trail of Tears

44. The practice by Andrew Jackson and others of rewarding political supporters with jobs was

  1. ruled unconstitutional

  2. known as “pork-barreling”

  3. called the “spoils system”

  4. known as the “caucus system”

  5. created the political party convention system

45. The nullification crisis occurred over

  1. the national bank

  2. the developments in foreign policy such as the Monroe Doctrine

  3. the Specie Circular

  4. Indian removal

  5. the tariff

46. The man who was one of Andrew Jackson’s early supporters and helped him win the New York vote in the election of 1828 was

  1. Henry Clay

  2. Martin Van Buren

  3. John C. Calhoun

  4. Daniel Webster

  5. James K. Polk

47. A declaration by individual state that an act of Congress is not allowable is known as

  1. impeachment

  2. federalism

  3. treason

  4. nullification

  5. secession

48. The Missouri Compromise provided for

  1. an end to the Bank of the US

  2. an increase in the tariff rates

  3. the abolition of federal support for canal building

  4. the future of free public education

  5. the future of slavery in the territories

49. Samuel Slater

  1. introduced to the cotton gin to southerners

  2. built the factory system in the north for textiles

  3. led a movement to oppose the building of factories

  4. was an important anti-slavery advocate

  5. was an immigrant labor union organizer

50. Lowell, Massachusetts in the 1830’s and 1840’s

  1. became the center of anti-slavery movement

  2. was the model for many company towns

  3. was the home of organized labor unions

  4. was the terminus for the Erie Canal

  5. became the center of the women’s rights movement

51. The “Cult of Domesticity” most accurately describes

  1. the lifestyles of factory women

  2. the responsibilities of farm wives

  3. the ideal of upper class, nonworking women

  4. the religious convictions of families in factory towns

  5. the role of Indian women on the frontier

52. The two largest groups of immigrants in the period 1820-1850 were

  1. Chinese and Japanese

  2. Scandinavians and Russian

  3. German and Irish

  4. Italian and French

  5. English and Polish

53. For middle class Americans, after 1840, which of the following is TRUE

  1. the birth rate declined

  2. the birth rate increased

  3. the infant mortality rate took a sharp increase

  4. the life expectancy of an adult male declined

  5. males married younger than females

54. National government funding came primarily from

  1. tariff taxes

  2. federal income taxes

  3. state and local revenues

  4. private investments

  5. voluntary contributions

55. Which of the following was NOT a major development in transportation before 1836?

  1. Railroads

  2. Steam engines

  3. Sailing caravels

  4. Canals

  5. Building of national roads

56. All of the following statements are true of Frederick Douglass EXCEPT:

  1. had once been a skilled craftsman

  2. was an abolitionist speaker

  3. escaped from slavery

  4. was executed for leading a slave rebellion

  5. was a major Black leader in Antebellum America

57. The majority opinion in the Supreme Court case Gibbons vs Ogden had the effect of

  1. dramatically extending the power of the Supreme Court

  2. weakened the Supreme Court thereafter

  3. strengthened the presidential veto power

  4. confirmed Congressional authority over interstate commerce

  5. denied state control over voting rights for northern Blacks

58. New England factories were initially located in the countryside because

  1. farm daughters were needed to do the work

  2. machinery was powered by water sources

  3. cities wanted to keep out the pollution from their boundaries

  4. food to feed the workers was cheap and easily accessible

  5. there was canal access to get the product to markets easily

59. The American system of manufacturing depended heavily upon

  1. female workers

  2. government subsidies

  3. interchangeable parts

  4. electricity

  5. catholic immigrants from Italy

60. The market revolution did all of the following EXCEPT:

  1. elevate the status of the workers

  2. increase the need for more technological inventions

  3. stimulate materialism

  4. lead to a redefinition of equality

  5. produce a greater per capita wealth in American society

61. The fur trade of the Great West

  1. depended entirely upon men who were socially maladjusted loners

  2. was an individualistic enterprise

  3. depended upon the Indian for labor

  4. dominated by the Mexican government

  5. was dominated by very large corporations

62. The Missouri Compromise

  1. was the work of James Tallmadge

  2. was inspired by Spain seeking to protect the territory of Mexico

  3. enacted the 36’30 line in the Louisiana Purchase

  4. was imposed on the South by the more populous North

  5. gave the North a majority of states in the Union

63. Calhoun’s theory of nullification

  1. advanced the ideas of John Locke

  2. advanced the idea of a perpetual union

  3. was never put into operation because the southern states opposed it

  4. argued that the Union was a compact of sovereign states

  5. upheld the right the Supreme Court to interpret the Constitution

64. In his debate with Robert Y. Hayne, Webster

  1. argued the Supreme Court had the final authority to interpret the meaning of the Constitution

