Later Modern History – Britain 1851-1951



Download 157.07 Kb.
Date conversion20.05.2016
Size157.07 Kb.

Later Modern History – Britain 1851-1951



A study of the development of the United Kingdom into a modern democracy and the development of the role of the state in the welfare of its citizens, illustrating the themes of authority, ideology and rights.

Issues
1. An evaluation of the reasons why Britain became more democratic, 1851-1928.

2. An assessment of how democratic Britain became, 1867-1928.

3. An evaluation of the reasons why women won greater political equality by 1928.

4. An evaluation of the reasons why the Liberals introduced social welfare reforms, 1906-1914.

5. An assessment of the effectiveness of the Liberal social welfare reforms.

6. An assessment of the effectiveness of the Labour social welfare reforms, 1945-1951.




Detailed Descriptors
The effects of industrialisation and urbanisation; popular attempts to gain the franchise; pressure groups; effects of other social reforms; examples of developments abroad; party advantage.
The widening of the franchise, 1867-1928; other measures relating to the distribution of seats, corruption and intimidation; widening membership of the House of Commons; the role of the House of Lords.
The women’s suffrage campaigns; the militant Suffragette campaign up to 1914; the part played by women in the war effort, 1914-18; the example of other countries.
The social surveys of Booth and Rowntree; the failure of laissez-faire; municipal socialism; foreign examples; national efficiency; the rise of the New Liberalism; party advantage and the rise of Labour.
The aims of the Liberal Reforms; the extent to which the Liberal Reforms met these and the needs of the British people.
The aims of the Welfare State; the extent to which the Labour Reforms met these and the needs of the British people.



Course Skills

Each topic we study will follow a similar pattern


We will read and discuss the section with this your teacher.
Take detailed notes individually on the key points from the chapter.
As a class you will take turns to run a detailed tutorial and then provide a revision/ recall sheet to the rest of the class at the end of the tutorial. 
Each tutorial should be prepared with discussion points and a video clip if possible by the two students in charge. 
Product Criteria

  • At least 4 knowledge points

  • Structural tips: introduction, conclusion and overall structure

  • Outline the main arguments and how you would put them together

  • A video clip on your topic

Unit One Part 1: An evaluation of the reasons why the Liberals introduced social welfare reforms, 1906-1914.



Key Content Areas

The social surveys of Booth and Rowntree; the failure of laissez-faire; municipal socialism; foreign examples; national efficiency; the rise of the New Liberalism; party advantage and the rise of Labour.
Essay Questions

  • To what extent did (insert one of the key content areas) influence the introduction of the Liberal Welfare Reforms 1906-1914.

  • More a product of political necessity than of social concern.”

Is this a fair judgement on the social reforms of the Liberal

Government 1906 - 1914?”

  • To what extent were the Liberal Social Reforms (1906 - 1914) prompted by feelings of genuine concern for the masses?

  • They were prompted by a ground-swell of social pity.” Is this an adequate explanation for the introduction of social reforms in the period 1906 - 1914?

  • How far were the reports on poverty produced by Booth and

Rowntree responsible for the Liberal social reforms of 1906-1914?(2005)

  • To what extent were the Liberal social reforms of 1906-1914 a response to the challenge from the Labour Party? (2007)

  • How important were concerns about the extent of poverty in

Britain in the Liberal Government’s decision to introduce social

reforms between 1906 and 1914? (2008)
Note Taking Use Chapter Four of your textbook to take notes on the LEARNING INTENTIONS below


  • To be able to explain the difference between ‘Old’ and ‘New’ Liberalism

  • To describe, understand and explain the origins of the Liberal Social Welfare Reforms


Essay Plan & Note Taking

  • You must evaluate the reasons for introduction of the Liberal Welfare Reforms 1906-1918.




  • You must mention the following points, their individual significance and then argue that their impact was no so important. :

  • The social surveys of Booth and Rowntree

  • The failure of laissez-faire

  • municipal socialism

  • foreign examples

  • national efficiency

  • the rise of the New Liberalism

  • party advantage and the rise of Labour.


Unit One Part 2: An assessment of the effectiveness of the Liberal social welfare reforms.
Key Content Areas

The aims of the Liberal Reforms; the extent to which the Liberal Reforms met these and the needs of the British people.

