Key Concept 1: The United States developed the world’s first modern mass democracy and celebrated a new national culture, while Americans sought to define the nation’s democratic ideals and to reform its institutions to match them



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Key Concept 4.1:

The United States developed the world’s first modern mass democracy and celebrated a new national culture, while Americans sought to define the nation’s democratic ideals and to reform its institutions to match them.

I. The nation’s transformation to a more participatory democracy was accompanied by continued debates over federal power, the relationship between the federal government and the states, the authority of different branches of the federal government, and the rights and responsibilities of individual citizens.

A. As various constituencies and interest groups coalesced and defined their agendas, various political parties, most significantly the Federalists and Democratic-Republicans in the 1790s and the Democrats and Whigs in the 1830s, were created or transformed to reflect and/or promote those agendas.

B. Supreme Court decisions sought to assert federal power over state laws and the primacy of the judiciary in determining the meaning of the Constitution.

C. With the acceleration of a national and international market economy, Americans debated the scope of government’s role in the economy, while diverging economic systems meant that regional political and economic loyalties often continued to overshadow national concerns.

D. Many white Americans in the South asserted their regional identity through pride in the institution of slavery, insisting that the federal government should defend their institution.

Summary Paragraph:

With the advance of suffrage came the beginnings of a democratic political culture. As almost universal suffrage swept the nation during the early decades of the 19th century, the common man began to truly have a voice in government. As more democratic presidents, such as Thomas Jefferson and Andrew Jackson, took office, they began to shape the role of the federal government, various branches of government, the states, and the individual citizens and the relationships amongst all of these. Jefferson’s conflicts with the Marshall Court’s decisions to expand federal power at the expense of states, showed both Jefferson’s beliefs in state power, and the expanding role the judicial courts had. The Marshall Court established the power of “judicial review”, which shaped the role of the Supreme Court to declare laws and actions unconstitutional. Jackson’s conflicts over the re-chartering of the National Bank showed his belief in a decentralized economy in the hands of the states. The failure of the economy following this decision emphasized why the federal government needs to have a role in the national economy. It gave rise to the large role in the national economy that the federal government has today. Both presidents, and all of the presidents in between continued to create larger room for the people’s voice, while also eventually creating a federal government strong enough to regulate the economy and provide the structure necessary to safeguard democracy.

HISTORICAL THINKING:

1. Two examples of cause and effect reflected in this content.

-In the South plantation owners and Southern Citizens were creating their own “Regional identity” centered around a plantation based economy that thrived off cotton and the institution of slavery. This was the cause which led to a tension and separation between the North and the South which resulted from the lack of power of the federal government in being able to exert control on the South.

-Various views and ideas were voiced during this time period which created differing views among American citizens. This resulted in the creation of Political Parties such as the Whigs and the Democrats in the 1830’s who took sides on political issues and debates.

2. Two examples of continuity in this content.

The Agrarian republic was a system in which Jefferson desired the federal government to have a reduced role. Individual states had the power to lead and govern themselves. This idea evolved into a new way of thinking when Jackson became elected into office.

That’s why there has been multiple reforms trying to create the perfect democracy that will satisfy everyone. An example of this is an effort for a balance of powers between the federal government and the power of the states and common man. During his presidency, Jackson had a goal to do everything by the people and have, “the majority govern” because previous to his election the citizens of the United States feel they didn’t have much of a say in government.


3. Two examples of changes that took place in this content.

-The suffrage and voice of the citizens grew dramatically in this period, as by 1840 90% of the adult white male population could vote. This created a government that became popular as those who had previously felt unheard could voice their opinions and cast their ballots. It created more sections, like the south and west who were now finally heard in politics.

-The politics of era produced the two-party system in America, which still exists today. It had its roots in Federalist and Anti Federalist arguments during the Constitutional Convention, and grew into a system where two political parties no longer represented sectional interests, but encompassed the nation in social and economic issues. It created the foundation for the modern day Democrats, expressed at this time by the Whig Party, and the modern day Republicans, expressed at this time by the Democrats.

4. Create a start date and end date for this period of content. What would the title of this period be?

1800-1840: The Period of American Democratic Evolution

5. What other historical periods or developments can you compare this era to? What similarities and differences do you see?