  2. opposed the Force Bill

  3. endorsed the theory of nullification

  4. put forward for the very first time in American history the doctrine of secession

  5. denounced Jackson’s proclamation on nullification

65. Which of the following major leaders of Congress was the author of The South Carolina Exposition and Protest?

  1. Henry Clay

  2. Martin Van Buren

  3. Daniel Webster

  4. Robert Y. Hayne

  5. John C. Calhoun

66. Specie Circular supported by Andrew Jackson

  1. required that federal deposits be removed from the national bank

  2. required payment for public lands in gold and silver or otherwise--hard money

  3. declared only gold and silver were legal money

  4. raised the minimum specie deposits for banks

  5. advocated the idea of manifest destiny

67. The Independent Treasury Act

  1. deposited federal funds in selected state banks

  2. expanded credit by authorizing low-interest federal loan during depression

  3. was vetoed by the president as unconstitutional

  4. was the brain child of John Q. Adams to bring about a compromise on money issues

  5. sought to divorce banking from government

68. The Charles River Bridge Case the Supreme Court

  1. encouraged free enterprise by striking down a monopoly

  2. reversed the Marshall court to centralize constitutional interpretation of the laws

  3. upheld the constitutionality of the Independent Treasury

  4. struck down the theory of nullification

  5. declared Indian removal as unconstitutional and restored their lands to the tribes

69. Evangelism

  1. was pessimistic about human nature

  2. was reasserted by traditional Calvinism

  3. stressed the need for a conversion experience

  4. led to a decline in church membership

  5. appealed primarily to the poor

70. The new emerging American middle-class family

  1. was more prosperous because of dual incomes of husband and wife

  2. was larger because of increased prosperity

  3. made sacrifices to educate their daughters so they could care for themselves

  4. was smaller and based upon the idea of privacy

  5. was smaller because of religious teachings of abstinence

71. Romanticism influence all of the following EXCEPT:

  1. American literature

  2. European & American music

  3. considered as an emotional source of truth

  4. art in the western world

  5. American religious develops

72. Transcendentalism

  1. appealed to a small group of intellectuals around Boston

  2. was the basis of the revivals of the Second Great Awakening

  3. was based upon the ideas of Charles Grandison Finney

  4. rejected individualism in favor of conformity

  5. was the spark of divine revelation in mid-nineteenth century religion

73. Utopian socialist movements included all EXCEPT:

  1. Shakers

  2. Oneida Community

  3. New Harmony

  4. Forreirian Phlanges

  5. Abolitionists

74. The abolitionist movement

  1. condemned slavery but refused to endorse racial equality

  2. coupled a condemnation of slavery with support for colonization movement

  3. devised a program for gradual, compensated emancipation

  4. insisted that slavery was foremost a question of moral evil

  5. condemned slaver because it hurt whites

75. Seneca Falls, New York was the site of

  1. John Humphrey Noyes’ utopian community

  2. Charles G. Finney’s greatest revival

  3. the first major women’s rights convention

  4. Prudence Crandalls school for black girls

  5. Joseph Smith’s founding of the Mormons

76. The American Colonization Society advocated

  1. migration of African-American to northern cities

  2. an immediate and uncompensated end to slavery

  3. racial equality

  4. settlement of Irish immigrants to America

  5. the return of ex-slaves to Africa

77. The famous gag rule prevented

  1. the House of Representatives from discussing slavery

  2. western states from abolishing slavery

  3. discussion of “Manifest Destiny” in the west

  4. southerners from sending pro-slavery literature through the US mail

  5. abolitionists speaking publicly against slavery

78. “I have long viewed treaties with the Indians an absurdity not to be reconciled to the principles of our Government.” This quotation was the view of...

  1. John Quincy Adams

  2. James Monroe

  3. John Marshall

  4. Abraham Lincoln

  5. Andrew Jackson

79. In the famous Webster-Hayne debate, Daniel Webster and Robert Y. Hayne were actually arguing about doctrine of nullification

  1. slavery

  2. manifest destiny

  3. industrialism vs agrarian democracy

  4. the Maysville road veto

80. In the infamous Peggy Eaton Affair, Andrew Jackson

  1. made a permanent enemy of John C. Calhoun

  2. made a life-long ally of Henry Clay

  3. managed to offend Martin Van Buren

  4. took the side of Mrs. Calhoun in this famous social quarrel

  5. demonstrated unusual restraint and tact.