.

Essay Questions


  • “Between 1906 and 1914 the real causes of poverty were tackled successfully by government action.” To what extent would you agree with this statement?

  • Would you agree that there was a marked change in attitude and policies towards poverty and social problems in Britain in the first decade of the 20th century?

  • To what extent did the Liberal Reforms (1906-1914) improve the lives of the British people? (2003)

  • To what extent did the social reforms of the Liberal Government (1906-1914) improve the lives of the British people? (2006)

  • How successfully did the Liberal Reforms of 1906-1914 deal with the problem of poverty in Britain in the early 1900s? (2010)


Use Chapter Five your textbook to take notes on the LEARNING INTENTIONS below


  • To be able to recognise the purpose of the reforms in relation to the YOUNG, OLD, SICK, UNEMPLOYED or LOW PAID.

  • To understand why the Liberals faced opposition when they tried to introduce the reforms.

  • To assess whether the reforms solved problems or whether there were limitations.

Essay Plan & Note Taking


  • You must evaluate the success of the Liberal Welfare Reforms 1906-1918.




  • You must mention the following points and their individual significance in successfully helping or not helping :

  • poor

  • old

  • young

  • sick

  • working

  • unemployed




    • You must have a KU section




    • You must have an argument and evaluation section.




    • You must have a historiography section.




    • Video clip.



Group Challenge
Your teacher will split you up into 4 groups


  1. Each group should choose to focus on either the:

THE YOUNG (p.55-58)

THE OLD (p.58-62)

THE SICK (p. 62-64)

THE UNEMPLOYED AND THE EMPLOYED (p. 64-66)


  1. Each group should research their topic using the textbook to produce a handout of information. Use the following questions as your subheadings




    • Why the liberals felt that reform was required?

    • What legislation (reform) was introduced?

    • Was there any opposition to the reform?

    • How successful were the reforms – were there limitations?

3. Your teacher will take in each group’s work and collate it. The whole class summary of the Liberal Reforms will be redistributed shortly!


ESSAY 5 :

To what extent were the Liberal Reforms (1906 -1914) prompted by feelings of genuine concern for the masses?
This essay considers WHY the reforms were required.

~

ESSAY 6: How successfully did the social reforms of the Liberal Government (1906-1914) improve the lives of the British people?




  • This essay considers HOW effective reforms were, or if they had LIMITATIONS

The essays ask 2 DIFFERENT questions. Make sure you know WHAT the question is asking you before you write it!


You will write BOTH essays, at the same time in class TIMED.

Scottish and British: The Growth of Democracy




Learning Intentions:

  • Why there was a growth in democracy in Britain between 1850 and 1950?

  • What were the effects of the different Acts which were passed throughout this period?

Today, we live in a democracy and take for granted the right to participate in the political process and to be properly represented at the different levels of government – national and local. However, 200 years ago these rights hardly existed and had to be won. To gain a better understanding of the journey made by Britain to become more democratic, we must fully understand the meaning of democracy itself and how it is applied in Britain.




Work with your group and write down your ideas about the meaning of DEMOCRACY and what living in a REPRESENTATIVE DEMOCRACY means.

Share your ideas with the rest of the class.


Individual Challenge





  1. Copy the introduction as outlined in 1.1 of your Open Learning Pack.

  2. Work through 1.2.

  3. Work through 1.3. REMEMBER TO MAKE YOUR ANSWERS COMPREHENSIVE - THIS SECTION IS VERY IMPORTANT.

  4. Work through 1.4.

  5. Work through 1.5.

Now you should have a better understanding of why there was a Growth of Democracy in Britain and the effects of that growth.

Complete the following table to help you create an ‘at a glance’ guide for the 2 essays that you will be answering on the growth of democracy.

RECOMMENDATION: Give yourself a ½ page per act – there’s lots to write down!




ACT

DETAILS

EFFECT

WHY WAS IT PASSED?

1832










1867










1872










1883










1884










1885











1911











1911











1918











1928













COMPLETED TABLE:


ACT

DETAILS

EFFECT

WHY WAS IT PASSED?













1832

1867


First Reform Act or Great Reform Act. Extends franchise to middle classes and redistributes parliamentary seats.

