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Large-Scale State: The USA 1918 to 1939 – Student Workbook



The USA 1918-1939

Large-Scale State




Student Workbook

Questions


Note taking exercises
Study Skills
Essay writing tips


QQ


This student workbook is designed to complement the guide of the same name.



Contained within this workbook you will find:


  • Knowledge and understanding questions designed to focus your attention on the key aspects of the topics covered

  • Skills tasks that will introduce you to study techniques and essay writing.



Contained within the guide you will find the course content which will help you answer the questions.

Large-Scale State – The USA

A study of ideology, identity and authority in a large multi-ethnic state, as developed through the following aspects of US history:



USA at the end of WW1


  • As a large multi-ethnic state

  • Social, economic and political status of ethnic groups

  • Changing attitudes and measures with regard to immigration during the 1920s

  • The attitudes and activities of the Ku Klux Klan

  • Federal and state powers in the US constitution

  • US economy versus US state.


Capitalism and the State in the USA during the 1920s


  • Laissez-faire ideology of the Republican Governments

  • Economic policies of the Republican Governments

  • Prosperity during the 1920s boom

  • Poverty during the 1920s boom

  • Wall Street Crash and its impact.


The growth of Federal powers during the 1930s


  • Depression until 1932

  • Growth of Federal powers from 1918 with reference to New Deal.

Governing America: Federal and state powers in the US constitution


  1. What is meant by a Federal system of Government?




  1. What is the role of the following within the American system of Government:

a) Executive

b) Legislature

c) Judiciary?


  1. What is the Constitution of the USA?




  1. Why can the President often find it difficult to govern effectively?




  1. What were the main differences between the Democrat and Republican political parties?

THE AMERICAN PEOPLE


elect






Political parties

The two main parties are the Democrats and the Republicans. Candidates for President are nominated by each of these two parties and then the American people elect the candidate of their choice.



Congress
Congress makes the laws, declares war and checks the work of the President. It is made up of two houses – the Senate and the House of Representatives. The American people elect the Senators and Congressmen, who may be Republicans or Democrats. Both houses of Congress need to agree before a law can be carried out. Congress can eventually pass laws even if the President is against them.

The President

The President is elected every four years. If the President resigns or dies this Vice-President takes over. The President is the Commander-in-Chief of the Armed forces and is in charge of American foreign policy. He asks the Congress to raise money and make laws. He can delay the introduction of laws he dislikes.


The Supreme Court

The Supreme Court approves the laws and decides whether the laws suggested by the President fit in with the Constitution. The judges of the Supreme Court are appointed by the President. These judges do not belong to a political party.







When Sauerkraut became ‘Liberty Cabbage’: Changing attitudes and measures with regard to immigration during the 1920s


  1. Explain what the term ‘melting pot’ means.

  2. Where did most of the immigrants come from? What was the difference between and ‘old’ and a ‘new’ immigrant?

  3. Why was America attractive to immigrants?

  4. Was the introduction of immigration controls in the 1920s a sudden step? Explain you answer with reference to:

  • Federal Immigration Act [1882]

  • Immigration Restriction League [1884]

  • Chinese Exclusion Act

  • Gentleman’s Agreement [1907]

  • Alien Land Act [1913]




    1. Why was WW1 a catalyst to limit immigration?

    2. What was the 100% American movement?

    3. What were the main concerns of nativists?

    4. Why did Americans object to immigrants?



Social Fears


        1. Where did immigrants tend to congregate?

        2. What conditions did they live in?

        3. What social problems were blamed on the immigrant population and to what extent were these true?

        4. When immigrants tried to gain an education, what obstacles were in their way?



Economic fears


              1. Why were immigrants keen to take any work available?

              2. Why did this cause tension with American workers?



Religious fears


                • How did the religion of the immigrants differ from the majority of Americans?



Political fears


Americans were fiercely proud of their capitalist and democratic ideals. They believed immigrants, in particular those from Eastern Europe, were either Communists or anarchists so threatening the core of American values.

  1. How did the Palmer raid increase tension?

  2. How did the Sacchio and Venzetti case divide American public opinion?




  1. Why were political parties quick to see the potential of the new immigrants?



Legal position

  • How were immigrants treated within the legal system?



Immigration Acts

  • Explain why the following Acts were passed and the effects they had on immigration:

a. Immigration Act of 1917

b. Emergency Immigration Law 1921

c. National Origins Act 1924


Essays

a) “Most immigrants came to the USA in search of the American Dream but only found the American nightmare”. Discuss.
b) Why did the USA cease to welcome unreservedly immigrants in the 1920s?

