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Denise Duquette Savage

7th Grade

Social Studies

Background Causes of the American Revolution

Learning Context:

After completing this Learning Experience, the students should be able to identify the political, economic, and social causes of the American Revolution, identify the opinions, of the people, towards the independence movement, identify the thirteen colonies, and construct a timeline of, the period from 1740-1783.

Standard 1: History of the United States and New York

Students will use a variety of intellectual skills to demonstrate their understanding or major ideas, eras, themes, developments, and turning points in the history of the United States and New York.

Key Idea 1:

The study of New York State and United States history requires an analysis of the development of American culture, its diversity and multicultural context, and the ways people are unified by many values, practices, and traditions.

Performance Indicators:


  • Students will interpret the ideas, values, and beliefs contained in the Declaration of Independence and the New York State Constitution and United States Constitution, Bill of Rights, and other important historical documents.

Key Idea 3:

Study about the major social, political, economic, cultural, and religious developments in New York State and United States history involves learning about the important roles and contributions of individuals and groups.

Performance Indicators:


  • Students will gather and organize information about the important achievements and contributions of individuals and groups living in New York State and the United States.

  • Students will classify major developments into categories such as social, political, economic, geographic, technological, scientific, cultural, or religious.

Standard 3: Geography

Students will use a variety of intellectual skills to demonstrate their understanding of the geography of the interdependent world in which we live—local, national, and global—including distribution of people, places, and environments over the Earth’s surface.

Key Idea 1:

Geography can be divided into six essential elements which can be used to analyze important historic, geographic, economic, and environmental questions and issues. These six elements include: the world in spatial terms, places and regions, physical settings (including natural resources), human systems, environment and society, and the use of geography. (Adapted from The National Geography Standards, 1994).

Performance Indicators:


  • Students will map information about people, places, and environments.

Key Idea 2:

Geography requires the development and application of the skills of asking and answering geographic questions; analyzing theories of geography; and acquiring, organizing, and analyzing geographic information. (Adapted from: The National Geography Standards, 1994: Geography for Life).

Performance Indicators:


  • Students will use a number of research skills (e.g., computer databases, periodicals, census reports, maps, standard reference works, interviews, surveys) to locate and gather geographical information about issues and problems. (Adapted from National Geography Standards, 1994).

Assessment Plan:

Student’s assessment will be completed in many ways. They will be assessed individually, and within group activity. They will have a series of worksheets, vocabulary, maps, time lines, presentations, journals, and a project related to the American Revolution. Rubrics will be created to cover the different activities that are completed within the class, as well as, tests, and observation of how they understand and interpret the material.



Criteria

Excellent

Good

Needs Improvement

Poor

Assessment of Geography

And

Mapping Skills
Students will map information about people, places, and environments.

You were able to correctly map the triangular trade route, locations, regions, battles during the American Revolution and used a key to help interpret the map.


You were to some extent able to correctly map the triangular trade route, locations, regions, battles during the American Revolution and use a key to help interpret the map.

You were able to complete some elements of the triangular trade route, locations, regions, battles during the American Revolution and only used a partial key to help interpret the map.

You were not capable of completing the triangular trade route, locations, regions, battles during the American Revolution and did not use a key to help interpret the map.

Comprehension Assessment
Students will classify major developments into categories such as social, political, economic, geographic, technological, scientific, cultural, or religious.

You were able to classify the economic, political, and social causes of the American Revolution by creating graphic organizers for each event leading to the American Revolution.

You were to some extent able to classify the economic, political, and social causes of the American Revolution by creating graphic organizers for each event leading to the American Revolution.

You were able to classify some elements of the economic, political, and social causes of the American Revolution by creating graphic organizers for some events leading to the American Revolution.

You were not capable of classifying the economic, political, and social causes of the American Revolution by creating graphic organizers for any event leading to the American Revolution.

Perspective Assessment
Students will interpret the ideas, values, and beliefs contained in the Declaration of Independence and the New York State Constitution and United States Constitution, Bill of Rights, and other important historical documents.

You were able to interpret the key ideas, values, and beliefs within important historical documents (i.e. Declaration of Independence) by group activities and presentations within your group for the class.