Second Reform Act

Extended Franchise to male householders and lodgers 12 months occupation

Redistribution of Seats 79 towns with population under 15,000 lost seats.



Increases electorate from 435,000 voters to 652,000 voters.

Vote still attached to land as every man who owned property of £10 or more gained the vote.

5 out of 6 males still had no vote.

No women had vote.

Still no secret ballot

The passing of this act led to the expectation that further reform would come.

Increased the number of men entitled to vote from 1/7 – 1/3 (England and Wales)
Scotland gains MPs – better representation
Forced Parties to create national organisations
Realisation that the lower classes need more help. A beginning of a move away from Laissez-faire

The Industrial Revolution created a new group of wealthy middle class who demanded political power. Whigs were sympathetic to the middle class demands and pass the First Reform Act thereby extending the vote. However the act did little to alter the balance of power in Britain.

Large demand from the public themselves. Protesting up and down the country. Reform Unions and the National Reform League. The Chartists had paved the way in demonstrations/protests.

Riots in Hyde Park


Changing attitudes.
French Revolution. Public overthrew the monarchy and became a republic. British government were afraid the same might happen in Britain, therefore, some changes in democracy or increases in the franchise meant that they staved off the possibility of revolution
Disraeli passed the Act, Conservative. To beat the Liberals who had passed up previous chances of increasing franchise (split between the Old Liberals and the Radical). Conservatives pass the Act in the hope of getting votes in return.

1872


Secret Ballot Act

Votes are cast in secret



Intimidation gone. But corruption still existed. People can vote for who they actually want, therefore representation in Parliament is what the people actually want.

Attempt to end corruption and bribery.
Many had protested on the fact that the open hustings was undemocratic.

1883


Corrupt and Illegal Practices Act

Stricter limits on campaign spending at constituency level



Spending money for campaigns is limited. Candidate election expenses limited and determined by govt.
Fairer representation in parliament due restricted spending. No money to spend on bribing people so fairer.

Fill in the gaps of 1872.

1884


Third Reform Act

Franchise Extended: 2/3 men have the vote. Boroughs/ counties have equal voting qualifications.




Householders and lodgers: middle classes, and many working classes for the first time
Electorate extended from 2.5 to 5million
Franchise no longer considered a class privilege: it now transcends classes

Disturbances in Autumn 1884, protest marches in Scotland
Gladstone was aware that a reform bill extending the franchise would turn the popular tide in favour of his government
PARTY POLITICAL RIVALRY
General population boom means that the government respond with fairer and better representation and an increase in the franchise.

1885


Redistribution of Seats: Scotland gains 7 seats, Rotten Boroughs disappear

Bigger towns (industrial) are represented more fairly.

Constituency size made uniform therefore guaranteeing EQUAL representation

GDH COLE: “Parliament would have to govern the country with an eye to the interests and wishes of the majority of the people.”
David Thomson: A huge change in Parliament meant that people could express their opinions fairly and freely.

“Public opinion came to be more of a reality in politics.”


TC Smout: The growth of democracy is limited – 40% of adult males in GB were unenfranchised in 1911.

Overcrowding, pollution, diseases (cholera was no respector of class, a realisation that Health and Housing issues needed addressed)

1911


Parliament Act
Powers of House of Lords Limited

Took away powers of taxation and government spending. A bill could only be repealed for 2 sessions.
Legislative power transferred to the HoC – more democratic as MPs are directly elected by the people.

House of Lords blocked The ‘People’s Budget’ 1909 – which was designed to tax the rich to put Welfare Reforms in place and build up the navy.
King threatened Lords with reducing their power indefinitely unless they let the bill through

1911


Payment for Members of Parliament

Middle and Lower and WORKING CLASSES could now become MPs
Parliament becomes more representative of the people and their needs.

Difficult for w/c to be an MP beforehand as they could not afford the time off.
Response to the rise of the Labour Party

1918


Representation of the People Act

Votes given to all men over 21 and women over 30



More democratic: more people represented. Women represented for the FIRST TIME

A response to the participation of men and women in WW1. Men had been ready to give their lives to protect Britain and democracy, therefore all men should have the vote.
Women had helped with war work on Home Front. BUT women under 30 were ignored and they had made up the majority of the workforce.
Protest campaigns: suffragists and the suffragettes raised awareness for years prior to WW1.
Changing attitudes in general towards women and their role in society.

