Knowledge Map of Awesomeness 1 In calendar terms, B. C. E. means…



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Knowledge Map of Awesomeness

1

In calendar terms, B.C.E. means…

Before Christ

2

In calendar terms, A.D. means…

Anno Domini which means “in the year of our Lord” in Latin

3

Most of the world uses a calendar that starts counting at the birth of Jesus Christ. This calendar is called ( ) named after ( )?

The Gregorian Calendar named after Pope Gregory XIII.

4

Historians divide the past into large blocks of time called?

Eras

5

A group of 10 years is called a…

Decade

6

What are the largest bodies of water on earth called? Name all five.

Oceans-Pacific, Atlantic, Indian, Arctic, Southern

7

What is climate?

Climate is weather conditions in a place over a long period of time.

8

What are the five themes of geography?

Location, place, region, movement, and human-environment interaction.

9

There are two main tools that geographers use to represent (or show) Earth. What are they?

Globes and maps

10

If you’re an archeologist, you dig in the earth to learn about the past. You are mostly looking for what?

Artifacts (such as tools, pottery, weapons and jewelry)

11

If you’re a Paleontologist you are mostly looking for what?

Fossils (remains of plant and animal life)

12

Anthropologists study what?

Human culture and how it changes over time (often times using fossils and artifacts).

13

What is a “Species”?

A class of individuals with similar physical characteristics.

14

Why was the discovery of “Lucy” important for archaeologists?

She’s one of the first almost complete skeletons ever discovered.

15

Why would historians study the past?

    • Learning about the past helps us understand the present.

    • Learning from our mistakes helps us to not repeat them.

    • Need both to get this right!

16

What is a secondary source?

Any retelling of an event (books, paintings, and media reports) created by someone who was NOT present at an event.

17

The study of earth and its people is called…

Geography

18

Your attitude about life or people is called your….

Point of View

19

A point of view that is based on emotional judgment and can not always be trusted is called…

Bias

20

The earth is divided into seven large landmasses called? Name them:

Continents-Africa, Antarctica, Asia, Australia, Europe, North America, and South America

21

Name three ways climate affects people:

    • What people wear

    • What people do for a job

    • What people eat

    • Building materials they use

    • How people get food

    • Other answers acceptable with teacher ok.

22

The two geography themes that describe what a place is like, such as landforms, climate, plant or animal life are called

( ) and ( ).

Places and regions

23

Explain Human-Environment Interaction (it’s one of the 5 Themes of Geography)

It’s how people use and change the environment around them. Can be positive or negative.

24

When writing longitude, what cardinal directions follow the coordinates? (example: 102°____)

east and west

25

When writing latitude, what cardinal directions follow the coordinates? (example: 56°____)

north and south

26

What is the 0 degree latitude line called?

Equator

27

What is the 0 degree longitude line called?

Prime Meridian

28

What do political maps show?

Cities, states, provinces, territories and countries, boundaries, borders between regions, etc.

29

What do physical maps show?

A physical map shows landforms and bodies of water.

30

What do thematic maps show?

Specific info like climate, distribution of natural resources (how many cows live in a certain place. )

31

Louis and Mary Leakey’s discoveries suggest human evolution started in what continent?

Africa

32

Define “oral history.”

Customs told (spoken orally) and passed down from generation to generation

33

The movement of people from one place to settle in another place is called….

Migration

34

Making an inference means…

Choosing the most likely explanation based on the evidence you have.

35

What kind of source is a letter written by someone who witnessed an event?

Primary Source

36

Modern maps are made with the help of…?

Satellites/GPS

37

Why did hunter-gatherers often move around to survive?

They had to follow animals and seasonal plants.

38

If you lived in a nomadic society, what do you do a lot of?

move

39

Another name for the Stone Age, when people used stone to make tools and weapons is…

The Paleolithic Age

40

Give an example of early human domestication.

    • growing and tending crops.

    • raising sheep for food and wool.

    • training animals for plowing.

    • Other answers are acceptable with teacher ok.

41

How did the Ice Age affect where people settled in the Americas?

They created a land bridge from Asia to the Americas. When the Ice Age ended, people could migrate to different places.

