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Learning Task


Ohio RFP Sample Dyad – Learning Task: Social Studies

Teacher Administration Section

Title: Ancient Greece and Rome

Grade: 7

Domain: History

Task Description:

Students use historical research skills and online tools such as an interactive historical map to draw conclusions about the enduring impact of the ancient Greek and Roman civilizations.



Task Objectives:

  • Students understand the importance of historical perspective in evaluating sources.

  • Students understand specific contributions of ancient Greek and Roman civilizations and the impact of these contributions on modern civilizations.

  • Students draw conclusions about human settlement and interaction based on a variety of sources, including maps.

Content Statements Addressed:

History CS 2:



The civilizations that developed in Greece and Rome had an enduring impact on later civilizations. This legacy includes governance and law, engineering and technology, art and architecture, as well as literature and history. The Roman Empire also played an instrumental role in the spread of Christianity.

History CS 1:



Historians and archaeologists describe historical events and issues from the

perspectives of people living at the time to avoid evaluating the past in terms of

today’s norms and values.

Geography CS 12:

Maps and other geographic representations can be used to trace the development of human settlement over time.

Cognitive Demand:

Students evaluate historical sources and draw conclusions based on evidence.



Expected Duration:

  • Session 1: 75 minutes

  • Session 2: 90 minutes

  • Session 3: 75 minutes

Materials List (Student):

  • access to the eMetric system

  • modern world maps (or online equivalent)

  • poster board and materials for creating a poster

Materials List (Teacher):

  • access to the eMetric system

  • modern world maps (or online equivalent)

  • poster board and materials for creating a poster

Key Points and/or Misconceptions:

  • History CS 2: Students may confuse the contributions of ancient Greece and Rome, and/or underestimate the influence of Greece on Rome. Students may not connect ancient achievements with modern life.



  • History CS 1: Students may not understand that history is interpreted, and that studying history requires critical evaluation of sources. Students may struggle to approach events, places, and innovations from the perspective of a person who was living during the period being studied.



  • Geography CS 12: Students may not understand the use of maps in explaining historical events. For example, students may not understand that maps can be used to show trade routes and transportation networks between regions as well as changing political boundaries.

II. 3. Other Resources

Instructional Practices:

Process suggestions for small group work and for conducting online research are included in the body of the teacher directions.



Accessibility / Universal Design:

Multiple Means of Representation

PRINT DISABILITY

HEARING IMPAIRMENT

Closed Captioning

Taped Textbooks

Video Technology

Audio Technology

Speech to Text Technology

Additional Time to Comprehend Content



Closed Captioning

Speech-to-Text Applications

Visual Symbols

Electronic Sign Language

Dictionaries


Multiple Means of Action and Expression

Pointing & Typing Aids

Alternative Keyboards

Touch Screens


Video

Voiceover

PowerPoint Presentations

Animations

Visual Art

Photographs

Storyboards


Multiple Means of Engagement

Provide Choices — Increase Engagement in Learning

Cooperative Learning Groups

Effective Goal Setting

Reflection

Self-Monitoring

Provide Models of Expected Products

Teacher Feedback
Recognizes Improvement

Encourage Effort and Persistence



Enduring Understandings:

Students will be able to identify aspects of modern daily life that have been shaped by ancient people. Students will be able to critically evaluate sources.



Teacher Directions:

Session One: Introduction to Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome (75 minutes)

Part A (25 minutes) [CS2, CS12]

Provide a brief overview of ancient Greece and ancient Rome. Key vocabulary terms are in bold.



Ancient Greece was a civilization that existed long ago, beginning around 800 BC. A 200-year period beginning around 500 BC is known as the era of classical Greece. The contributions of classical Greece in government, technology, art, architecture, philosophy, and literature had a great impact on the civilization of ancient Rome. These contributions shaped Western civilization and their influence is still seen in societies today.

Ancient Rome was a civilization that existed long ago, beginning around 800 BC. It reached its height or golden age between AD 100 and AD 200. Ancient Rome was greatly influenced by ancient Greece, and also developed many ideas that influence modern societies. Ancient Rome expanded to become one of the largest empires in the ancient world.

Lead a class discussion to further establish context. Include:

  • a comparison of timelines

    • display the timelines at: http://www.ducksters.com/history/ancient_rome_timeline.php and http://www.ducksters.com/history/ancient_greek_timeline.php

    • Ask students: What information do the timelines give about contributions of ancient Greece and ancient Rome? (The timelines give information about the approximates dates of the beginning and end of the civilizations, change over time, conflict, conquest, legends, achievements, leaders, and government.)

    • Ask students: What information do the timelines give about interaction between ancient Greece and ancient Rome? (Note that the year that 146 BC on the Greek timeline is shown as the year that Greece became part of the Roman Empire.)

  • a comparison of geographic location

    • display the animated map at: http://www.the-map-as-history.com/demos/tome09/1-ancient_greece_demo.php

    • point out to students that the dynamic timeline at the bottom left of the presentation corresponds to the timelines they just studied.

