Lecture Notes From Summer Institutes

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American Revolution, Constitution & Federalist Era

DIRECTIONS: Read each question carefully, fully and analytically. Then choose ONE response to mark as your answer.
1. Which of the following events is considered by historians to be the morning star of the American Revolution?

  1. The Trial of John Peter Zenger

  2. Shay’s Rebellion

  3. Boston Massacre

  4. Nat Turner’s Revolt

  5. Assassination of Alexander Hamilton

2. The primary economic pursuit and interest of the early settlers in New France was

  1. farming

  2. fishing

  3. mining

  4. commerce

  5. fur trapping

3. The soldier, explorer, and colonist whose leadership earned him the title of “Father of New France” was…

A. Baron Marquette

B. Robert de La Salle

C. Samuel de Champlain

D. Father Jolliet

E. Francisco Pizzaro
4. Government in New France (Canada) was

A. almost completely autocratic

B. democratic

C. similar to that the English Colonies

D. noted for its “trial by jury” practice

E. control by the Catholic Church

5. The French wanted to control Louisiana because they

A. liked its climate

B. wanted the rich and productive land for farming

C. wanted to keep the area unfortifieD.

D. would then control the mouth of the Mississippi

E. feared the Dutch would expand into the territory

6. Which event occurred in the United States during the critical period (1781-1789)?

A. Whiskey Rebellion

B. Shay’s Rebellion

C. The Stono Rebellion

D. Hartford Convention

E. Meeting of the 2nd Continental Congress

7. Which of the following colonial powers exercised the least amount of control over the commercial and political practices in the colonies?

A. Portugal

B. Holland

C. Great Britain

D. France

E. Spain

8. George Washington once said, “There are combustibles in every state which a spark might set afire.” What event in American History was he describing or referring to...

A. election of 1796

B. Stamp Act

C. Shay’s Rebellion

D. Nat Turner’s Revolt

E. Whiskey Rebellion

9. As a result of the Albany Congress 1754,

A. the Iroquois Confederacy entered into an alliance with the English

B. an intercolonial legislature was created

C. England angrily reacted to colonial claims by imposing harsh economic restrictions on the colonies

D. the colonies were granted limited tax power thereafter

E. an enduring symbol of union was established

10. The English Prime Minister whose policies brought success in the Seven Years’ War was

A. Lord North

B. Edmund Burke

C. George Grenville

D. William Pitt

E. Robert Walpole

11. The British theory that Parliament represented all subjects within the British Empire was called...

A. direct representation

B. virtual representation

C. proportional representation

D. equal representation

E. ethnic representation

12. Blacks, lower-class whites, and women were brought into the vortex of imperial politics during the protests over

A. Stamp Act

B. Sugar Act

C. Townshend Acts

D. Coercive Acts

E. Quebec Act

13. John Dickinson’s Letters from a Farmer in Pennsylvania,

A. avoided the question of colonial consent to parliamentary legislation

B. rejected Parliament’s right to regulate imperial trade

C. objected to internal but not to external taxes

D. objected to external but not to internal taxes

E. dealt with the issues of future western settlement

14. Among the Indian tribes, who supported the patriots at the beginning of the Revolution?

A. Algonkin

B. Cherokees

C. Narragansetts

D. Mohawks

E. Oniedas

15. The Treaty of Paris (1763) gave Britain title to

A. all French claims west of the Mississippi, and Spanish Florida

B. all French claims east of the Mississippi, and Spanish Florida

C. all French claims in the Pacific Northwest, New Orleans, and Sugar Islands

D. all Spanish and Dutch claims in North America

E. all French claims in North America

16. Who organized a combined uprising of the Western tribes in the aftermath of the French defeat?

A. the French fur traders

B. the Iroquois Indians

C. Pontiac

D. Chief Red Cloud

E. Geronimo
17. What was the basic British policy after 1763?

A. to defeat the French

B. to centralize their empire

C. to deprive Americans of their liberties

D. to conspire to seize political power and influence

E. to withdraw from the western hemisphere

18. The Sons of Liberty drew their members from the ranks of…

A. traders, lawyers, and prosperous artisans

B. the men who upheld the authority of Parliament to tax the colonies

C. the poorest people in American seaports

D. any male descendent of a delegate to the First Continental Congress
19. In Common Sense, Thomas Paine argues all EXCEPT:

A. Parliament had deliberately and wickedly brought about the America’s misfortunes

B. Britain had dealt with the colonies out of self-interest rather than affection

C. monarchy was a foolish and dangerous form of 18th century government

D. nature had destined America for independence

E. George III was the author of America’s misfortunes

20. In contrast to women in New England, southern white women…

A. were relatively few in number

B. tended to marry at an early age

C. were more likely to remain unmarried

D. were held in lower esteem than northern women

E. were allowed to serve in political positions of influence

  1. The major interest of France in the conflict between Britain and the America revolutionaries was to…

  1. gain trading concessions from the Americans

  2. regain territory lost in the French and Indian War

  3. support the ideals of the Declaration of Independence

  4. keep England weakened by a protracted war

  5. maintain an alliance with Holland against the Spanish

  1. The victory at Saratoga was important because it…

  1. brought France into the war as formal American ally and partner

  2. opened the port of Boston

  3. led to an estrangement between British troops and their native American allies

  4. brought George Washington to national political prominence

  5. was a devastating defeat for the Americans at the hands of Canada.

  1. The Northwest Ordinance of 1787…

  1. was an idealistic but impractical plan for settling the areas north of the Ohio frontier.

  2. had not lasting significance

  3. established the process by which new states could enter the union

  4. promised the Iroquois rights to their traditional hunting grounds.

  5. provided for women’s rights

  1. The Revolution brought some improvement in the status of women in the form of…

  1. universal suffrage

  2. “Republican motherhood”

  3. enhanced legal rights in the individual states

  4. the right to sue in the Courts

  5. the economic dole

  1. Trapped between the French Navy and the American troops at Yorktown, Lord Cornwallis chose to…

  1. retreat South to the Carolina’s

  2. fight to the last man standing

  3. surrender his troops in order to save lives

  4. swim to safety

  5. dig in until the war was over

  1. The precedent-setting policy for the handling of public lands was contained in the…

  1. Treaty of 1781

  2. Constitution

  3. Alien and Sedition Acts

  4. Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions

  5. Land Ordinance of 1785

  1. The Constitution of 1787 gave Congress all of the following powers EXCEPT:

  1. right to review constitutionality of immigration laws

  2. taxation

  3. the right to coin money

  4. the power to regulate commerce

  5. the power to raise & support armies & navies

  1. The following were plans submitted to the Founding Fathers in Philadelphia EXCEPT:

  1. Virginia Plan, also known as the Randolph Plan

  2. New Jersey Plan, authored by Wm., Patterson

  3. Pennsylvania Plan of Benjamin Franklin

  4. South Carolina Plan of Charles Pinckney

  5. New York Plan of Alexander Hamilton

29. During the French and Indian War…

  1. colonial troops strove to emulate the professionalism of the British regulars

  2. British officers praised colonial troops for their courage under fire

  3. colonial troops adapted well to the British system of military discipline

  4. deep-seated difference in respect to military discipline emerged between the British officers and the colonial troops

  5. Indians played a major role in disrupting the British military

30. To pay for its share of the cost of the French and Indian War, the Virginia House of Burgesses:

  1. increased taxes on tobacco

  2. resorted to deficit financing, printing paper currency

  3. sold lands to British speculators

  4. increased the taxes of yeomen farmers

  5. instituted the income tax.

  1. Which of the following statements best characterizes the British governments attempts to meet the war debts?

  1. Parliament raised the tax on land

  2. Parliament raised the tax on cotton, rice, and tobacco

  3. Parliament decreased the import duties on sugar and tobacco to encourage a greater volume of sales and thus to increase revenues

  4. The government increased excise tax levies on salt, beer, and distilled spirits.

  5. Britain followed the policy of salutary neglect

  1. Many New England traders, such as John Hancock, protested the Sugar Act because they:

  1. had made money by importing French molasses without paying duty

  2. believed it gave Pennsylvania merchants an unfair advantage

  3. believed it gave Georgians a reason to oppose British trade monopoly

  4. believed it gave New York merchants an unfair advantage

  5. believed the tax on French molasses was too low to make British molasses profitable.