STOP IMMIGRATION!

AMERICA FOR

AMERICANS



Structuring your notes

As you have studied the topics within Higher History you will have amassed a great deal of information and notes. In preparation for your exams it is very important that you know the material thoroughly and can effectively structure your answers to show this.



What do you need to do?

You need to organise your information and summarise it concisely so you can see how all the facts on a given topic fit together. This must be relevant and clear so that once you appreciate the broad framework you can slot the specific facts into place.

Mind maps and spider diagrams

A clear way to organise yourself is to create a series of mind maps – notes organised under sub-headings that neatly summarise the key aspects of one particular topic on one side of A4 paper. To further clarify, your mind map should be coloured or illustrated so that it grabs your attention.

An example

Here is a partially completed example.

  • A general question based on immigration is at the centre.

  • Radiating from the centre are the sub-headings of the topic set into boxes.

  • Your neat summary notes should now be written into each box. There is not much space.



What can I use this for?

When your mind map is complete, you should see a structure to answer the question set in the centre. This can now be used to:

  • Form the basis of future study. Once you have moved on to a new topic, you can re-refer to your map that will trigger your mind to the key points of your previous work. If you understand this, revision of specific details will be a lot easier

  • Form the basic structure to an essay. However, you still need to create an effective introduction and logical conclusion

Where did immigrants come from? What numbers?


Old immigrants

New immigrants



100% Nativism arguments

Social fears

Religious reasons

Political fears

Economic fears

Impact of World War One

Acts passed by Congress







Immigration restriction in the 1920s.


The Age of Excess: Laissez-faire and the economics policies of the Republican Governments during the prosperity of the 1920s boom.




  1. Why did Americans believe that there were ‘good times ahead’?

  2. What did Hoover express satisfaction over?

  3. What evidence is there of a boom in 1920’s America in relation to:

    • companies and businesses

    • workers

    • standards of living

    • leisure.



The effects of World War One


  1. Why did America enter WW1?

  2. How did the USA benefit from WW1?



The Republican Governments and their policies


  1. Explain what is meant by the term ‘laissez-faire’.

  2. What did Coolidge mean when he said “the chief business of America is business”?

  3. How did the Wall Street Journal respond to this?

  4. The Republican Governments did introduce laws to support and allow business to flourish. Explain how each of the following aided American business:

  • restoring free enterprise

  • balancing the budget

  • protectionism

  • tax reductions

  • reducing regulation.



Technical advances


        1. Why was the motor vehicle industry so important to the American economy?

        2. What electrical goods were produced? Why must it not be called a ‘domestic consumer revolution’?



New business methods


  1. How could huge corporations grow to dominate different industries?

  2. How did management techniques change?

  3. Why was advertising so important?



Credit


  1. How did easy credit encourage consumer spending?

  2. What problems could occur in the future?



Problems in the economy


  1. “Although the American economy was booming, not everybody shared in the growing affluence”. Why is this true?

  2. What is meant by the term ‘rugged individualism’?



Uneven distribution of income


  1. How did the location of industry cause problems in the USA?

  2. How did the incomes of people vary according to:

  • location

  • sex

  • race?



Agriculture


Explain the main problems facing agriculture:

  • competition from abroad

  • overproduction

  • debt

  • limited government intervention

  • falling influence of rural areas.



Get rich quick schemes


  • To get rich quick, what did many Americans do and with what results? Refer to the Florida Land Boom and Stock Market speculation.



Banking


  • Why was banking a precarious position?



International Debt


  • How did the cycle of international debt cause problems for the USA?



Slow Down


  • Was the boom slowing down? Give reasons for your answer.






High Tariffs

Tax cuts

Less government


Industrial

expansion



Mass production




Growth of advertising







Consumer boom













Government Policies

Little help

for farmers



Agricultural depression

Rural poverty

Small farms go out of business












Rural unrest




Polices of

laissez-faire


Unregulated economy








Great extremes of wealth and poverty












Unchecked speculation










Little government help of the needy members of society


Prosperity, Depression

And the New deal, Peter

Clements, 1997 p41

Essays

a) Explain why the economic expansion of the 1920s has been described as ‘a great illusion’


b) How real was the prosperity of 1920s America?

How real was the prosperity of the 1920s?
Step One: Analyse the question. This involves thinking about what you are being asked to do.