1928


Equal Franchise Act: all women over 21 vote

Universal Suffrage, equal franchise achieved

Further campaigns by Women’s suffrage groups.
Fills in the gaps of 1918.

Essay 1

You have now gathered enough information to write your first essay.


Essay Question:
To what extent had democracy been achieved in Britain by 1928?

We will now spend some time planning our essay and your teacher will talk through essay writing skills at Higher with you.


Take notes from the Power Point on Essay Writing Skills and KEEP THEM FOR THE FUTURE!



To what extent was Britain a democracy by 1928?



The Right to Vote/ Franchise


  • Second Reform Act 1867

  • Third Reform Act

1884

  • Representation of the peoples act 1918




  • Explain how EACH made Britain more democratic.

  • Then counter with what was still undemocratic about the acts in terms of the franchise.

Fairness


  • The ballot Act 1872

  • Redistribution of seats Act 1885

(and also in the 1867 and 1918 acts)

  • Corrupt and Illegal Practices Act1883




  • Explain how EACH made Britain democratic.

  • Then counter with what was still undemocratic about the acts in terms of fairness.




Choice
Where the three parties stood in terms of democratic reform
Conservative
Liberal
Labour


Becoming an MP
The Parliament Act 1911
Loss of the House of Lords veto

Accountability
The Parliament Act 1911
Loss of the House of Lords veto


To what extent was Britain considered democratic by by 1900, 1914, and 1918?





You will now write your essay under TIMED CONDITIONS.


You have 40 minutes. Good luck!


Essay 2

Industrialisation was the key factor in the growth of democracy between 1850 and 1950.” How accurate is this statement?



Summer Holiday Homework





  1. Ensure you have completed all of Chapter 1

  2. Plan your next essay – bring a written plan to class on first day back. Be prepared to write your essay when you return to class!

Essay: “Industrialisation was the key factor in the growth of democracy between 1850 and 1950.” How accurate is this statement?


  1. Ensure quotes pages, historiography, key terms for Chapter 1 are all up to date.





The Movement for Women’s Suffrage 1850-1928


LEARNING INTENTIONS


  • To understand opinions and attitudes towards women in Victorian Britain

  • To learn how and why these attitudes changed between 1850 and 1928

  • To assess the importance of the campaigns for Women’s Suffrage and the impact they made.

WOMEN – THE VICTORIAN ATTITUDES

“In every excellent characteristic, whether mental or physical, the average women is insuperior to the average man…even in physical beauty the man is superior.”

(Thomas Huxley – Scientist 1850)
“The qualities Victorian men most admired in women were innocence, purity, meekness and helplessness…Women were treated like ornaments, pretty but useless. Men adored them and protected them, but regarded them as children, not as equals.”

(DC Brooks: The Emancipation of Women)


“He talked to them [women] without putting out all his powers, and listened to them without any idea that what he should hear from them could either actuate his conduct or influence his opinion.”

(Anthony Trollope: Borchester Towers




Individual Challenge




  1. Complete 3.2 in the OLP.

  2. Complete 3.3 in the OLP. End of next Tuesday

  3. Discuss your answers with the teacher/class.

  4. What do you think was the main CATALYST for CHANGE?

Social Change Change in attitudes Economic Change
Rise of the Labour Party Education for Women

World War one





PAIRED CHALLENGE

Using Classroom in a Box, go to the following website. (The instructions and the link for this challenge is in the pupils folder)


http://www.learningcurve.gov.uk/britain1906to1918/g4/gallery4.htm
There are primary sources to look at in the following categories:
MILITANTS

MODERATES

SUFFRAGIST/SUFFRAGETTE

WOMEN, WORK AND WAR
For each of the categories, choose 2 sources to look at and follow the bullet points in the Blue Box on the page, entitled THE BIG QUESTION.



Individual Challenge




  1. Complete 3.4 in the OLP. Make sure you take comprehensive notes – this section is important!

  2. Complete 3.5 in the OLP


Essay 3



How important a part did events during the First World War play in the decision to grant women the vote?
To plan this essay, here are some themes/arguments for you to consider:


  • Did the coming of war DELAY the franchise for women?