You were to some extent able to interpret the key ideas, values, and beliefs within important historical documents (i.e. Declaration of Independence) by group activities and presentations within your group for the class.

You were able to interpret some elements of the key ideas, values, and beliefs within important historical documents (i.e. Declaration of Independence) by group activities and presentations within your group for the class.

You were not capable of identifying the key ideas, values, and beliefs within important historical documents (i.e. Declaration of Independence) during either group activities or presentations within your group for the class.

Presentation

Assessment
Students will gather and organize information about the important achievements and contributions of individuals and groups living in New York State and the United States.

You were able to gather and organize information required to present your topic to the class. You used many sources of technology to complete your presentation (internet, books, and pictures).

You were to some extent able to gather and organize information required to present your topic to the class. You used many sources of technology to complete your presentation (internet, books, and pictures).

You were able to gather and organize some elements of information required to present your topic to the class. You used some sources of technology to complete your presentation (internet, books, and pictures).

You were not capable of gathering and organizing information required to present your topic to the class. You did not use many sources of technology to complete your presentation (internet, books, and pictures).)

Research Assessment
Students will use a number of research skills (e.g., computer databases, periodicals, census reports, maps, standard reference works, interviews, surveys) to locate and gather geographical information about issues and problems.

You were able to use a number of research skills to complete maps, and class presentation assignments.

You were to some extent able to use a number of research skills to complete maps, and class presentation assignments.

You were able to use only a few research skills to complete maps, and class presentation assignments.

You were not capable of using any research skills to complete maps, and class presentation assignments.

Student Work: N/A

Procedure:

Day 1 (Monday) Bell Ringer: Political Cartoon [see below]

Teacher: I will have a world map up on the Smart board, in the classroom. I will pick a volunteer to help trace the Triangular Trade Route. I will also handout packets containing vocabulary words for chapter 5, and a blank global map. At this time, I will also be handing out a list of topics for presentations, with instructions on what is expected of the student.

Students: Individually each student will have to trace the Triangular Trade route on the map that has been provided and come up with one question, in their journals, for the following class period. In groups, they will examine the political cartoon and explain the meaning/interpretation of each one. Each student will have to pick a topic from the list and do research for a presentation. For homework, they will read Chapter 5, Section one, of their textbook (The American Nation), and complete section worksheet (guided note sheet), within their packet. This section will introduce The French and Indian War for the following class day. Vocabulary is due on Friday.

The Smart board, as an interactive learning tool, will help the students grasp the Triangular Trade Route, much more quickly than reviewing the information from their textbook.

(Day One Handout)

Chapter 5

Vocabulary and Guided Notes

Boycott Pontiac’s War

Repeal Boston Massacre

Whit of Assistance Tea Act

Non-importation agreement Boston Tea Party

Committee of correspondence First Continental Congress

Militia Battle of Lexington

Minute men Battle of Concord

Quebec Act

Treaty of Paris

Petition


French and Indian War

Albany Plan of Union

Plains of Abraham

Intolerable Act

Stamp Act

Intolerable Acts

Proclamation of 1763

Townshend Act

William Johnson

William Pitt

Joseph Brant

George Washington

Edward Braddock

Samuel Adams

John Adams

Patrick Henry

Mercy Otis Warren

Johnny Tremain

(Handout Day One)

Chapter 5



What were the causes of the French and Indian War?





What was the French and Indian War?






What were the results of the war?

The Fall of New France: the Battle of Quebec:

Treaty of Paris:

Terms:


What were the goals of the Albany of Union?





What was the Albany Plan of Union?





What was the result of the Union?






(Handout Day One)

Chapter 5



What was the cause of the Proclamation of 1763?




What was the Proclamation of 1763?




What was the result of the Proclamation of 1763?




What was the cause of the Stamp Act?




What was the Stamp Act?




What were the results of the Stamp Act?




What was the Townshend Act?




What were the results of the Townshend Act?





(Handout Day One)

Chapter 5



What was the cause of the Quartering Act?





What was the Quartering Act?





What were the results of the Quartering Act?





What was the cause of the Boston Massacre?




What was the Boston Massacre?