How real was the prosperity of the 1920s?




  • In this essay you must deal with the named factor, and compare it to the alternative in order to arrive at a good, well-balanced conclusion.




  • It is asking you to weigh up the prosperity of the 1920s against the problems of poverty / weaknesses in the economy at this time.



Step Two: Planning your answer





  • A good plan does not simply list facts but shows how you intend to use them.

  • Write down, in note form, a plan for your answer, paragraph by paragraph using sub-headings.

  • Jot down relevant points of supporting evidence.

  • Keep it logical with a clear argument.

  • You can prepare a mind-map diagram at this stage.


Create your mind map now


Suggested sub-headings:

Prosperity


Problems in the economy



  • Evidence of prosperity

  • Failure of ‘rugged individualism’

  • World War One

  • Uneven distribution of income

  • Policies of Republican Govs

  • Problems in agriculture

  • ‘Get rich quick’ schemes

  • New Business methods

  • Banking problems

  • Credit

  • International debt




  • Slow down


Note how the answer will address the question and produce a balanced response.


Step Three: How to write an introduction


  • This is your chance to catch the reader’s attention.

  • Produce a thought provoking / attention grabbing first sentence. Try to begin with a quote.

  • Explain the question. Show you understand what it is about. Do not simply rephrase it.

  • Indicate your line of argument. Don’t just list all the points that you are going to make.

  • Link your last sentence of your introduction to the first sentence of paragraph one.

Create your introduction now



Step Four: Producing your essay

For each paragraph remember to:


  • Ensure that the first sentence links onto the last sentence of the previous one.

  • Be clear about the main point to be made in each paragraph and stick to it.

  • Keep your paragraphs relevant, accurate, precise, explained and balanced. No waffle!

  • Include relevant facts, details, quotes and statistics to back up what you are writing. Evidence is essential. In class and at home, you may need to refer to your jotters and textbooks. By exam time, the facts should be at your fingertips.

  • Quote from both primary and secondary sources i.e. historians.

  • Offer opposing views – balance – and then state how they are inaccurate or have limited value

  • Keep checking that your argument is clear and logical. Re-refer to your question

  • Do not produce overly complicated sentences. The reader will lose their train of thought.

  • Keep your language formal and proper. No slang.

  • Avoid nursery language.

  • Do not exaggerate. You have not ‘proved’ your answer definitively.

  • Avoid story telling.


Produce the main body of your essay now



Remember, your mind map will show the basic structure. Refer to your notes for specific detail.



Step Five: producing your conclusion





  • Answer the question. This sounds obvious but many essays fail to do this. This is the climax of all your work.

  • Check your conclusion is based on evidence presented in the essay. It should draw together all that you have proved, shown and demonstrated in the course of your essay.

  • Do not introduce new evidence.

  • You can ‘hedge your bets’ and suggest that there is no simple answer to the question.

  • Remember that you have not proved your points.

  • Try to create a memorable last sentence. Perhaps link it onto your first.


Create your conclusion now



In your prelim and final exam you will have 40 minutes to plan and write your essay. The guidance above will also help you with your extended essay that must be completed prior to your exam.




Yes, I’ve done that

No, I must work on that

















































Essay Skills Checklist




  • Answer is relevant to the question



  • Accurate information showing good understanding of the topic.



  • Essay addresses / answers the exact question asked




  • Essay is in context



  • Valid analysis / line of argument / explanations




  • Essay is structured – organised with well formed paragraphs



  • Evidence is used to support the issue




  • Relevant / accurate conclusion


The Jazz Age: The social, economic and political status of the Blacks in the 1920s and 1930s.
1920s

  • How many Black people lived in the USA in 1920?