  • Was the contribution of women to the war effort really such a significant factor in gaining the vote?

  • Why did women get the vote in 1918 rather than 1914?

  • Why did women fail to get equality with men in 1918?

  • Why did it take so long for women to get the vote?

Historiography:


Did war get women the vote? The following sources outline some ideas arguing for/against the question. You can access these sources in the pupil folder on the server.


Individual/Paired Challenge

Work together using Classroom in a Box to access the sources online. Take notes/quotes from each of the sources which you may be able to refer to in your essay. You may use the table below to help you.





SOURCE A CONSTANCE ROVER
It is frequently said that women were given the vote ‘because of the war’… The war changed the situation in more ways than are obvious at first sight. The obvious effect was that women’s contribution to the war effort was seen and appreciated and that women, instead of being subjected to frequent criticism in the press and by public figures, were very generally praised. Public opinion became overwhelmingly favourable towards women.
Public opinion also became more democratic generally, as the shared hardships created a more equal society and lessened the emphasis on class divisions. There was a general desire that sacrifices should not be in vain and that a better world should come out of the war. Surely a land fit for heroes to live in might include a place for a few heroines as well?
The war emphasised the participation of women in the everyday life of the nation. It was obvious to all that women were driving vehicles, acting as bus conductors and filling many posts customarily held by men. As we might say today, women’s ‘public image’ changed and improved.
Besides these obvious changes, the war transformed the political situation… It was obvious that the campaign would recommence once the war was over if nothing was done to enfranchise women. It would have been extremely embarrassing and probably unpopular as well to imprison women who had played such an important part in the war effort.
Constance Rover, Women’s Suffrage and Party Politics in Britain 1866-1914




SOURCE B PAULA BARTLEY
It would be naive to believe that women received the vote solely for services rendered in the First World War. It must be remembered that only women over 30 were given the vote and the very women who had helped in the war effort – the young women of munitions factories – were actually denied the vote. The significance of women’s war work in the achievement of the vote is therefore not as great as first assumed. In reality, women were greatly resented in both agriculture and industry… Men ‘froze out’ women workers, gave them no help and even sabotaged their work… The reasons for the shift which took place in government thinking therefore need consideration.
First and perhaps most importantly, there was a need for franchise reformin general. Large numbers of soldiers were illeligible to vote. This of course would not do.
Secondly, there were a number of changes in Parliament which altered the balance between those who opposed and those who were in favour of votes for women. Several suffragist MPs were promoted to the cabinet. More importantly, Lloyd George, who was sympathetic to women’s suffrage, replaced Asquith as Prime Minister in December 1916.
Thirdly, the war allowed a number of hostile MPs – Asquith in particular – the excuse to climb down. These MPs, though not convereted to women’s suffrage, realised that reform was inevitable and used women’s war work as a pretext to change. Asquith’s remarks about the female electors of Paisley in 1920 suggest he still resented women’s involvement in Parliament – ‘a dim lot, for the most part hopelessly ignorant of politics.’
Fourthly, in May 1915, the Liberal government became a coalition government. The old fears that one party might benefit from women’s suffrage were laid to rest.
Finally, Britain was merely reflecting an international trend towards democracy. Women in New Zealand, Australia, Finland, Denmark and Norway had already been enfranchised… It would have been a peculiar embarrassment if the mother of democracy, Britain, lagged behind other countries.
Paula Bartley, Votes for Women 1860-1928



SOURCE C ARTHUR MARWICK
The process by which women’s participation in the war effort brought considerable social, economic and political gains can be traced in a very straightforward manner.
The first issues to stress this time are again strengthened market position and the desire of governments to offer rewards for services rendered.
But two further changes are also critical: the increased sense of their own capacity and increased self confidence on the part of women themselves; and, on the other side, the total destruction of all the old arguments about women’s proper place in the community, which both men and women had previously raised against any moves towards political and social equality for women.
In the political story what is most striking in the way in which one after another all the old leading opponents of the idea of votes for women recant, and declare that since women have played such a vital part in the national effort, of course they must be allowed to share in the politics of their country.
However, political rights are only one side of the story. Women also gained a measure of economic independence. And, whatever the intentions of the law-makers, they had gained a new self reliance and new social freedoms.
Arthur Marwick War and Social Change in the Twentieth Century