42

How did domestication change way of life for early humans? Name two ways.

    • Didn’t have to hunt as much

    • Didn’t have to leave village

    • Animals became reliable source of meat and milk

    • Animals skins used for shelter and clothing

    • Planting allowed humans and animals to eat more easily

    • Other answers are acceptable with teacher ok.

43

What was the “Agricultural Revolution”?

The shift from having to gather food to instead, raising it yourself

44

What was meant by “systematic agriculture”?

When humans starting growing their own food on a regular basis

45

Irrigation systems are used to…

water crops

46

What are two ways planting and harvesting seeds led to the development of villages?

47

What does it mean when you have a “surplus” of something?

You have more than you need or can use

48

What does “specialization” mean?

Being skilled at one thing (e.g. pottery or farming)

49

What is a “social class”?

A group of people that share similar customs, background, training, or income.

50

What climate difficulties did Mesopotamian farmers face? Name two.

    • The region had a semiarid climate that received less than 10 inches of rain a year. Drought was a constant danger.

    • The flooding of the Tigris and Euphrates was unpredictable, making it difficult to predict when to plant crops.

51

What is an “artisan”?

Someone that is skilled at crafts (pottery, weaving, etc.)

52

Name three reasons people formed governments?

53

What name was given to the land that lies between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers?

Mesopotamia

54

Most historians think the first civilization rose about 3300 B.C. in southern Mesopotamia. What was the name of this civilization?

Sumer

55

How did Mesopotamian farmers overcome the challenges of unpredictable floods and a semi arid climate?

Farmers created and maintained an extensive irrigation system of canals and dams to control the rivers' water.

56

Why did ancient Mesopotamians use mud as a primary building material?

The region had few natural resources such as timber or stone.

It keeps things cool inside.

57

A community that includes a city and its nearby farmlands and has it’s own form of government is called....

A City-State

58

What are four examples of Sumerians' contributions to society? (Sumerian legacy)

    • Wheel

    • Plow

    • Bronze tools

    • Arithmetic system based on the number 60

    • Cuneiform writing

    • Irrigation

59

Why were ziggurat’s built?

To honor Sumerian gods. The top was the god’s home.

60

How did rivers influence the growth of civilization in Mesopotamia?

    • The flooding rivers left silt, which made the soil fertile for crops to grow.

    • Irrigation canals were dug to bring water to the fields.

    • They helped create crop surpluses that helped civilizations grow.

    • The rivers provided easier transportation so they could trade.

    • Need at least two to get this right

61

What is Hammurabi’s code?

Laws the people of the Babylonian Empire had to follow.

A code of justice for all men, women and children.

62

What is the nickname of the region of land, rich with fertile soil and water, that curves between the Persian Gulf and the Mediterranean Sea?

The Fertile Crescent

63

What group of people were the most cruel in conquering and governing their empire?

The Assyrians

64

What ruler built the Hanging Gardens of Babylon, one of the seven wonders of the ancient world?

Nebuchadnezzar

65

Which Babylonian ruler showed the most concern about justice for the people in his empire?

Hammurabi

66

Who created a code of law that said, “the punishments should depend on the crimes committed”?

Hammurabi

67

Assyrians conquered many peoples. Those people had to pay the Assyrians “tribute” money. Why?

When you paid tribute, the Assyrians would protect you.

68

The Babylonian empire started on the eastern bank of the Euphrates which is what modern day country?

Iraq

69

The southern part of the Nile River churns with….?

cataracts

70

Cyrus the Great established a policy of toleration. What did this mean?

    • He allowed conquered people to keep their own customs and beliefs.

    • They could continue to worship their own gods, speak their own languages and practice their own way of life.

71

Name two things about the geography of Egypt that helped isolate and protect it?

    • Harsh deserts to the East and West.

    • Swampy Coast on the Mediterranean in the North lacked good harbors.

    • Cataracts (Waterfalls) in the South blocked ships.

72

What is an important difference between the Nile and the rivers of Mesopotamia?

Nile floods were very predictable.