  1. In contrast to women in New England, southern white women…

  1. were relatively few in number

  2. tended to marry at an older age

  3. were more likely to remain unmarried

  4. were held in lower esteem

  5. tended to be indifferent to social elements of concern

  1. The influence and power of colonial assemblies in the eighteenth century derived mostly from

  1. the support and cooperation of the British Parliament

  2. their increasing control over taxation and spending

  3. their ability to create government jobs for their supporter

  4. their threats to secede from the empire

  5. their influence upon fishing and commerce

  1. The English statesman who presided over the impressive British effort to defeat the French in the “Great War for Empire” was

  1. Oliver Cromwell

  2. James Montcalm

  3. James Wolfe

  4. George Washington

  5. William Pitt

  1. Grenville’s policy relating directly to the original thirteen North American colonies included all of the following EXCEPT:

  1. to find more efficient sources of revenue

  2. to regulate colonial export trade more carefully

  3. to control the internal commerce of the colonies more stringently

  4. to allow the local assemblies more freedom to control local affairs

  5. to have colonials pay more of England’s cost of empire

  1. A colonial patriot whose smuggling career meant that he served his own self-interest as well as principle when he opposed British customs policy was

  1. Thomas Hutchinson

  2. John Adams

  3. John Hancock

  4. Joseph Galloway

  5. Benjamin Franklin

  1. Edmund Burke is a good example of a member of the English Parliament who

  1. sympathized with the colonial protest movement

  2. supported tougher policies on the colonies

  3. advocated war with the colonies at a very early date

  4. suggest to George III that he should reject the idea of giving the colonists representation in Parliament

  5. called for a slave uprising in the colonies

  1. “On December 16, 1773, some sixty men, thinly disguised as Mohawk Indians boarded…ships.” This quotation describe the event known as the

  1. Declaratory Act

  2. Boston Massacre

  3. Boston Tea Party

  4. Battle of Lexington

  5. Battle of Ticonderoga

  1. Joseph Galloway’s Plan of Union

  1. represented the moderate elements at the Continental Congress

  2. called for colonial independence

  3. was supported by the Sons of Liberty

  4. alienated most delegates to the Continental Congress with its uncompromising rhetoric.

  5. pled for annexation to France

  1. The language of the Olive Branch Petition is clear evidence that

  1. very late in the conflict, many colonist still wanted a peaceful restitution of the empire

  2. Sam Adams and other radicals had given up on violence as a resistance tactic

  3. the Second continental Congress wanted complete independence, but without war.

  4. King George III had peaceful intentions

  5. was written by Alexander Hamilton

  1. The Great Awakening

  1. featured a battle between conservative and liberal theology

  2. undermined Calvinism

  3. permanently check liberal theological doctrines

  4. had but slight impact

  5. was only felt in the South

  1. Colonial legislatures often dominated royal governors by

  1. threatening armed rebellion

  2. using the militia

  3. withholding the governor’s salary

  4. appealing to London

  5. making alliances with the Iroquois Indians

  1. The most serious American weakness in the Revolutionary War was

  1. currency deflation

  2. the absence of foreign aid

  3. sectional jealousy

  4. sagacity of manpower of military age

  5. debt owed to Spain

  1. During the Revolution, slaves

  1. massacred their masters

  2. remained passive

  3. became British subjects

  4. fought creditably for America

  5. were used only by the British

  1. Lawyers and other Americans used common-law arguments mainly to:

  1. justify violent resistance to the Stamp Act

  2. call for the overthrow of King George III

  3. justify smuggling in violation of the Navigation Acts

  4. assert that parliamentary statutes could not abridge the colonists essential rights as British subjects

  5. draft the Articles of Confederation

  1. From the rationalist philosophies of the Enlightenment, American rebels derived

  1. the belief that individuals had certain “natural rights”

  2. the doctrine of a “just war”

  3. the idea that civil rights were natural rights

  4. the idea that violence, being irrational, is not natural

  5. the idea from French soldieries who inspired them Revolution

  1. By early 1766, Parliament responded to the protests in the colonies by:

  1. urging withdrawal of troops from the American seaport cities

  2. formulating a plan for the election of colonial members of Parliament

  3. expelling colonial diplomats from London

  4. demanding that the Americans submit to Parliament

  5. abandoning North American claims in the new world

49. The new ministry of Lord North arranged a compromise in early 1770 by:

  1. repealing all of the Townshend duties but leaving rest in North American ports

  2. repealing all of the Townshend duties but troops in Boston only

  3. repealing the Townshend duties except for the tax on tea

  4. removing all troops from North American seaports and cutting the Townshend duties in half

  1. Lord North’s ministry reacted to the resolves of the First Continental Congress by:

  1. adopting William Pitt’s policy of conciliating the colonies by recognizing the Congress in exchange for acknowledgment of Parliament’s supremacy

  2. ordering a blockade of the ports of Boston and New York

  3. sending commissioners to North America to negotiate a settlement

  4. devising a bilateral policy with the Dutch to takeover English shipping

  5. directing the military to suppress dissent in Massachusetts

  1. During the war, among the most demoralizing blow to Washington’s personal morale came when

  1. American forces lost the Battle of Cowpens

  2. General Benedict Arnold defected to the British

  3. the French commander Rochambeau insisted on a joint offensive in Virginia

  4. the Continental dollar became worthless.