    • Ask students: What information does the animation give about interaction between ancient Greece and ancient Rome? (The Greeks sought to establish colonies and trading posts, and to control trade routes, in various areas along the Mediterranean Sea. This included the Italian Peninsula. Later, divisions within Ancient Greece facilitated the expansion of Ancient Rome. Continental Greece became part of the Roman Empire.)

    • Ask students to: compare the location of ancient Greece and Rome with that of modern Greece and Italy, and with that of the United States, using a classroom wall map or an online map such as the one located at: https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/docs/refmaps.html

(The relative close proximity of Greece and Italy is clearly demonstrated in comparison to the location of each to the United States.)

Students are prompted in the eMetric system to answer the following questions:

  1. What information does the animation give about interaction between ancient Greece and ancient Rome?

  2. Compare the location of ancient Greece and Rome with that of modern Greece and Italy, and with that of the United States, using a classroom map or an online map such as the one found at: https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/docs/refmaps.html

Part B (45 minutes) [CS2]

Students will conduct research as part of a small-group activity. Remind students that both ancient Greece and ancient Rome are known for their enduring impacts on later civilizations. Divide the class into four groups. Each group will be assigned to research categories of contributions of either ancient Greece or ancient Rome. The categories are:



    • governance and law

    • art and architecture

    • engineering and technology

    • literature and history

An example of assignments:

  • Group One: Ancient Greek contributions in 1. governance and law and 2. art and architecture

  • Group Two: Ancient Greek contributions in 1. engineering and technology and 2. literature and history

  • Group Three: Ancient Roman contributions in 1. governance and law and 2. art and architecture

  • Group Four: Ancient Roman contributions in 1. engineering and technology and 2. literature and history

Advise students that:

  • their research will be important for use in the remainder of the learning task

  • their research should focus on examples that had a lasting impact on future civilizations

  • their research should include both primary and secondary sources

  • they should begin with the following online resources to make the best use of their research period:

    • http://www.socialstudiesforkids.com/articles/worldhistory/introancientgreece1.htm

    • http://www.historyforkids.org/learn/greeks/

    • http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/primaryhistory/romans/

    • http://www.socialstudiesforkids.com/articles/worldhistory/introancientrome1.htm

Students are prompted in the eMetric system to answer the following questions:

  1. What is your assigned category for historical research?

  2. What is a contribution you have found up to this point in your research?

  3. How did the contribution you found have a lasting impact on future civilizations?

Part C (5 minutes) [CS2]

Direct students to an interactive diagram in the eMetric system. They will complete this activity individually. Review student results to assess progress and identify misunderstandings.

Students drag into the diagram from the following menu:

direct democracy

Parthenon

legions


birthplace of democracy

Olympics


first used columns

representative democracy

Ff]\\

Colosseum



shipbuilders

Cicero


first used arches

Sophocles

farmers

colonized other areas



near Mediterranean Sea

traders


excellent roads

Herodotus, the “father of history”



Ancient Greece

Both

Ancient Rome


____________________________________

Sample Responses:



Ancient Greece


Both

Ancient Rome

direct democracy

Parthenon

birthplace of democracy

Olympics


first used columns

Sophocles

Herodotus, the “father of history”


shipbuilders

farmers


colonized other areas

near Mediterranean Sea

traders


representative democracy

legions


Colosseum

first used arches

Cicero

built excellent roads




Session Two: Historical Perspective (90 minutes)

Part A: 20 minutes [CS1]

Direct students to get into their small groups from Session One again.

Discuss historical perspective. Advise students that historians and archeologists provide an accurate account and assessment of a historical event. This requires them to avoid the influence of current norms and values in interpreting and evaluating the past. They generally attempt to describe events through the perspectives of those living at the time. As students examine a historian or archeologist’s interpretation of an event, students should look to see how they meet this standard.

Advise students that as they critically evaluate diaries, letters, eyewitness accounts, archeological artifacts, and architecture of particular moments in time, they develop an understanding that history is interpreted. They also become active participants in historical investigation.

Ask each group to discuss the sources they found, and to explain which sources they found most useful in understanding the lives of ancient Greeks or Romans. Ask students to identify the sources they used as primary or secondary, and to explain which of these types they found most useful. Students are prompted in the eMetric system to answer the following questions:


  1. What is the difference between a primary and a secondary source?

  2. Which kind of source do you find most useful? Explain why.

Part B: 50 minutes [CS1, CS2]

Direct students to choose one of the contributions they researched. They will create a poster to present to the class that focuses on this contribution. Advise students that they will be required to enter a summary of their findings individually in the eMetric system.

Think about the contributions you researched in session one. Choose one contribution to use as the subject of a poster. Students will present their completed posters to the class. The poster should:


  • Explain the contribution from the perspective of a person living at the time. The poster should emphasize three things that people living at the time will find useful about the contribution.

  • Identify aspects of daily life in Ohio that are connected to the contribution and explain the connection.

Students are prompted in the eMetric system to type an explanation of why they chose their featured contributions over other contributions they researched.