-This development of democracy can be closely compared to the era taking place in Britain at this time. The British Reform Bill of 1832 created, for the first time in their history, the vote for middle class men in industrial towns, who now made up a large percent of the British population. As the British were generally more conservative than Americans, they only allowed middle class men to vote at this time, as property qualifications were still in place. While in the United States, the vote was allowed to even the urban poor and poor farmers, as almost universal white male suffrage appeared.

6. What social, political, and/or economic trends to you see in this content?

Social-Democratic culture became the social trend of the day as rallies, parades, and celebrations occurred around every major election. Also, the increased suffrage allowed increased social mobility in terms of political ascension to power.

Political- American Democracy was becoming increasingly more democratic as time went on during this period. Presidents such as Andrew Jackson granted more white male suffrage. The Federal government balanced out its power with three equally powerful branches.

Economic- The North and the South had two diverging economies. North based on industry and the South based on plantations and slavery. The government’s role in the economy was also debated for there was a large acceleration in the international market economy.

7. What historical context is this content set in?

-The creation of the Constitution set the foundation for the new nation and laid the groundwork for the presidents and leaders that would follow. During this era presidents, especially Jefferson and Jackson, interpreted the constitution in their own ways, thus developing the role of the federal government, branches of government, states, and individual citizens in the nation. It was an era of experimentation and showed the young America what role the federal government should and shouldn’t play in the lives of its citizens in order to be successful and protect their democracy.

8. What later developments does this content set the context for? (2 examples)

- Because of the nature of a democracy people grew a desire to speak their feeling and have their problems be solved. Two examples of this are antislavery in which a variety of American citizens worked together towards a common goal of the abolition of slavery forming parties and organizations that opposed slavery.

-Along with the desire to address anti-slavery issues the problem of women’s inequality was prevalent. Women wanted to be able to do the things that men do up to their full potential, for example being a school teacher, a nurse, receiving an education, and doing things outside of the home. The women’s rights movement ideally would end in women’s suffrage and accomplishing this would be a great accomplishment.

9. Create 2 different writing prompts that require the use of historical argumentation.

-Did Andrew Jackson move towards or away from the ideal of American democracy?

-Did the era of American democracy (from 1800-1850) live up to Jefferson’s dream of an Agrarian republic or constitute as his nightmare?

Key Concept 4.1: (Kunaal Tambe, Mitchell Mannas, Alisa Y, Caroline Mccloskey)

The United States developed the world’s first modern mass democracy and celebrated a new national culture, while Americans sought to define the nation’s democratic ideals and to reform its institutions to match them.

II. Concurrent with an increasing international exchange of goods and ideas, larger numbers of Americans began struggling with how to match democratic political ideals to political institutions and social realities.

A. The Second Great Awakening, liberal social ideas from abroad, and Romantic beliefs in human perfectibility fostered the rise of voluntary organizations to promote religious and secular reforms, including abolition and women’s rights.


B. Despite the outlawing of the international slave trade, the rise in the number of free African Americans in both the North and the South, and widespread discussion of various emancipation plans, the United States and many state governments continued to restrict African American’s citizenship possibilities.

C. Resistance to initiatives for democracy and inclusion included proslavery arguments, rising xenophobia, anti-black sentiments in political and popular culture, and restrictive anti-Indian policies.

During this time period, the exchange of goods and ideas led to a new way of thinking which took place in America in the 19th century. Many people during this time wanted to install democratic political ideals in American legislature. However the U.S citizens had different ideas about the legislature being passed. In some situations, the political ideals match directly with the social realities and in other situations, the social realities went against the political ideals of the time. For instance, there was an increasing number of free African Americans in America at the time, however, the government continued to restrict their rights. This just shows the disconnect between moral values and political ideals.

HISTORICAL THINKING:



1. Two examples of cause and effect reflected in this content.

With the growth of male suffrage, poorer, lower class men could have a say in politics and Andrew Jackson won the election of 1828. He became known as the common and because the common man could vote, the common man came out on top.

The Industrial Revolution brought about factories, manufacturers, and other business within the North. The Southern states seemed to stay behind and revolve their economy around agriculture. Because of the Industrial Revolution sectionalism and tension grew within the states .