  5. the failure of George Rogers Clark in the western part of Ohio

  1. The American revolution generation proved most universally sensitive to individual rights issues concerning

  1. private property

  2. free speech

  3. slavery

  4. voting

  5. public education

  1. The concept of “republican motherhood” included all of the following EXCEPT:

  1. voting

  2. political education of the young

  3. participation in civic activities

  4. protectors of virtue

  5. protection of social and moral values

  1. “In every human breast God had implanted a principle, which we call love of freedom; it is impatient of Oppress, and pants for Deliverance…” These eloquent lines urging the emancipation of the slaves during the revolution were authored by

  1. Patrick Henry

  2. Philips Whitely

  3. Mercy Otis Warren

  4. Abigail Adams

  5. Martha Jefferson

  1. The eighteenth-century Adam Smith, altered the view of the ideal republican citizen by applauding

  1. a simple patriotic lifestyle

  2. the public good over personal gain

  3. economic self-interest

  4. intellectual pursuits over profit making

  5. advocating industrialism

  1. The Articles of Confederation denied the national government the power to regulate commerce and the power to

  1. pass laws

  2. tax

  3. conduct foreign affairs

  4. make war

  5. adjudicate conflicts in the laws within the states

  1. The Northwest Ordinances of 1785 and 1787 had the effect of

  1. extending the size of the original thirteen colonies

  2. weakening the national government’s authority

  3. pushing the last vestiges of British authority from the Northwest

  4. developing commerce with the Dutch

  5. developing procedure for creating new states.

  1. One of the outcomes of Shays’ Rebellion was that it helped convince many elates that

  1. another revolution was desirable

  2. a stronger and more stable national government was necessary

  3. personal wealth should be limited

  4. a more egalitarian society was a more orderly society.

