Labor Unions: KoL, afl, and iww

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Labor Unions: KoL, AFL, and IWW
At the turn of the twentieth century, American workers debated how they could best defend their interests in the face of powerful national corporations. One of the most contentious questions that faced them was whether labor should agitate for higher wages, shorter hours, and better working conditions, or for more fundamental transformations in the nation's economy. Another source of controversy was whether unions should try to organize whole industries (what are called industrial unions) or organize particular skilled crafts (craft unions). At stake in these debates was the very meaning of the labor movement: Whom to organize? How to organize them? What to do once they are organized? Playing key roles in providing their own answers to those questions were three labor unions: the Knights of Labor, the American Federation of Labor and the Industrial Workers of the World.
Directions: Read the organizations’ founding documents to identify and compare the ideological principles, goals and tactics of each. What might be some practical problems with the organizations’ goals or ideals?

Knights of Labor

American Federation of Labor

Industrial Workers of the World








The alarming development and aggressiveness of great capitalists and corporations, unless checked, will inevitably lead to the pauperization and hopeless degradation of the toiling masses.

It is imperative, if we desire to enjoy the full blessings of life, that a check be placed upon unjust accumulation, and the power for evil of aggregated wealth.

This much-desired object can be accomplished only by the united efforts of those who obey the divine injunction, "In the sweat of they face shalt thou eat bread."

Therefore we have formed the Order of Knights of Labor, for the purpose of organizing and directing the power of the industrial masses, not as a political party, for it is more - in it are crystallized sentiments and measures for the benefit of the whole people, but it should be borne in mind, when exercising the right of suffrage, that most of the objects herein set forth can only be obtained through legislation, and that it is the duty of all to assist in nominating and supporting with their votes only such candidates as will pledge their support to those measures, regardless of party. But no one shall, however, be compelled to vote with the majority, and calling upon all who believe in securing "the greatest good to the greatest number," to join and assist us, we declare to the world that are our aims are:

  1. To make individual and moral worth, not wealth, the true standard of individual and National greatness.

  2. To secure to the workers the full enjoyment of the wealth they create, sufficient leisure in which to develop their intellectual, moral, and social faculties: all of the benefits, recreation and pleasures of association; in a word, to enable them to share in the gains and honors of advancing civilization.

In order to secure these results, we demand at the hands of the State:

  1. The establishment of Bureaus of Labor Statistics, that we may arrive at a correct knowledge of the educational, moral and financial condition of the laboring masses.

  2. That the public lands, the heritage of the people, be reserved for actual settlers; not another acre for railroads or speculators, and that all lands now held for speculative purposes be taxed to their full value.

  3. The abrogation of all laws that do not bear equally upon capital and labor, and the removal of unjust technicalities, delays and discriminations in the administration of justice.

  4. The adoption of measures providing for the health and safety of those engaged in mining and manufacturing, building industries, and for indemnification to those engaged therein for injuries received through lack of necessary safeguards.

  5. The recognition, by incorporation, of trades' unions, orders and such other associations as may be organized by the working masses to improve their condition and protect their rights.

  6. The enactment of laws to compel corporations to pay their employees weekly, in lawful money, for the labor of the preceding week, and giving mechanics and laborers a first lien upon the product of their labor to the extend of their full wages.

  7. The abolition of the contract system on National, State and Municipal works.

  8. The enactment of laws providing for arbitration between employers and employed, and to enforce the decision of the arbitrators.

  9. The prohibition by law of the employment of children under 15 years of age in workshops, mines and factories.

  10. To prohibit the hiring out of convict labor.

  11. That a graduated income tax be levied.

And we demand at the hands of Congress:

  1. The establishment of a National monetary system, in which a circulating medium in necessary quantity shall issue direct to the people, without the intervention of banks; that all the National issue shall be full legal tender in payment of all debts, public and private; and that the Government shall not guarantee or recognize any private banks, or create any banking corporations.

  2. That interest-bearing bonds, bills of credit or notes shall never be issued by the Government, but that, when need arises, the emergency shall be met by issue of legal tender, non-interest-bearing money.