2 Two examples of continuity in this content.

The idea of democracy is an example of continuity during this time period. The idea of democracy stayed generally the same over this span, but was slightly modified to fit the social and political needs of American citizens. Additionally, how Africans American s were treated is another example of continuity. The African Americans were progressively getting better treatment, mainly in the NOrth, but were never truly equal as discrimination continued to plague Americans.



3. Two examples of changes that took place in this content.

There are a few examples of change that occurred with this key concept. For example, one of the changes which occurred with this key concept is the increase of free African Americans in the population of America. However, the government of the United States still did not grant them rights and the ability to vote. Another social reform change which occurred during this time was the temperance movement. The men did not support this but the women however, the movement failed in the government and it was not made a law.



4. Create a start date and end date for this period of content. What would the title of this period be?

The start date for this time period would be in 1793 which was right after the Market Revolution. The market revolution led to the growth of the middle class and that led to these social movements which started locally in middle class communities and then made their way on a bigger scale. The end date for this time period would be 1920 which is the year that women got the rights to vote. this includes 1865 which is the year African Americans got the right to vote. The title of this period would be Reform in America because it would talk about the reform movements in America and its political and social aspects.



5. What other historical periods or developments can you compare this era to? What similarities and differences do you see?

Another historical period that can be compared to this time period were the years following the American Revolution when americans were forming their political ideals and defining what it meant to be a democratic government. They reformed the British policies that caused them to rebel in the first place. Also, during the civil rights movement African Americans fought for rights as equal citizens similar to how during the abolitionist movement whites fought for status as fellow human beings.



6. What social, political, and/or economic trends to you see in this content?

There was a growing divide of opinion that further separated and sectionalized the North from the South. The spirit of reform was an important trend in American politics during this time and led to women's rights, workers rights, and temperance movements.



7. What historical context is this content set in?

This is set within the historical context of the abolitionist movement and a time of social reform driven by the Second Great awakening, Tensions were high between the pro and anti slavery sides of the debate on slavery. This also was also set within the context of the woman's rights movement.



8. What later developments does this content set the context for? (2 examples)

The continued legal restrictions on black citizenship and rights due to state laws that enforced racial segregation in the South against free Blacks led to opposition and eventual termination of Jim Crow laws.

The increased number of free blacks and Northern sentiment toward emancipation of the slaves led to further stratification of the North from the South and, eventually, to the Civil War.

9. Create 2 different writing prompts that require the use of historical argumentation.

Analyze the ways in which the Second Great Awakening influenced the development of American society.

In what ways did the early nineteenth –century reform movements for abolition and women’s rights illustrate both the strengths and weaknesses of democracy in the early American republic?

Key Concept 4.1: Emily Rabinovich, Erin Kim, Helena McKendrick

The United States developed the world’s first modern mass democracy and celebrated a new national culture, while Americans sought to define the nation’s democratic ideals and to reform its institutions to match them.

III. While Americans celebrated their nation’s progress toward a unified new national culture that blended Old World forms with New world ideas, various groups of the nation’s inhabitants developed distinctive cultures of their own.

Thesis:

A. A new national culture emerged, with various Americans creating art, architecture, and literature that combined European forms with local and regional cultural sensibilities.

With the advent of the print revolution, newspapers and pamphlets fostered a variety of popular cultures such as the Crockett almanac, composing of tales attributed to David Crockett, and “penny papers.” Furthermore, the telegraph drove the timeliness of information via Morse code. Although still looking to Britain for values, standards, and literary offerings, the Americans digressed from Britain as they developed mockery of the British. Cultural foundations for art and literature also emerged, such as the Philadelphia’s American Philosophical Society founded by Benjamin Franklin and the Literary and Philosophical Society located in Charleston. The cultural developments were less prominent in the West and the South due to sparse population developments and frontier emphasis on the practical rather than intellectual. New England claimed to be the forge of American cultural independence from Europe, as scholars such as Emerson encouraged American writes to find inspiration in the ordinary details of daily life.



B. Various groups of American Indians, women, and religious followers developed cultures reflecting their interests and experiences, as did regional groups and an emerging urban middle class.