  5. slavery was a poor solution to the nation’s economic woes

  1. Among those prominent Americans missing from the Philadelphia Convention of 1787 was

  1. Roger Sherman

  2. Alexander Hamilton

  3. George Washington

  4. Benjamin Franklin

  5. Thomas Jefferson

  1. The Philadelphia Convention was specifically called to

  1. draft a new constitution

  2. develop a Bill of Rights for citizen’s

  3. control of interstate commerce

  4. regulate the judicial system in the colonies

  5. revise the Articles of Confederation

  1. The American Revolution

  1. caused a revolutionary change in the entire social structure

  2. brought about no significant economic changes

  3. guaranteed equality for the new states

  4. was accelerated evolution

  5. brought about a complete political overturn

  1. The Federalists Papers were published to

  1. propagandize for the Constitution in New York

  2. defended the Articles of Confederation

  3. attacked the English colonial political system

  4. propagandized for a new federalist convention

  5. promoted the anti-Federalist Party

  1. The 55 delegates to the Constitutional Convention of 1787 personally represented:

  1. the debtor elements of society

  2. the yeomen farmers

  3. the conservative propertied class

  4. the radical elements

  5. the urban class rather than the rural again class

  1. The author of the radical pamphlet , Common Sense,

  1. agitated for independence and republicanism

  2. was the work of Ben Franklin writing under a psydonumym

  3. urged patriots to carry out the revolution of the common people

  4. restore harmony to the British colonies

  5. appealed to France to abandon its claims to Canada

  1. To finance the War, the American Congress took action to

  1. issue paper money

  2. levy taxes on colonial population

  3. rely on the money from France and Holland

  4. borrow money from wealthy American merchants and planters

  5. sell western lands

  1. In civilian life during the Revolution and Confederation

  1. most artisans submitted to government regulation of prices

  2. most merchants accepted the “notion” of the just price

  3. most farmers grumbled at laws of regulation

  4. self-interest tended to triumph over republican virtue

  5. most urban dwellers bore the brunt of taxation

  1. Which of the following men did not recommend a bicameral legislature to the Philadelphia Convention?

  1. James Madison

  2. Alexander Hamilton

  3. William Patterson

  4. John Adams

  5. Charles Pi Pinckney

  1. The “Great Compromise” resolved the difference between the New Jersey and Virginia Plan principally throughout use of

  1. a bicameral legislature

  2. a constitutional monarchy

  3. a bill of rights

  4. virtual representation plan

  5. the incorporation of slavery in the southern economy

  1. The Federalist Papers are best described as

  1. political pamphlets

  2. editorials in praise of the Articles of Confederation

  3. pamphlets that suggested moderate compromise

  4. newspaper essays that associated the Constitution with economic prosperity

  5. a source of John Locke when he wrote the Second Treatise on Government

  1. Alexander Hamilton’s vision of a new America called for all of the following EXCEPT:

  1. transforming the new republic into a manufacturing power

  2. relying local and state authority to act in the national economic interest

  3. giving the new government authority to regulate and guide the economy

  4. forging a productive cooperative partnership with Great Britain

  5. establishment of a national bank

  1. Alelxander Hamilton’s famous economic plan that he hoped would strengthen the American economy included:

  1. lowering the tariff

  2. a free market economy

  3. a national bank

  4. the repudiation of the national debt

  5. revenue-tax sharing with the states on property taxes?

  1. Thomas Jefferson’s vision of the good society included all EXCEPT:

  1. an agrarian society

  2. a citizenry of virtuous independent farmers

  3. a national government with limited powers

  4. an economy that relied on the national government to provide subsidies

  5. a society of education, agriculture, and politics

  1. In his “Farewell Address” in 1796, George Washington warned his fellow citizens about the negative affects of

  1. an industrial economic policy

  2. a war with Great Britain

  3. internal riots and rebellions

  4. urbanization

  5. political parties

  1. Which of the following events did not occur during Washington’s Administration?

  1. French Revolution

  2. development of cotton economy

  3. emergence of political ideology & partisanship

  4. Alien and Sedition Acts

  5. development of Presidents cabinet

  1. Which of the following principles of political theory were NOT incorporated into the political philosophy of the Founding Fathers when they drafted the Constitution?

  1. checks and balances

  2. political parties

  3. separation of powers

  4. civilian control of the military

  5. equality before the law

  1. Which of the following concepts did Alexander Hamilton NOT APPROVE?

  1. loose interpretation of the Constitution

  2. funding the national debt

  3. pro-French diplomatic alliance

  4. tariff

  5. government protection of commerce power of the Constitution

78. A major purpose of Hamilton’s financial policy was to

  1. help out his friends

  2. encourage speculative inflation

  3. force the states to pay their war debts

  4. increase federal centralization of power

  5. develop an excise tax

  1. The first Cabinet was formed

  1. by request of Congress

  2. under specific Constitutional provision

  3. by evolution as a part of the unwritten Constitution

  4. under pressure from the states

  5. under pressure from the federal judiciary

  1. To restore faith in the credit of the federal government, Hamilton proposed

  1. to issue paper currency backed by gold and silver

  2. measures to reduce or prevent private speculation in public securities

  3. to redeem securities issued by the Confederation government with new notes paying 12 percent interest.

  4. that the national government assume the unpaid debts of the states

  5. that the government establish a national bank

  1. In response to Hamilton’s bill to establish the Bank of the United States:

  1. Washington agreed with Hamilton and singed the bill into law

  2. Jefferson relied on loose construction in declaring the bank unconstitutional

  3. Hamilton used a strict interpretation to argue for the national bank

  4. the Treasury Secretary questioned the morality of public bank

  5. Jefferson and Madison aggressively pushed into law over Washington’s veto

  1. Thomas Jefferson’s vision of the United States included:

  1. industrialized urban centers at the front of the Industrial Revolution

  2. expansion of the institution of slavery

  3. western territories populated by independent white yeoman farm families

  4. a rejection of scientific farming in favor of agricultural traditionalism

  5. education for all men a condition for equality

  1. What effect did the French Revolution and the war between France and England have on the American economy?

  1. a British naval blockade crippled trade

  2. the failure of wheat farmers to sell France led to depression

  3. Cotton exports exceeded those of tobacco in value

  4. Washington’s Proclamation of neutrality hindered American merchants

  5. American Indians were aided by American colonials

  1. In their protests against the Alien and Sedition Acts, Jefferson and Madison

  1. asked the Supreme Court to declare the laws unconstitutional

  2. called for the impeachment of President John Adams

  3. accused Adams of being a tool and a fool of the British

  4. asserted that states could refuse to enforce the federal law that exceeded the grant of Constitutional government.