81. Among the reasons for the westward movement were the following EXCEPT:

  1. the search for individual freedom

  2. an escape from religious persecution

  3. wanderlust

  4. fear of the Indians

  5. the promise of economic opportunity

82. Mormonism challenged all of the following values in American society EXCEPT:

  1. popular sovereignty

  2. private property

  3. individualism

  4. religious revivalism

  5. the work ethic

83. The major difference in ethnicity, religion, and settlement patterns of California

  1. was founded by Spain, was Catholic, and settled very early in the 18th century

  2. they were completely successful in Christianizing the Indians

  3. the area was dominated by Protestant settlers from northern Europe

  4. was attractive to Angelos before 1820 and the Missouri Compromise

  5. the Indian cultures dominated the region even after settlement

84. John Sutter was

  1. a mountain man and fur trader

  2. a gold miner and a timber supplier

  3. a religious fanatic who sought to drive Catholicism from the state

  4. a leader of an Anglo-American who sought to revolt against the Spanish ruling class

  5. a Mormon leader who sought to have Brigham Young settle in California

85. The earliest and most enthusiastic proponents of Manifest Destiny were

  1. investment bankers

  2. eastern politicians

  3. northeast industrialist

  4. southern proslavery advocates

  5. Protestant missionary groups

86. America’s first billion-dollar industry was

  1. textile manufacturing

  2. machine tools

  3. tobacco production

  4. cotton ginning

  5. railroads

87. Most slave masters viewed slavery as

  1. a profitable enterprise even though immoral

  2. unprofitable but moral

  3. an economic necessity and moral

  4. both unprofitable and immoral

  5. highly racist and expletive

88. The proslavery argument appealed to all of the following sources for authority EXCEPT:

  1. ancient religious practice

  2. the Bible

  3. romantic literature

  4. large slave owners

  5. capitalistic writings of Adam Smith

89. Manifest Destiny was based upon all of the following ideas EXCEPT:

  1. Anglo-Saxon racial superiority

  2. new lands would extend the domain of free government and free enterprise

  3. conquest of new territory would prove American military superiority

  4. America had specially divine ordained mission in the world

  5. provided for the coming of the trains-continental railroad

90. Utopian socialist movements included ALL EXCEPT:

  1. Oneida Community of John Humphrey Noyes

  2. Shakers

  3. Brook Farm

  4. Anglicans

  5. Phalanxes

91. The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo did NOT provide for

  1. American purchase of California from Mexico

  2. American purchase of Texas from Mexico

  3. extension of the Missouri Compromise line to the pacific

  4. legal sanction for popular sovereignty doctrine

  5. the end of the conflict with Mexico

92. The doctrine of popular sovereignty was closely associated with

  1. Brigham Young

  2. Jedediah Smith

  3. Daniel Webster

  4. David Wilmot

  5. Stephen A. Douglas

93. The aging nationalist Henry Clay proposed the Compromise of 1850 which provided for all EXCEPT:

  1. admission of California as a free state

  2. admission of Texas as a slave state

  3. abolition of slave trade in District of Columbia

  4. provide popular sovereignty to prevail in Utah and New Mexico

  5. provide for an effective fugitive slave law

94. A primary advocate and original voice of the term “manifest destiny” was

  1. Andrew Jackson

  2. James K. Polk

  3. John L. O’Sullivan

  4. Henry Clay

  5. John C. Calhoun

95. The Wilmot Proviso

  1. prohibited slavery from any territory acquired from Mexico

  2. condemned Polk for starting the Mexican War

  3. issued an extermination order on the Mormons

  4. voted supplies for American troops but opposed acquiring any territory

  5. was a blatant racist declaration of Abraham Lincoln

96. Radical abolitionists held

  1. a confident faith in the workings of the American political process

  2. to the view that the corruption of American society placed it beyond redemption

  3. a strong belief in a “higher law” than that of Congress or the Constitution

  4. a generally pessimistic view of human nature

  5. a consensus of abolitionists all future immigration from Europe

97. Before the Civil War the South’s slave labor force

  1. was a self reproducing population

  2. was generally unprofitable to the planter class

  3. was an inflexible labor system

  4. was employed exclusively in the cultivation of cotton

  5. was shifted to the production of Tabasco

98. The Know-Nothing party of the 1850s clearly appealed to

  1. agrarian interests

  2. western free-soilers

  3. anti-immigrant sentiments

  4. pro-slavery advocates

  5. anti-industrial environmentalists

99. The first American novel to include blacks as central characters was

  1. Walden

  2. The Scarlet Letter

  3. The Last of the Mohicans

  4. Moby Dick

  5. Uncle Tom’s Cabin

100. Most of the overland routes to the Trans-Mississippi West in the period 1830-1850 actually originated in Kansas on the lower

  1. Mississippi River

  2. Arkansas River

  3. Platte River

  4. Rio Grande River

  5. Ohio River

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