The emergence of a new national culture developed which reflected the people's’ interests and experiences. It was a combination of European and local culture that created this new refinement and civilization. In the 19th century, American Indians were relocated further and further west which became known as the Indian Removal Act. The reservation developed as as a way living for the Indians which also formed a new culture for them. For women, they began to achieve a higher education and this contributed to their way of living as well. There were many religious followers in the 19th century and they were mostly grouped under the Shakers or the Mormons. The Shakers practiced celibacy and believed in sexual equality. On the other hand, the Mormons were different from the Shakers. Because of years of turbulence between the two groups, the Mormons moved to Utah where they could freely practice their religion. Also, in the urban middle class, more and more Americans were owning shops and businesses. They lived in larger houses that they owned and bought new inventions. All of these different styles of living ended up separating into different cultures of the people which truly do reflect their interests.


C. Enslaved and free African-Americans, isolated at the bottom of the social hierarchy, created communities and strategies to protect their dignity and their family structures, even as some launched abolitionist and reform movements aimed at changing their status.

Despite the constant racism and severe punishment that resulted from the slave lifestyle, enslaved African Americans made the best of the difficult situation by developing strong kinship ties and a passion for their newly developed culture. In the South, African-Americans lived in the slave lifestyle from birth to death. They worked long hours each day with strict regulations and enforcements--such as the whip. Since families were constantly being separated due to the ruthless slave trade system, slave communities emphasized family relationships, even with those they were not directly related to. Enslaved African-Americans also reshaped Christianity, creating their own religion that expressed their resistance to slavery, love, and faith in a movement known as the Second Great Awakening. Freed slaves often dedicated their life to the abolition movement, helping in rebellion and moving escaped slaves to safety. The Underground Railroad was a system of moving fugitive, escaped slaves to freedom and existed mainly because of the effort of freed slaves. These strong community ties in the African-American community held strong even after they were free.



HISTORICAL THINKING:

1. Two examples of cause and effect reflected in this content.

  1. Because of turbulence between the Mormons and the Shakers, the effect was that the Mormons ended up moving to Utah where they could freely practice their own religion.

  2. Because of the Technological Revolution which involved the making of the telegraph, cultural foundations for art and literature unfolded.


2. Two examples of continuity in this content.

  1. It is noticeable that reform doesn’t only happen in the political aspect of things, but also socially because the United States is democracy. In this era, democracy was growing and refining the nation. Continuity is shown here because, the power isn't just in the hands of the federal government, but also in the hands of the people who could actually make a difference and affect what happens in the United States.

  2. On a smaller scale of continuity, the social decisions made continuously affected everyone. Culture was affected by certain movements and interests in the overall people.


3. Two examples of changes that took place in this content.

  1. Women began getting a higher education which resulted in a change in the way people lived their lives. Everyone was used to a more conservative way of life where women only did household jobs like cleaning, cooking, and taking care of the kids. Even though this change happened, women were still considered lower than men which meant lower pay and they didn’t have equality.

  2. Change took place in the overall society also. Reforms were being made as well as new and differential cultures being developed depending on the people’s interests and beliefs which seemed to also be changing.


4. Create a start date and end date for this period of content. What would the title of this period be?

1820-1840: The Growth of American Democracy and Culture


5. What other historical periods or developments can you compare this era to? What similarities and differences do you see?

The era can be compared to the ear of imperialism in Africa. When the Europeans led the Colonial Race to dominate parts of Africa, each European settlement developed a unique sense of identity between the African and European society. Although both sectors had distinct differences, the cultures fused to create an unprecedented era . Likewise, the era of American Democracy led to the development of unique cultural identities among the Americans. However, a unique difference among the era of imperialism and this era is that the imperialist era was solely established for purposes of temporary settlements in order to exploit the abundant resources in a short period of time, while the American Democracy was developed over a long period of time for permanent reasons.


6. What social, political, and/or economic trends to you see in this content?

The rise of democracy in the politics triggered ramifications in the social and economic trends also, leading to diverse cultural developments, reform movements representing the grievances of the women and African slaves, and the change in economy from a barter system to a cash economy. Many of the social reform movements did not bring about the utopian dreams they had aspired of, but they did contribute to the ideal picture of an egalitarian society. The economic trends enabled the development of the agriculture counterparts, the factories, and the trade components that developed into a tightly-knit system where every part was crucial to the circulation of food and money.