  5. led a political sit-in in Washington D.C.

  1. In Federalist 10, Madison maintained that the constitutional government would:

  1. eliminate the need for political parties

  2. protect the rights of individual states against incursions by the central government

  3. prevent the President from assuming dictatorial decree powers

  4. bring focus and order to American foreign policy

  5. prevent any one faction from becoming dominant

  1. Jay’s Treaty

  1. officially ended the alliance with France

  2. removed restrictions on American trade with British colonies

  3. was rejected by the Senate because it gave up too much to Spain

  4. secured the evacuation of British Troops from the Northwest

  5. allowed Americans to immigrate to Oregon

  1. In the XYZ Affair

  1. England agreed to abandon the forts in the Northwest

  2. French officials demanded a bribe to open negotiations with US

  3. Adams broke with his party and sent a new peace commissioner to France

  4. the Cherokee Indians were defeated by the Spanish in Florida

  5. the United States agreed to end the Quasi-War with France

  1. In the mid 1790’s the Republicans drew support from all of the following groups EXCEPT;

  1. seaport mechanics and artisans

  2. subsistence farmers

  3. southern tobacco planters

  4. westerners in Tennessee & Kentucky

  5. northeastern merchants

  1. Most people who migrated from New England during the 1790’s

  1. moved in large family or church groups

  2. moved to western New York

  3. relocated in northeastern Ohio

  4. organized themselves into joint-stock companies to secure funding for the move.

  5. because of the social affects of the Salem Witch Trials.

  1. The Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions were a response to

  1. Whiskey Rebellion

  2. Shays Rebellion

  3. Stono Rebellion

  4. Alien and Sedition Acts

  5. Intolerable Acts

  1. In the preamble to the Constitution, the Founding Fathers laid down the fundamental objectives of the new government. They sought all EXCEPT which of the following:

  1. to promote the general welfare

  2. to provide for the common defense

  3. to provide for protect the right to bear arms

  4. to secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and our posterity

  5. to insure domestic tranquility

  1. The Twelfth Amendment provided for…

  1. barred partisan politics from the electoral college

  2. separated balloting for president and vice president

  3. undermined the implied powers clause

  4. gave Constitutional recognition to the presidential cabinet

  5. women to have equal rights with men

  1. Jefferson favored voting by

  1. informed masses

  2. all adult males

  3. property owners

  4. the upper classes

  5. by senators only

  1. The Founding Fathers were very careful in the allocations of power. They delegated powers in

  1. Section one to the Congress

  2. Article II to the President

  3. Article III to the Supreme Court

  4. Article I, Section 8, for the whole national government

  5. Tenth Amendment for both the states and the national government

  1. One of the first acts of Congress under the newly ratified Constitution was to protect civil liberties by

  1. giving the President extraordinary powers

  2. expand the powers of the Supreme Court

  3. enact a Bill of Rights

  4. making a standing army unconstitutional

  5. limit the freedom of speech

  1. Chief among the opponents of the ratification of the Constitution was…

  1. Samuel Adams

  2. Alexander Hamilton

  3. Henry Clay

  4. James Madison

  5. Patrick Henry

  1. Which of the following statements best describes the American conception of the republican ideal?

  1. to Americans, a republic was simply a state that had no monarch

  2. Individuals rights and liberties were Americans primary concern

  3. Local governments were subordinate to the state governments

  4. Each individual had rights and responsibilities in the collective state.

  5. Each of the thirteen states decided this separately

  1. By 1800 in the Chesapeake region

  1. most planters argued that slavery was a necessary evil required to maintain white supremacy and their elaborate life styles

  2. most planters had freed their slaves through manumission

  3. most planters had freed only their female slaves

  4. freed blacks outnumbers slaves three to one

  5. slavery was too costly to continue

  1. During the Revolution it was customary from women to:

  1. maintain their traditional roles

  2. weave cloth for tailors to fashion clothing for the soldiers

  3. assume the responsibility for farm production

  4. look out for their own interests

  5. make slow but significant gains that took a century longer to achieve

  1. To whom does Thomas Jefferson owe his election in 1800?

  1. Henry Clay

  2. John Adams

  3. Alexander Hamilton

  4. James Madison

  5. Patrick Henry









































































































































































































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