73

A government in which the same person is both the political leader and the religious leader is called a…

theocracy

74

The word “Pharoah” refers to two things. What are they?

    • Egyptian king

    • “Great house”…the palace where the king and his family lived.

75

The area near the mouth of the Nile is what geographic feature?

A delta

76

Near its mouth, the Nile deposits fine soil called:

Silt

77

Egyptians wore clothing made of a fabric called:

linen

78

Why did ancient historians call Egypt "the gift of the Nile"?

    • It provided rich soil and nutrients for growing crops

    • Provide mud for houses

    • Water to irrigate crops

    • Need at least two to get this right

79

Which group of people specialized in reading and writing in Mesopotamia?

Scribes

80

What is the world’s longest river?

The Nile

81

Astronomy helped ancient Egyptians develop something we use today. What is it?

A calendar

82

Egyptian scribes used a kind of writing called what? What kind of paper did they write on?

Hieroglyphics, Papyrus

83

What does polytheism mean?

Worshipping more than one god

84

How did Ramses II make Egypt more stable?

    • He ruled for 66 years

    • He made peace treaties with enemies

    • Treated enemies well

    • Need at least two to get this right

85

What are two things that characterize the rule of Queen Hatshepsut‘s, Egypt’s first woman Pharaoh.

    • Expansion of trade, expedition to Punt

    • Creation of Obelisk monuments

    • Mysterious ending of her rule

86

Why did King Akhenaton change Egyptian religion and what did he do?

    • He believed the priests had too much power

    • He said that there would be only one god, Aton, the sun god, instead of many gods

87

What was the process called where Egyptians preserved the dead? (not mummification)

embalming

88

The Israelites recorded their beliefs and history into a document known as…

The Hebrew Bible

89

The Israelite’s religion is called….

Judaism

90

The followers of Judaism today are called…

Jews

91

Christians called the Hebrew Bible….

The Old Testament

92

Abraham is considered the “Father” of what three religions?

Judaism, Christianity and Islam

93

What group treated the Israelites like slaves?

The Egyptians

94

Who rescued the Israelites from the Egyptians in the Exodus?

Moses

95

In the Torah, part of the Hebrew Bible, was a list or rules God gave the Israelites. They are called….?

The Ten Commandments

96

What was the Babylonian Exile.

When the Jew’s country was taken over, they were forced to leave and they scattered all over the world.

97

Name three important things about King David.

    • He fought and killed a Philistine named Goliath.

    • He wrote the Psalms in the bible

    • He made Israel great. It was their Golden Age.

    • The Star of David is on the Jewish flag.

98

What is a peninsula?

A body of land with three sides.

99

Who were the first people to create a civilization in Greece?

The Mycenaeans

100

How is Greece’s geography different than Egypt and Mesopotamia?

    • 70 to 80% of it is covered with mountains

    • There are no large rivers

    • Rocky land=only 20-30% of land good for farming

101

Name two ways Greece's geography influenced trade?

    • It was on the sea

    • It had harbors and seaports and trading partners

    • It had a long coastline (like a sea highway)

    • Ionian and Aegean Sea weren’t large and could be easily sailed)

102

What are two characteristics of the Greek gods that can be seen in their myths?

    • They were regularly involved in people's lives.

    • They had both divine and human qualities and could take human form.

    • They show human emotions such as love, anger, and jealousy.

103

Who created “our” alphabet?

The Phoenicians

104

What happened in Homer’s epic poem, the Iliad?

The Greeks sent a “victory prize” to the Trojans in the form of a Trojan Horse. The Trojans wheeled it into the city walls. The Greeks inside attacked, destroyed and captured the city, rescued Helen and took her home.

105

What are two ways that religious beliefs influenced Greek ways of life for the common person?

    • They tried to honor the gods and prevent them from anger

    • They built statues and temples to worship them

    • They held festivals that included public sacrifices and ceremonies

    • Athletic competitions, such as the Olympics, were always a part of religious festivals

106

In Greek, the word for city-state was…

polis

107

The upper class in Greece was called the…

Aristocracy

108

A government ruled by just a few people is a(n)…

oligarchy

109

Someone who took power in an illegal way was a(n)

tyrant

110

How was as Greek citizen different than an Egyptian or Mesopotamian citizen?