SOURCE D SANDRA HOLTON
It seems reasonable to argue that British suffragists might fairly have expected to have gained the vote by 1918 if a Liberal government had been returned in the expected general election. It is even possible that there might have been a limited measure of women’s suffrage under a Conservative government. All this must significantly modify those interpretations which stress the advent of war as the decisive factor in the eventual winning of the women’s vote. It might even be that the war postponed such a victory.
What can be confidently asserted is the importance of women’s suffragists’ own efforts, especially the efforts of the democratic suffragists, in securing the strong position enjoyed by their cause at the outbreak of war.
Women’s war work may have been important in converting some former opponenents, or providing others with a face-saving excuse to alter their positions. But even before this, the political alliances the democratic suffragists had formed in support of their demand had ensured that women would have to be included in any future reform bill.
Sandra Stanley Holton, Feminism and Democracy



AUTHOR

Did the war help?

Quote to Prove Point

CONSTANCE ROVER

PAULA BARTLEY



War did help

No – not as important as initially though



“war transformed the political situation.”
“war emphasised the participation of women in everyday life.”
“women’s contribution to war was seen and appreciated.”
“Britain mainly reflecting an international trend towards democracy.” 1912 New Zealand
“old fears that one party might benefit from womens’ suffrage were laid to rest.”
It would be naive to believe that women received the vote solely for services rendered in the First World War
Reform was inevitable

– women’s war work as protest


Arthur Marwick: DID
Desire for government to offer reward for services – women’s SOLDIERS ONLY WOMEN ABOVE 30.
Women also gained new self-reliance and social freedom
Sandra Holton: NO – MOVEMENTS HAD TAKEN PLACE BEFORE THE WAR
“Might even be that the war postponed such a victory.”
Work completed before the war ensured women would be included in any reform bill.
Women’s war work helped convert former opponents (FAVOUR)


P. It was the war

Example


Womens war work(give details)

e.g Land army, ambulances in France, munitions workers.



Explain

How did all these points above lead to women gaining the vote



Analysis

However, qualifications existed

In the 1918 act. Explain these.

P. It wasn’t the war

Example.


Explain.


How important a part did events during the First World War play in the decision to grant women the vote?


Changing Attitudes
Example

Explain
Analyse/counter


Political Change


Example

Explain
Analyse/Counter



Role of NUWSS
Example

Explain


Analyse/Counter


Role of WSPU


Example

Explain
Analyse/counter



Other Factors

Essay 4

This essay can be completed timed in class or as a homework essay.


How accurate is it to credit the campaigns of the Suffragettes as the main reason why women got the vote?
GOOD LUCK!

Britain in 1900 – Laissez-faire in Decline




LEARNING INTENTIONS

  • To understand the term laissez-faire

  • To discuss the problem of poverty in 1900 and understand the limitations of the Victorian Welfare system

  • To describe, understand and explain the findings of Booth and Rowntree

  • To outline, understand and explain the response of each of the major political parties towards collectivism



Group Challenge

In your groups, come up with definitions of the following:


Laissez-faire

Poverty Line

‘Old’ Liberalism

‘New’ Liberalism

Social Reform

Collectivism.


Discuss your answers together as a class.



Individual Challenge





  1. Complete Chapter 4 in your OLP – 4.2,4.3,4.4

  2. Discuss your answers.

  3. What do you think was the main reason the Liberal government decided to introduce social reform?

Give a COMPREHENSIVE answer – support your argument.



Homework Challenge:
Who’s Who of Britain?

In the last few months you have come across many names when studying the British topic at Higher. Compile a COMPENDIUM of the names you have come across with details of who each person is. Then, each time you come across someone new, add them to the list. The following are names of those we have studied so far. Add in any more you can think of!



Benjamin Disraeli,

William Gladstone,

John Stuart Mill,

Joseph Chamberlain,

Emmeline Pankhurst (and Christabel and Sylvia!),

Millicent Fawcett,

Herbert Asquith,

David Lloyd George,

Emily Wilding Davison,

Charles Booth,

Seebohm Rowntree



The Liberal Welfare Reforms 1906-1914

LEARNING INTENTIONS

  • To be able to explain the difference between ‘Old’ and ‘New’ Liberalism

  • To describe, understand and explain the origins of the Liberal Social Welfare Reforms

  • To be able to recognise the purpose of the reforms in relation to the YOUNG, OLD, SICK, UNEMPLOYED or LOW PAID.