  3. That the importation of foreign labor under contract be prohibited.

  4. That, in connection wit the post-office, the Government shall organize financial exchanges, safe deposits and facilities for deposit of the savings of the people in small sums.

  5. That the Government shall obtain possession, by purchase, under the right of eminent domain, of all telegraphs, telephones and railroads, and that hereafter no charter or license be issued to any corporation for construction or operation of any means of transporting intelligence, passengers or freight.

And while making the foregoing demands upon the State and National Government, we will endeavor to associate our own labors.

  1. To establish co-operative institutions such as will tend to supersede the wage system, by the introduction of a co-operative industrial system.

  2. To secure for both sexes equal pay for equal work.

  3. To shorten the hours of labor by a general refusal to work for more than eight hours.

  4. To persuade employers to agree to arbitrate all differences which may arise between them and their employees, in order that the bonds of sympathy between them may be strengthened and that strikes may be rendered unnecessary.

The Knights of Labor began as a secret society of tailors in Philadelphia in 1869. The organization grew slowly during the hard years of the 1870s, but worker militancy rose toward the end of the decade, especially after the great railroad strike of 1877, and the Knights' membership rose with it. Grand Master Workman Terence V. Powderly took office in 1879, and under his leadership the Knights flourished; by 1886 the group had 700,000 members. Powderly dispensed with the earlier rules of secrecy and committed the organization to seeking the eight-hour day, abolition of child labor, equal pay for equal work, and political reforms including the graduated income tax.

Unlike most trade unions of the day, the Knights' unions were vertically organized--each included all workers in a given industry, regardless of trade. The Knights were also unusual in accepting workers of all skill levels and both sexes; blacks were included after 1883 (though in segregated locals). On the other hand, the Knights strongly supported the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 and the Contract Labor Law of 1885; like many labor leaders at the time, Powderly believed these laws were needed to protect the American work force against competition from underpaid laborers imported by unscrupulous employers.


American Federation of Labor: Declaration of Principles
“Whereas a struggle is going on in the nations of the civilized world, between the oppressors and oppressed of all countries, a struggle between capital and labor which must grow in intensity from year to year and work disastrous results to the toiling millions of all nations, if not combined for mutual protection and benefits. The history of the wage workers of all countries is but the history of constant struggle and misery, engendered by ignorance and disunion, whereas the history of the non-producers of all countries proves that a minority thoroughly organized may work wonders for good or evil. It behooves the representatives of the workers of North America in congress assembled, to adopt such measures and disseminate such principles among the people of our country as will unite them for all time to come, to secure the recognition of the rights to which they are justly entitled. The various trades have been affected by the introduction of machinery, the subdivision of labor, the use of women's and children's labor and the lack of an apprentice system, so that the skilled trades are rapidly sinking to the level of pauper labor. To protect the skilled labor of America from being reduced to beggary and to sustain the standard of American workmanship and skill, the trades unions of America have been established.”
The American Federation of Labor (AFL) was formed in 1886. Samuel Gompers (1850-1924), who served as president 1886-1895 and 1896-1924, provided conservative leadership. Instead of trying to reshape the fundamental institutions of American life, as some of the more radical union activists were trying to do, the AFL focused on securing for its members higher wages, better working conditions, and a shorter work week.

Because the union did not attempt to organize unskilled workers, it made few gains among new workers during the 1920s, when much of the growth of the economy took place in mass-production industries such as automobiles, rubber, chemicals, and utilities. In fact, although Gompers' middle-of-the-road leadership helped make the AFL the largest and most powerful union in the country, compared to earlier decades, that was not very powerful, and membership dropped dramatically.

Gompers' commitment to organizing skilled workers—what he believed to be the “bread and butter” or “pure and simple” union—in addition to avoiding the radical left, and accomplishing change through established channels whenever possible, rather than through strikes, led conservative businessmen to view him favorably. Nevertheless, he opposed the open shop movement of the 1920s and the spread of company unions (unions organized by companies to keep away outside organizers).