Greek: must be a free, landowning male, can vote, serve in the gov, and fight for your country

Egypt/Meso: no rights, no voice in gov, no choice but to obey the rulers

111

What is a monarchy?

The earliest form of Greek government that is led by a king or queen with supreme power

112

What is an Agora?

An open area used as a marketplace and center for political debates. Located outside the Acropolis.

113

What is a democracy?

114

What is the difference between an Athenian style direct democracy and U.S. style indirect democracy?

Greece: Direct-ALL citizens meet to decide on laws

U.S.: Representative-people ELECT representatives to make the laws

115

Name two ways Greece was organized into different political systems?

The rugged geography divided it into small regions

It was divided into city-states

Each city-state had its own form of government

116

A direct democracy was used by the important Greek city-state of…

Athens

117

Athens' main rival was the city-state of…

Sparta

118

The Spartans conquered their neighbors and forced them to become…

Helots (slaves)

119

What is a helot?

A slave in Sparta

120

Give two goals that Pericles had as a leader of Athens.

    • strengthening democracy

    • beautifying Athens

    • expanding the empire

121

The original purpose of the Delian League was to…

protect the city-states

122

Name two of Solon’s accomplishments.

    • He freed people who had become slaves because of debts

    • He made a law that nobody could be enslaved

    • He organized citizens into four classes based on wealth, not birth

    • He allowed all citizens to serve in the government

    • He made the laws less harsh

123

What was Darius known for? Name Three.

    • Ruled Persia

    • Divided empire (because it was huge!) into provinces

    • Appointed a governor, called a Satrap for each province

124

How did the Greeks win at the Battle of Marathon

They attacked the Persians in the water when they weren’t ready. 10,000 troops defeated the 20,000 Persian troops.

125

The Peloponnesian War was mainly fought between what two city-states?

Sparta and Athens

126

The center of Hellenistic culture that Alexander founded was…

Alexandria

127

A question-and-answer style of teaching created by a famous Greek philosopher was called…

The Socratic Method

128

What was Plato, the Greek philosopher known for?

He wrote “The Republic” saying that the Greek government should be run by “just” philosophers because they were smart.

129

What does American democracy have to do with Aristotle, a famous Greek thinker?

He believed the best government should be run by chief (president), a council should assist the leader (congress/legislators) and be supported by the people (US citizens)

130

List two ways that Athens came to dominate the Delian league.

    • Pericles used funds from the Delian league to create a massive navy for Athens.

    • Pericles transferred the treasury to Athens and used funds to rebuild and beautify the city.

    • Athens treated other city-states like conquered people.

131

What was the main cause of the Peloponnesian War?

Other Greek city-states resented Athens' power.

132

What were two consequences of the Peloponnesian War?

    • As many as 1/3 of the population of Athens was killed by plague including Pericles himself.

    • The great Athenian navy was destroyed when Sparta won.

    • Phillip II of Macedon was able to sweep in and conquer the weakened city-states of Greece.

133

Name two aspects of Alexander the Great’s legacy (what he is known for)

    • The Hellenistic Era

    • Conquering massive amounts of land in the middle east

    • Trying to unite Macedonians, Greeks, Egyptians and Asians (it didn’t work)

134

What does “Hellenistic” mean?

“Like the Greeks”

It is a culture based on a mix of Greek, Persian, Egyptian, Indian and Roman styles and customs

135

What are three contributions of Greek culture that have continued in America to this day?

    • Drama (Comedy and Tragedy).

    • Sculpture and Art emphasizing Greek ideals of beauty.

    • Architecture (often seen in public buildings).

    • Other answers if ok with teacher.

136

Explain how legend says the Rome was founded…

    • Twins who had been rescued by a wolf.

    • Romulus and Remus.

    • Romulus killed Remus.

137

Why was Rome considered to be in the perfect geographical location. Name at least three reasons.

Rome's location offered water, protection, and trade

138

Most early Romans worked as what?

farmers

139

The early Romans overthrew their Etruscan king and established a government where citizens elect their leaders. What is the name of the government?