Part C: 20 minutes [CS1]

Students are prompted in the eMetric system to address the following prompts:



  1. Explain the contribution from the perspective of a person living at the time. The poster should emphasize three things that people living at the time will find useful about the contribution.

  2. Identify aspects of daily life in Ohio that are connected to the contribution and explain the connection.

Session Three: Drawing Conclusions: Historical Maps of Ancient Rome (75 minutes)

Part A: 20 minutes [CS1]

Advise students that in this session, they will be drawing conclusions based on historical evidence. To draw a reliable conclusion, a historian must use a variety of evidence.

Display for students, or have them access individually, an animation depicting the expansion of ancient Rome:

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/ea/Roman_Republic_Empire_map.gif

Lead a class discussion based on the following questions.


  • What does the map show? Think of the historical evidence you studied about ancient Greece and Rome in Sessions One and Two. What were the people living in these areas likely experiencing at the time? (The map shows changes in political boundaries with the growth of a civilization. The people were experiencing rapid change in some form, be it through conquest, learning about new things, trade, losing or gaining wealth, etc.)

  • What enables a civilization to grow? Think of this from the perspective of:

    • a person in a civilization that is growing compared to a civilization that is shrinking (The people in the growing civilization could seek to conquer other people, or be seeking to trade, or to spread their cultural values.)

    • a person in a civilization that is shrinking compared to a civilization that is growing (The people in the shrinking civilization might seek protection from/peace with the growing civilization, wish to join the growing civilization, fear the people in the growing civilization, or admire the culture of the growing civilization.)

    • a growing civilization likely has: armies, wealth, culture, leadership

Students are prompted in the eMetric system to explain what enables a civilization to grow.

Part B: 55 minutes [CS1, CS2, CS12]

Display for students to access the interactive online map at: http://orbis.stanford.edu/



Explain that ORBIS helps historians see how the Roman Empire was shaped by the time and cost of moving people and goods between cities. Cities on the edges of the empire were very expensive to ship to, for example, even if they weren’t necessarily that far away. Researchers can use the tool, for example, to figure out whether two cities traded often, or to check if someone spotted in one city in January could have made it to another city by March.

Advise students that they will use this map for an individual research project in which they draw conclusions about what is shown on the map and what the information on the map tells them about the influence of ancient Rome on modern civilization. Their report will be entered into the eMetric system.

Explain the map tools and ensure each student can navigate the map.

Students are prompted to enter their report in the eMetric system. The report must include:

        • Data showing that the students analyzed routes between a variety of cities, including duration of travel between cities in a variety of modes.

        • Conclusions about the effect on travel of:

        • An explanation of why the options (fastest/cheapest/shortest) are included, and how these are different.

        • Conclusions about what aspects of ancient Roman civilization allowed the trade network to become so extensive.

          • high level of organization

          • a highly developed military

          • investment in infrastructure

        • Conclusions about how inventions were affected by the trade network and how the trade network was affected by inventions. Sample responses:

          • ships became very important

          • people came to rely on a variety of foods/improved diet

          • military became larger/faster (siege weapons)

          • large-scale construction became easier/necessary: access to more labor, more people in cities led to aqueducts/improved sanitation

        • Conclusions about similarities and differences between daily life then and now.

          • there was trade/interdependence, but trade was slower

          • there was danger in travel/conflict

          • required government/organization/infrastructure

          • taxes/people making profits

Process Suggestion: a variety of opportunities are provided to show they can gather relevant evidence from the map and draw conclusions. Advise students that they may not have time to complete all of the areas covered in the template, but at a minimum they should describe data gathered from two city pairs, and provide three conclusions with relevant evidence.

IV. Learning Task Rubric

Performance Levels

No more instruction is needed:
Student has a thorough understanding.

Student understands specific contributions of ancient Greek and Roman civilizations and the impact of these contributions on modern civilizations.

Student understands that history is interpreted, and that studying history requires critical evaluation of sources. Student is able to approach events, places, and innovations from the perspective of a person who was living during the period being studied.

Student draws conclusions about human settlement and interaction based on a variety of sources, including maps. Student is able to provide evidence to support their conclusions.




Some more instruction may be needed:
Student has a general understanding.

Student understands specific contributions of ancient Greek and Roman civilizations and the impact of these contributions on modern civilizations.

Student understands that history is interpreted, and that studying history requires critical evaluation of sources. Student is able to approach events, places, and innovations from the perspective of a person who was living during the period being studied.

Student has difficulty in drawing conclusions about human settlement and interaction. Student may not provide evidence to support their conclusions.




More instruction is needed:
Student has a limited understanding.

Student understands specific contributions of ancient Greek and Roman civilizations and the impact of these contributions on modern civilizations.

Student does not understand that history is interpreted, and that studying history requires critical evaluation of sources. Student is unable to approach events, places, and innovations from the perspective of a person who was living during the period being studied.

Student is unable to draw conclusions about human settlement and interaction, but may gather and cite some specific evidence relevant to a conclusion.







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