What were the results of the Boston Massacre?




What was the cause of the Tea Act?




What was the Tea Act?




(Handout Day One)

Chapter 5



What was the result of the Tea Act?





What caused the Boston Tea Party?





What was the Boston Tea Party and the Results?

What was it?

What was the result?





What caused the Intolerable Acts?





What were the Intolerable Acts?




What was the result of the Intolerable Acts?




What was the cause of the First Continental Congress?





What was the First Continental Congress and what were the results?

What was it?

What were the results?




Blank Global Map included in Handout for Day One

Please trace the Triangular Trade Route on the above map. This exercise will be completed together. Your main map to look at for the model copy will be on the Smart Board and will be interactively traced together.

Bell Ringer Day One: Political Cartoon



  1. What event does this picture illustrate?



  1. What do all the letters represent?



  1. What event does this picture illustrate?



  1. What do all the letters represent?



  1. Give your interpretation with evidence supporting it.

(Handout Day One)

Presentation Topics

Please select a topic from the following list. You will have to research the chosen topic and present your findings to the class. You may use any research technique to find your information (must cite your work). You may present it as a speech, debate, role playing or any other way you may find interesting. You may use any technology sources (Excel, Word, Power Point, Pictures, integrate music and even make a movie). Be creative, there is no required time limit but be sure to include as much information as possible. Please make sure to answer all of your historical questions (who, what, why, when, where and how). If you have answered these questions you are sure to have all the information to cover your chosen topic. Remember that you are to have fun and be creative!

The French and Indian War Tea Act

Albany Plan of Union Boston Tea Party

Plains of Abraham Intolerable Acts

Treaty of Paris Quebec Act

General Edward Braddock First Continental Congress

George Washington Battle of Lexington

Pontiac’s War Battle of Concord

Proclamation of 1763 Johnny Tremain

Stamp Act Samuel Adams

Townshend Acts Mercy Otis Warren

Boston Massacre

Day 2 (Tuesday) Bell Ringer: Political Cartoon

Teacher: I will talk about the French and Indian War, what led up to it and what the end result were. I will have the students search for maps, during computer lab, showing the Ohio River Valley. The Albany Plan of Union will also be discussed as a group, along with the British defeats that take place, starting in 1755.

Students: Individually each student will search for maps on the Ohio River Valley; locate Fort Necessity, Fort Duquesne, Louisbourg, and Albany, create a map and print out what they have created, from the computer lab. In groups, they will introduce their question, from their journals, and come up with different answers that apply. For homework, Chapter 5 section 2, which introduces the different taxes imposed on the colonies. They also need to complete a journal entry explaining what presentation topic they chose and what ideas they have to research it.

Day Two Bell Ringer: Political Cartoon





  1. What is the cartoon stating?



  1. How is this related to the American Revolution?



  1. Analyze and interpret and give supporting evidence for your answer.

Day 3 (Wednesday) Bell Ringer: Political Cartoon

Teacher: I will start the class by answering any questions the students may have from the previous day’s class.

Students: Each student will have to explain one of the taxes imposed on the colonies. They will have to describe what it is and how it relates to the revolution, during class discussion. Individually each student will map the 13 colonies, Louisiana, and New Spain. For home work, they are to read Chapter 5, Section 3, describing the protest to the revolution. They also need to complete a journal entry on the progress they are making on their presentations.

Day Three Bell Ringer: Political Cartoon





  1. What is this cartoon stating?

  2. What symbols help you identify your interpretation?

  3. What is your interpretation?

Day 4 (Thursday) Bell Ringer: Political Cartoon

Teacher: I will answer any questions the students have from the previous day’s class. Today the students will be using the computers for research, in the previously reserved computer lab.

Students: Today the students will have computer time. Each student will have time to look up ways, to list the cause and effects of the Townshend Act, Tea Act, and how it all related to the Boston Tea Party. Individually each student will color in the area in which the Pontiac War took place. In their journals, they will create a graphic organizer on the frontier crisis. They will also come up with the cause and effects for the French and Indian War, Intolerable Acts, and the battles of Lexington and Concord.