Conditions in the South

    1. What rights did all Americans have according to the Declaration of Independence?

    2. How did the philosophy of ‘Separate but equal’ originate?

    3. What interpretation did the Supreme Court put onto the 14th Amendment?

    4. What did the Supreme Court ruling all the Southern State Government to do?



‘Jim Crow’ Laws


  1. Explain what is meant by the term ‘racial segregation’.

  2. The ‘Jim Crow’ Laws came as a result of the Supreme Court decision.

  3. How did these laws affect the lives of people?

  4. Why was the opinion of President Wilson so shocking?



Lack of political influence


  1. How did the Southern states manage to prevent many Blacks from voting?

  2. How did the numbers of Black people voting change in Louisiana and Alabama?



Ku Klux Klan


  1. When and why were the Ku Klux Klan formed?

  2. Which groups were the Ku Klux Klan hostile to?

  3. How did the Ku Klux Klan affect the numbers of Blacks voting?

  4. How strong was the Ku Klux Klan by 1925?

  5. What tactics were used to put fear into the Black community?

  6. How were the Ku Klux Klan treated by the authorities?

  7. What was the purpose of the lynching?

  8. Why did the federal Government do little to aid the Southern Blacks?

  9. Why did the attitude of Northern people towards the Ku Klux Klan change in 1925?



Conditions in the North

The Great Migration

  1. Why did many Black people decide to migrate north?

  2. Where did people go and in what numbers?


Race Riots

Why did riots break out in 1919? [Refer also to the section on immigration]

Poverty of city life

  1. How do the opinions of ‘Minnie’ and ‘Leroy’ differ concerning their experience of Northern city living?

  2. Explain the problems faced by Black in the North.



The Black Cultural Explosion

  1. What aspects of Black culture flourished during the 1920s?

  2. What types of structures developed to aid Blacks and to increase their sense on community?

  3. In what ways was the Black community disunited?



The Growth of political influence

  • Why were Black people in a better position to give political influence in the North?



The New Militancy

    1. How did the experience of World War One influence the returning Black soldiers and their attitudes?

    2. What problems were these men still facing?




    1. Copy and complete the tables below:




NAACP




UNIA

Name







Name




Founder







Founder




Aims







Aims




Membership







Membership




Successes







Successes




Weaknesses







Weaknesses





What had been achieved by 1930?




  1. Summarise the achievements made for Black people.

  2. Summarise the continuing problems.

  3. Why was it better to be a Northern rather than a Southern Black in the 1930s?



The 1930s

The Depression


  1. How many Black farmers left the land in the early 1930s?

  2. Why did Black people find it increasingly difficult to find employment?



The New Deal


  1. How did Black people benefit from the New Deal?

  2. What difficulties still remained?

  3. Why did Roosevelt not address racial issues more directly?

  4. What evidence is there that Blacks appreciated the New Deal legislation?



Essay


How well did the USA work as a multi-ethnic society between
1918 and 1929?

Skills work


Let’s analyse this question

  • What is it really asking us to do?

  • What will our line of argument by?

  • What information will we need to put into your essay?



The day Wall Street crashed


  1. What were Americans buying in their 1920s spending spree?

  2. Why did Americans think this would lead them to becoming rich?


24th October ‘Black Thursday’

  1. What had happened by 11am?

  2. What difficulties were stockbrokers facing?

  3. Why did the visitors’ gallery at the Exchange close?

  4. How did 6 eminent men prop up the market?

  5. Business closed at 3pm. Had the situation improved by then? Explain your answer.


Weekend 25th – 27th October

How did the weekend newspapers report the news of the crash?


28th October

  1. What happened to shares on Monday?

  2. Did the eminent men come to the rescue? What reason was given?


29th October ‘Terrifying Tuesday’

  1. Describe the chaos of ‘Terrifying Tuesday’.

  2. “The stock market contained the seeds of its own collapse”. Explain what this means in relating to trading before October 1929.

  3. What did economist Roger Babson warn?

  4. What were the results of the collapse of confidence?

  5. What roles did the following Presidents have in the economic collapse:

  • Calvin Coolidge

  • Herbert Hoover



What happened next?

    1. How were individuals and businesses affected?

    2. How was the world economy affected?

    3. What arguments have been put forward by historians to suggest that ‘the Great Depression was already on its way’ before the crash?



Essay

“Underlying weaknesses in the economy, more than the Wall Street Crash, caused the economic Depression of the 1930’s”. Discuss.

Skills work



Analyse this question. What is it asking you to do? Try producing an essay plan of your answer. Pay close attention to your introduction and conclusion.



The USA, Oxford, 1996, smith, page 29



In Hoover we trusted, and now we are busted’: The Depression and its impact to 1932.


  1. When was the Depression? How did it differ from previous slumps? Why was the American collapse ‘psychologically damaging’?

  2. Why was Hoover’s acceptance speech of 1928 shortsighted?

  3. List the causes of the Great Depression.



Unemployment

  1. ‘So awesome as to become in the end meaningless’. What happened to unemployment:

  • across America

  • in the major industrial cities?




  1. Which group tended to be less affected by unemployment?

  2. What happened to women’s employment opportunities at this time?

  3. What relief was available to the unemployed from:

  • local / state governments

  • charities?