  • To understand why the Liberals faced opposition when they tried to introduce the reforms.

  • To assess whether the reforms solved problems or whether there were limitations.


Individual Challenge





  1. Complete 5.2 in the OLP.

Discuss your answers with the rest of the class.



Group Challenge
Your teacher will split you up into 4 groups


  1. Each group should choose to focus on either the:

THE YOUNG (5.3, p.55-58)

THE OLD (5.4, p.58-62)

THE SICK (5.5, p. 62-64)

THE UNEMPLOYED AND THE EMPLOYED (5.6 p. 64-66)


  1. Each group should research their topic using the OLP and textbook to produce a handout of information. Use the following questions as your subheadings




    • Why the liberals felt that reform was required?

    • What legislation (reform) was introduced?

    • Was there any opposition to the reform?

    • How successful were the reforms – were there limitations?

3. Your teacher will take in each group’s work and collate it. The whole class summary of the Liberal Reforms will be redistributed shortly!




Homework Challenge





  1. Complete the questions 5.3, 5.4, 5.5, 5.6 in OLP to ensure you have comprehensive notes on the Liberal Reforms. THIS HOMEWORK WILL NOT NECESSARILY BE REQUIRED IF THE GROUPS HAVE PULLED THEIR WEIGHT IN THE PREVOUS CHALLENGE!

2. Complete 5.7 in OLP.






ESSAY 5 :

To what extent were the Liberal Reforms (1906 -1914) prompted by feelings of genuine concern for the masses?
- This essay considers WHY the reforms were required.
ESSAY 6: How successfully did the social reforms of the Liberal Government (1906-1914) improve the lives of the British people?


  • This essay considers HOW effective reforms were, or if they had LIMITATIONS

The essays ask 2 DIFFERENT questions. Make sure you know WHAT the question is asking you before you write it!




Paired Challenge





  1. With a partner, one write a plan for essay 6, one for essay 7.

  2. Swap plans, and add in any extra info/analysis your partner has missed out.

  3. Each make a copy of the new improved plans in your notes.

Both Essay 5 and 6 will be completed timed in class.


Good luck!


The Arrival of the Welfare State

  • To understand the impact of WWII in paving the way for a Welfare State.

  • To understand the significance of the Beveridge Report

  • To be able to describe and evaluate the measures taken by the government in response to the ‘Five Giants’ of WANT, DISEASE, IDLENESS, IGNORANCE, SQUALOR

  • To be aware of different historian’s opinions on the significance of the Labour reforms 1945-51.


Class Challenge

1. What does WELFARE STATE mean?


What does a WELFARE STATE comprise of?
Think of your ideas and discuss with you teacher.
2. Complete 7.2 in OLP.

How does your idea of a Welfare State contrast with the level of state intervention by the end of WWII? (Think of how much impact the Liberal Reforms had)




Individual Challenge


1. Complete 7.3 in OLP


2. Read p. 89-93
Either: take notes on how the labour government introduced reforms such as SOCIAL SECURITY, HEALTH, EDUCATION, HOUSING, EMPLOYMENT.
Or: Complete 7.4 in OLP
3. Complete 7.5 in OLP



Class Challenge





  1. Your teacher will divide you into two sets.

One side will argue the merits of the Labour government in solving post-war problems in Britain.


One side will argue the limitations of the Labour government in solving post-war problems in Britain.
Which side had the stronger argument?

What is your own personal thought: give a balanced answer – this can then be used as the main argument for the next essay.





Essay : TIMED ESSAY
The creator of the welfare state.” How accurate is this description of the Labour government of 1945-1951?


ESSAY : TIMED
How successfully were the reforms put in place by the Labour Government to tackle the problems faced by post-war Britain ?






You have now completed the British topic at Higher level!
Your teacher will now talk you through and help you prepare for your NAB – WELL DONE!!!


The database is protected by copyright ©essaydocs.org 2016
send message

    Main page