Day Four Bell Ringer: Political Cartoon





  1. What symbols do you see?

  2. How does this support your interpretation?

  3. What is your interpretation?

Day 5 (Friday) Bell Ringer: How did the Proclamation of 1763 affect settlement in the west?

Teacher: Hand out Chapter 6 packet, containing vocabulary and guided notes, due next Friday. Collect Chapter 5 packet from students for grading. Each student will have to research how they can map and create a timeline starting with 1740 and ending with 1783. They will have to correctly list all the events that have been discussed in class, on the timeline and map them as well.

Students: Hand-in homework, and participate in the mapping and timeline activities online. Homework to read Chapter 6 section one, describing the fighting in the North and complete a journal entry updating your research topic.

Handout Day Five)

Chapter 6

Vocabulary and Guided Notes

Olive Branch Petition Ethan Allen

Green Mountain Boys William Prescott

Continental Army William Howe

Patriot Thomas Paine

Loyalist Benjamin Rush

Battle of Bunker Hill John Adams

Blockade Benjamin Franklin

Mercenary Thomas Jefferson



Common Sense Robert Livingston

Traitor Roger Sherman

Declaration of Independence John Hancock

Preamble General Charles Cornwallis

Natural rights General John Burgoyne

Battle of Long Island Marquis de Lafayette

Battle of Trenton Martha Washington

Battle of Saratoga Betsy Ross

Ally “Molly Pitcher”

Cavalry John Paul Jones

Valley Forge Benedict Arnold

Battle of Cowpens

Guerrilla

Siege


Battle of Yorktown

Treaty of Paris

Ratify
(Handout Day Five)

Chapter 6

Guided Notes


What steps did Congress take to pursue war and peace with Britain?





What advantages did the Patriots have when the war begins?





What advantages did the British have when the war begins?





How did the Continental Army gain control of Boston?





How did Common Sense influence the colonists?





What steps did Congress take to declare independence?





What are the main ideas of the Declaration of Independence?





What battles took place in New York and New Jersey?





(Handout Day Five)

Chapter 6

Guided Notes




How did Washington turn retreat into victory in New Jersey?





How did the Battle of Saratoga mark a turning point in the war?





What hardships did the Continental Army suffer at Valley Forge?





What role did women play in the war?





What choices did African Americans have?




How was the war fought on the frontier and at sea?





Why did Britain decide to start fighting in the South?





How did the Americans and French defeat the British at the Battle of Yorktown?





(Handout Five)

Chapter 6

Guided Notes




What were the terms of the Treaty of Paris?





What factors helped the Americans win the war?





Day 6 (Monday) Bell Ringer: Who is Thomas Paine and what did he call his pamphlet?

Teacher: Pass around a birth certificate to show the students what a ‘stamp’ looks and feels like.

Students: Map out the Proclamation line, and enter the appropriate information on the timelines created within the previous class. Create journal entries on the cause and effects of each event. Homework is to read Chapter 6 section two, introducing the Declaration of Independence. Each student must make a mini-declaration on what rules they want to establish for their rooms at home.

Day 7 (Tuesday) Bell Ringer: What was the Declaration of Independence and why was it important?

Teacher: The class will be separated into groups and given a section of the Declaration of Independence to interpret, and explain to the class.

Students: Analyze and interpret the Declaration of Independence within your given group. Homework is to reach Chapter 6 sections 3-5, introducing the struggles in the Middle States, how liberty was being fought on more than one front and the winning of the war in the South.

Day 8 (Wednesday) Bell Ringer: Why was a strong navy an advantage for the British?

Teacher: The class will be separated into three groups. Each group will be given a battle (Battle of Long Island, Battle of Trenton, and Battle of Saratoga). These groups will have to explain how, why, where, and what they are. They then will have to debate on what battle was the most important or if any of them were more important than the others. Rules for the debate will be listed on the board, as each student will suggest what is appropriate for classroom behavior, and etiquette.

Student: Class participation and respect for others’ opinions. Students will help prepare for the debate by giving examples of what they consider good manners in the classroom.

Day 9 (Thursday) Bell Ringer: What role did women play in the war?