Life of the unemployed

    1. List the key points of evidence given by William Foster on life for the unemployed.

    2. What hardships were faced by the unemployed / wage cut employees?

    3. Why were people insecure?

    4. “People went hungry in one of the richest food producing countries in the world”. Why?




    1. What lengths did people go to in order to get food?

    2. What were ‘Hoovervilles’?

    3. How did Hoboes live?

    4. How did unemployment affect:

  • suicide rates

  • marriage levels

  • crime rates [See source]?




    1. Why did the Bonus Army take action and how did the Government respond?

  1. How were the middle classes affected by the Depression?

  2. What evidence is there that even the wealthiest were badly affected?

  3. Why did the Depression give rise to ethnic discrimination? Give examples



Government response

    1. What did Hoover believe that the Government response should be?

    2. What reasons were given for not launching a Government initiative?

    3. What, according to the Government, was the key to recovery?

    4. Why was self-help not an option for help?

    5. How were people affected by the failure of:

  • Local Government cuts

  • Charities

    1. In what ways were some self-help measures working?



Government policies

  1. Was Hoover ‘mean-spirited’ and ‘callous’?

  2. As the economic situation deteriorated, what steps did Hoover and the Government take?

  3. What did the Reconstruction finance Committee do? How successful was it?

  4. Why did the Depression last so long?

  5. Was Nixon correct when he said that “Hoover had the misfortune to hold office at the wrong time”, or should he be blamed for the Depression?



The human cost of the Great Depression

  1. List the ways that the lives of people were directly affected by the Depression?

  2. How did people try to help themselves?



Essays

    1. How far did the policies of the American Government cause the Great Depression?




  1. ‘The over-production of good by American manufacturers was the key factor in causing the Great Depression of the 1930s? How far do you agree with this statement?




  1. Assess the social and economic results of the Wall Street Crash by 1932.


The New Deal: Growth of Federal powers


  1. At the time of Roosevelt’s inauguration address, what were the main problems facing Americans in 1933?




  1. Roosevelt promised ‘A New Deal for the American people’. What did this mean?




  1. Explain the banking crisis that faced America in 1932. How was it solved?



Alphabet Agencies

    1. What were the ‘Alphabet agencies’?

    2. What were the early aims of the New Deal programme?

    3. Collect a copy of the Alphabet Agency note sheet. Fill in the relevant information.

    4. Why were the ‘sick’ chickens significant to the New Deal?

    5. At the end of the 100 days, how did the people feel towards:

  • The New Deal programme

  • Roosevelt personally?




    1. What evidence is there that the electorate was content with the New Deal in 1934?

    2. What difficulties were facing Roosevelt at the end of the 100 days?

    3. How did Roosevelt plan to tackle these difficulties?

    4. How did the Depression of 1937 weaken confidence in the Roosevelt administration?

    5. Why was the second phase of the New Deal significant?

    6. What, according to historians, are the main differences between the first and second phases of the New Deal?

    7. Is it fair to say that ‘the New Deal was ultimately a failure’?



The New Deal on the Land

  1. What two main problems faced farmers in the 1920s and early 1930s?

  2. Explain ‘Dust Bowl’ conditions

  3. How did the Agriculture Adjustment Act aim to aid farmers?

  4. How was this brought about?

  5. Why would people in towns and cities be angered by such action?

  6. Which farmers benefited most? Who did not?

  7. Why did many farmers move west?

  8. How were farmers treated when they reached California?

  9. Why did the Supreme Court cause problems in 1936?

  10. How did the following aid farmers:



Evaluation of the New Deal

  1. What evidence is there to back up the view that the New Deal ‘was the worst fraud ever perpetuated on the American people’?

  2. What must be remembered when summing up the New Deal?

  3. For each of the following, state how the New Deal benefited people and the USA in general:

  • helping the less fortunate

  • economic reform

  • political reform

  • social reform.

  1. What are the 3 most important legacies left by the New Deal to the USA?

Essay

a. How successful were the increased powers of the Federal Government as adopted on the New Deal, in solving the social and economic problems in the 1930s?
b. ‘A political triumph but an economic failure’. How fair a judgement is this of the New Deal?


Internal Assessment of Higher Essay Skills / Content



Name:




Date:



E


ssay title:




Pass


Fail























































NB The candidate was given a choice of two questions (hitherto unseen). The essay was timed and done under exam conditions.