A Republic

140

The Roman Senate was composed mainly of educated, upper class citizens called…

patricians

141

List two possible events that marked the end of the Roman Republic and the beginning of the great Roman Empire.

    • Julius Caesar’s assassination

    • Augustus Caesar (Octavian) being named Emperor of Rome and “commander-in-chief for life.”

142

Why were some Romans threatened by Julius Caesar?

    • He had too much power

    • They thought he would become a monarch (which Romans hated)

143

Who was the supreme god of the Roman world?

Jupiter

144

List three characteristics of the government of the Roman Republic.

    • It had a legislative branch to make laws

    • It had an executive branch, headed by two consuls

    • It had a judicial branch to interpret the laws (judges)

    • The consuls served for one year and commanded the armies and had veto power

145

What organization helped to unite Western Europe after the Roman Empire collapsed?

The Roman Catholic Church

146

What technology did the Romans invent to transport water over long distances to be used in distant cities?

aqueducts

147

Explain how the size of the Roman Empire was a factor in its decline. Need two.

    • It was too big to defend

    • It cost a ton to govern

    • It was so big it was hard to communicate between city-states and hard to unite

    • Need at least two to get this right

148

Who fought in the 1st, 2nd and 3rd Punic Wars and what was the result.

    • Rome vs. Carthage (northern tip of Africa)

    • Rome now controlled all of the Mediterranean.

149

What was the primary cause of the civil war in Rome? (this war took place AFTER the Punic Wars)

Tensions between rich (Patricians) and poor (Plebians)

150

Name at least two ways Octavius Augustus was good for Rome?

    • Great emperor. Some thought he was a God.

    • He ruled most of Western world.

    • He started civil services like postal service.

    • Under his rule, Rome entered Pax Romana (roads, aqueducts, buildings, etc…huge Roman expansion across Europe)

    • He restored the senate (but kept control over it)

151

What is the 200 year period of peace and stability called that began with Augustus Caesar's rule?

The Pax Romana

152

How did aqueducts change Roman way of life in cities? Need at least two ways.

    • Easier access to fresh/clean water

    • Could now heat homes

    • Water=building of Roman Bathhouses

    • Water was a symbol of wealth (only the rich had water in their homes)

    • Could now plant crops within city, rather than in faraway fields

153

Why were some Roman officials upset by Jesus’ teachings? Need two.

    • Jesus spoke out against government corruption

    • Jesus was on the side of the poor and outcasts

    • Jesus was worshipped as God and to the Romans, Caesar was God. In other words, he was a threat to the throne of Caesar.

    • Jesus said “all people are equal.” The Romans hated that!

154

What is the Apostle Paul best known for?

    • He spread the gospel throughout the Roman Empire

    • He wrote much of the New Testament in the Christian bible

155

Who was Constantine (A.D. 312, pg. 382) and why was he important?

    • A Roman ruler that reunited the Eastern and Western empire

    • He declared Christianity the official religion of Rome (his vision)

    • He appointed the Pope to rule the Roman Catholic church

156

What made the Western Roman Empire weaker than the Eastern Roman Empire?

    • More exposed to attack from Nomadic tribes

    • Less wealth

157

Name two ways the Roman republic is similar to the U.S. government.

    • The Senate

    • The 2 Consuls (we have 1 president)

    • Legislative Branch

    • Executive Branch

    • Judicial Branch

158

The government of the Roman republic was divided into a three parts (called a tripartite government) Name each and say what they do.

    • Legislative Branch (makes laws)

    • Executive Branch (enforces laws)

    • Judicial Branch (interprets laws in court)

159

What are two things that Emperor Diocletian did to try and strengthen Rome:

    • Split the empire into East and West

    • Placed the military permanently on the borders

    • Set a limit as to how much things would cost

160

What event marked the ending of the Western Roman empire?

Germanic barbarians invaded the city of Rome and overthrew the last Roman emperor

161

Give two examples of Roman legacies that have endured through history.

    • Roman advances in architecture and engineering

    • Christianity

    • Systems of Roman Government and Law



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