Teacher: Today we will be in the previously reserved computer lab. Each student will have to research a woman who took part in the war and what they contributed. They will then present to the class on Friday.

Students: Research women in the war and the importance. Be creative in presenting to the class on Friday.

Day 10 (Friday) Bell Ringer: What was the Treaty of Paris and why was it important?

Teacher: Collect homework for Chapter 6. Remind all students that starting on Monday that topic presentations will be starting.

Students: Work on presentations on women in the war and why they were important.

Day 11 (Monday) Bell Ringer: Give three reasons why the Americans defeated the British in the Revolution?

Teacher: Listen to presentations. Collect presentation information from the students as they are completed. The class period will be reserved just for presentations.

Student: Class participation and respecting the students who are presenting their topic.

Day 12 (Tuesday) Bell Ringer: Describe three ideas contained in the Declaration of Independence.

Teacher: Listen to all remaining presentations. Collect presentation information from the students who have completed their presentations. The entire class period will be devoted to presentations. If all presentations are completed, the remainder of the class time will be used to review any topics, and answer any questions the students may need help with.

Student: Class participation and respecting the students who are presenting their topic.



Resources:

  1. Textbook: Stoff, M. B. (2003). The American Nation. Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall.

This will guide the students, with their homework, and topics presented in class.

  1. Journal: Note book that will be purchased by each student.

This will be used for questions presented in class, and for updates on projects they will be competing in class.

  1. Blank Global Map: Posiflex. (2010). Global Network. Retrieved April 10, 2010, from http://198.173.224.126/newGlobalnetworkcopy1.php

This will be used for the tracing of the Triangular Trade Route. This will give the students an idea of trade, what was traded, and how slavery began.

  1. Political cartoons:

Welcome to Flags of the American War for Independence. (2000-2008).Retrieved April 10, 2010, from www.jagriffin.net/revflag.htm

This political cartoon will get the students thinking of what unified the colonists, and how the Britain’s were challenged.
Political Cartoons of the American Revolution. (2010). A Webquest for MS Students. Retrieved April 10,2010, from www.taconichills.k12.ny.us/webquest/Politicalcartoonamericanrevolution/index.html.

This political cartoon will let the students analyze the Boston Massacre from both sides. They will be able to interpret which side seems stronger, and who actually won, if any did win.


Walking the Berkshires. (2007). The Messengers of Justice & Wrath: Politics, Propaganda and the Timing of Sullivan’s Iroquois Campaign. Retrieved April 10, 2010, from http://greensleeves.typepad.com/bershires/sullivans-expedition-against-the-iroquois/

This political cartoon emphasizes the strategic importance of the northern frontier during the American Revolution, and how the British campaign was to sever the connection between New England colonies and the mid-atlantic.


Historywiz for lovers of history. (1999-2008). Repeal of the Stamp Act Cartoon. Retrieved April 10, 2010, from http://www.historywiz.com/galleries/repealstampact.html

This political cartoon expresses the thoughts and actions of the colonists when the Stamp Act was approved, and how they felt when it was repealed.



  1. Chapter vocabulary and guided notes.



  1. List of presentation topics.



  1. Rubric : used for assessment of the students



  1. Smart board

Instructional/Environmental Modifications:

Each student with I.E.P instructions will be closely watched, and an Educational Special Learning teacher will be assigned, given all notes, materials, and instructions for each activity. All students will be given any extra time needed for note taking, testing, and any other item described in their I.E.P. If I have a deaf student, or a student with another physical handicap, I will rearrange the room to accommodate them in anyway so they can get the best learning experience within the classroom.



Time Required:

Planning: 1 Unit

Implementation: 40 minutes each day, for a total of 12 days.

Assessment: This will be conducted on a daily basis. Each activity will be assessed.



Reflection:

With this Learning Experience, I read the entire LE, correcting grammar, and re-writing sentences to make them more understandable. I annotated the references that I was utilizing. I thought about what Amy suggested about giving the students too much on the first day of class, but I decided to stick with my plan, only because I think it also gives them a sense of responsibility. This also will help the students who want to go ahead with lessons coming up. I will say this was much harder than I imagined and I have really learned a lot from this class. Thank you for your help and support.


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