Answer relevant to question


Accurate information showing good understanding

of the topic


Essay addresses / answers the exact questions

asked
Essay in context

Valid analysis / line of argument / explanations

Essay structured – organised with well formed

paragraphs
Evidence used to support issue

Relevant / accurate conclusion

The bottom line Mark out of 25

Spare essay questions


“An increasing resentment and hostility”. To what extent is this an accurate description of American attitudes towards immigration in the years after 1918?
“Americans are demanding that their country should no longer be open”. Explain why this statement is true.
‘The myth of the melting pot is discredited’. Argue why this is the case.
‘Simply part of the post-war desire to isolate America from the outside world’. How far does this explain the changing attitudes towards immigration during the 1920s?
‘Partial prosperity’. Discuss this view of the economy of the USA on the 1920s. Why, after a decade of apparent prosperity, did the US experience deep recession between 1929 and 1932?
Did the economic policies of the Republican governments of the 1920s cause the economic depression of the 1930s?
Why did Hoover win the 1928 election but lose in 1932?
“Success on the surface, problems underneath”. How far would you agree with this analysis of the policies of the Republican administration of the 1920s?
How far did the laissez-faire policies of the Republican Governments bring prosperity in the USA during the 1920s?
How far did the USA face the economic problems in the 1930s due to the laissez-faire economic problems of Republican administrations during the 1920s?
Assess the social and economic results of the laissez-faire policies of the Republican Governments of the 1920s.
‘The economic boom of the ‘Roaring Twenties’ actually increased divisions between rich and poor’. How far do you agree?
Explain the policies of the Republican Presidents of the USA from 1921 –1933
Why was there an economic boom before October 1929?
Describe the economic condition of the USA in the 1920s and contrast it with that of the 1930s.
“We in America today are nearer to the final triumph over poverty than ever before in the history of any land”. What led president Hoover to make this statement in 1929? Did the events of the following three years justify his optimism?
What reasons have been given for the collapse of confidence in October 1929? Explain why confidence in the stock market could in fact have collapsed at any time.

Did the Wall Street Crash cause the Depression? Explain the arguments for and against this statement.


Assess the social and economic results of the Wall Street Crash by 1932.
“Underlying weaknesses in the economy, more than the Wall Street Crash, caused the economic depression of the 1930s”. Discuss.
Assess the impact of the Wall Street Crash on the American economy in the early 1930s.
Why did Herbert Hoover easily win the 1928 Presidential election but lose the 1932 one?
What caused the Great Depression?
‘The overproduction of goods by American manufacturers was the key factor in causing the great Depression of the 1930s’. How far do you agree with this statement?
What were the causes of the Great Depression and what were its effects on the USA?
How did the treatment of the Depression by the Republicans differ from that prescribed by the Democrats?
How far did the policies of the American Government cause the great Depression?
What were causes of the great boom of the 1920s and why did it suddenly change to Depression?
To what extent were the inequalities of Black Americans in the 1920s and 1930s due to the activities of organisations like the Ku Klux Klan?
To what extent did ethnic minority groups suffer from racial discrimination in the USA during the 1920s?
‘America’s blacks faced persecution and discrimination just because they were black’. Is this true?
How well did the USA work as a multi-ethnic society between 1918-1929?
Why did the KKK amass so much support in the early 1920s?
Was the first New Deal a coherent policy or simply a series of disparate measures to deal with crises?
To what extent did the economic problems of the 1930s cause a growth on the powers of federal Government in the 1920s?
How successful were the increased powers of the federal government as adopted in the New Deal, in solving the social and economic problems of the 1930s?
‘A political triumph but an economic failure’. How fair a judgement is this on the New Deal?
Why was Roosevelt regarded as a saviour by so many?
Was the New Deal a political and economic success but an economic failure?
What was achieved by the New Deal?
Analyse the effectiveness of the New Deal policies in attempting to revive the economy between 1933 and 1939.
Did the New Deal represent a revolution in American Government?
How effective were the increased powers of the federal government, adopted during the New Deal, in solving the economic problems of the time?
How effective were the increased powers of the Federal Government in dealing with the economic and social problems of the 1930s?
“The work the federal government, in promoting economic recovery through the New Deal, has been greatly exaggerated”. How far do you accept this view?
What did Roosevelt do between 1933 and 1940 to reduce unemployment, help agriculture and improve standards of living in the USA?
How effective were the New Deal’s works programmes in solving the problem of unemployment in the 1930s?
Was the New Deal really a failure?
How significant was the challenge to the growth of executive powers in the 1930s?



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