Preamble to the Constitution of the Industrial Workers of the World
The working class and the employing class have nothing in common. There can be no peace so long as hunger and want are found among millions of the working people and the few, who make up the employing class, have all the good things of life.

Between these two classes a struggle must go on until the workers of the world organize as a class, take possession of the means of production, abolish the wage system, and live in harmony with the Earth.

We find that the centering of the management of industries into fewer and fewer hands makes the trade unions unable to cope with the ever growing power of the employing class. The trade unions foster a state of affairs which allows one set of workers to be pitted against another set of workers in the same industry, thereby helping defeat one another in wage wars. Moreover, the trade unions aid the employing class to mislead the workers into the belief that the working class have interests in common with their employers.
These conditions can be changed and the interest of the working class upheld only by an organization formed in such a way that all its members in any one industry, or in all industries if necessary, cease work whenever a strike or lockout is on in any department thereof, thus making an injury to one an injury to all.
Instead of the conservative motto, "A fair day's wage for a fair day's work," we must inscribe on our banner the revolutionary watchword, "Abolition of the wage system." It is the historic mission of the working class to do away with capitalism. The army of production must be organized, not only for everyday struggle with capitalists, but also to carry on production when capitalism shall have been overthrown. By organizing industrially we are forming the structure of the new society within the shell of the old.
The Industrial Workers of the World, or IWW, was founded in 1905 in Chicago by Bill Haywood, leader of the Western Federation of Miners. By 1908, the IWW had become influential among migrant laborers in the Pacific Northwest. Members were dubbed "Wobblies" and soon earned a reputation for loud singing, radicalism, and militancy. The IWW was an "industrial" union, one that embraced and organized both skilled and unskilled workers within particular industries. Formed in 1905 partly in opposition to the craft unionism of the American Federation of Labor (AFL), it was a democratic union with a mix of radical anti-capitalist politics. The founding membership included socialists and labor unionists of various kinds, dominated by the militant, radical metal miners of the Western Federation of Miners.

IWW members and organizers massive lumber strike in the summer of 1917 brought the industry to a halt at the beginning of World War I. However, IWW membership and influence declined sharply after the anti-radical purges of the World War I era, but the union never quite died off.


Knights of Labor

American Federation of Labor

Industrial Workers of the World


Men, women, whites, blacks, skilled, unskilled, citizens, immigrants

Skilled workers from many industries,

Socialists and trade unions, unskilled and exploited workers, immigrants, minorities, women, migrant farmers


Terence V. Powderly

Samuel Gompers

“Big” Bill Haywood,

Eugene V. Debs


Abolishing child labor, equal pay for equal work, 8-hour work day, creation of a Bureau of Labor Statistics in the federal government

Higher wages, shorter hours, other economics issues

(aka “pure and simple” unionism)

One big union to control the means of production and distribution (Marxist/communist struggle), abolish divisions among workers, achieve fair and equal working conditions and government support for labor


Arbitration, boycotts, cooperatives, though they did not support strikes they did use strikes sometimes, legislative pressure (used after Haymarket)

Distanced itself from communist and socialist organizations, negotiated labor contracts, strike only when necessary, focused on day-to-day working conditions instead of social or business practices, collective bargaining, closed shop

Direct action, strikes, (general strike in the future to overthrow the capitalistic system, smaller strikes in the short term), educational campaigns, songs, graphics, speeches, literature, sit-down strike, chain picketing, car caravans


Second strike against Jay Gould’s railroad empire and the Haymarket Square Riot in May 1886 destroyed the reputation and support of the union, most members joined the AFL or local trade unions comprised of skilled workers

Congress passed labor laws, but the Supreme Court overruled some, merged with the CIO (Congress of Industrial Organizations) in 1955, did achieve better working conditions (minimum wage, maximum working hours, workers compensation, end to child labor = all during the 1930s)

Civil rights advances, fought against the government for protection of 1st Amendment rights, anti-military and anti-war stance caused them to be unpopular in WWI, legacy of organizing tactics for groups, led to the mass union of the CIO and inclusion of women in labor leadership and membership

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