7. What historical context is this content set in?

The reform movements that emerged during the early 19th century were largely results of the constantly evolving democracy and political structure. During the Jacksonian era, Jackson emphasized the influence of the common man and the government intervention that he deemed as necessary to fulfill their needs. This change in the government’s role and the new era of democracy that resulted from it caused others to fight for their say in the government. The public education, temperance, women’s rights, and anti-slavery movements were results of people exercising their democratic rights as citizens of the United States.



8. What later developments does this content set the context for? (2 examples)

  1. The Civil War and eventually the eradication of slavery were a direct result of the opposition to slavery during the early nineteenth century. The anti-slavery feelings and viewpoints that spread across the North and eventually trickled into the South caused the sectionalist divide that set the scene for the Civil War.

  2. The Seneca Falls Convention and the fight for women’s equality that took place during this era was the beginning of the feminist movement, which later led to the fight for women’s suffrage in the 1920s.

9. Create 2 different writing prompts that require the use of historical argumentation.

  1. Explain how the cultural reforms that spread throughout the United States during this era were a direct result of the political evolution that was brewing at the same time.

  2. The social reform movements that began in the early nineteenth century each had a lasting impact on the United States of America. Explain which movement had the most impact on the social, political, and economic situations of this era.

Key Concept 4.2:

Developments in technology, agriculture, and commerce precipitated profound changes in U.S. settlement patterns, regional identities, gender and family relations, political power, and distribution of consumer goods.

Summary: As the first phase of the industrial revolution began the world's markets shifted towards mechanically harvested and made goods. This caused a fundamental shift in our economic and social systems. In the north people moved away from small subsistence farmers into wage earners who worked in large factory towns for meager wages. Now master craftsmen were no longer needed and any unskilled laborer could mass produce products. In the south the dying slave system was revitalized when the cotton gin and an industrial boom in Northern and European textiles increased the demand for cotton. With the advent of the cotton gin production of clean seedless cotton increased 50x. Women and children could find employment to supplement the male income, leading to the rise of a new lively middle class. This general increase in supply lowered prices domestically and internationally thus increasing global exports of American goods.

I. A global market and communications revolution, influencing and influenced by technological innovations, led to dramatic shifts in the nature of agriculture and manufacturing.

A. Innovations including textile machinery, steam engines, interchangeable parts, canals, railroads, and the telegraph, as well as agricultural inventions, both extended markets and brought efficiency to production for those markets

B. Increasing numbers of Americans, especially women in factories and low-skilled male workers, no longer relied on semi-subsistence agriculture but made their livelihoods producing goods for distant markets, even as some urban entrepreneurs went into finance rather than manufacturing.

HISTORICAL THINKING:



1. Two examples of cause and effect reflected in this content.

  1. Cause: The growth of cities increased. Effect: Gap between the rich and poor increased.

  2. Cause: The introduction of the Cotton Gin in the southern states. Effect: The South started to rely on Slaves to prosper their economy, thus this caused the Northern states to have different views toward slavery.

2. Two examples of continuity in this content.

  1. The growing sentiment that american individuals needed better fairer treatment leading to more equality for unskilled laborers and women in factory settings

  2. The continuation of sectional divides as the north continued to industrialize while the South remained stuck in its old style agrarian ways.



3. Two examples of changes that took place in this content.

As technology and industry began to expand in the era, a great number of immigrants made their way over to America. Looking to escape the hardships which had haunted them in their home country, they looked to chase the American Dream and make a living in the US. This mass migration led to a rapid increase in urban population growth and expansion.

Another change which took place in this era was the shift from the traditional self sufficient farming way of life to a more manufacturing and market based economy.

4. Create a start date and end date for this period of content. What would the title of this period be?

1800-1865: The Industrial Revolution in the United States.


5. What other historical periods or developments can you compare this era to? What similarities and differences do you see?

This era in history compares to the Dot Com boom of the 1990’s when the creation of internet based corporations lead to massive decrease in unemployment and the first time in American History that the country was not only not in debt but we had a surplus with extra money in the national budget. Obviously one event focuses on physical production and the other is the internet but both had similar political and social effects. Now that most people had stable incomes the could focus on social reforms and less necessary legislature. They also both spawned expansion of American trade relations with various countries. The historical example of this is the South selling its surplus cotton abroad, and the modern example was NAFTA expanding american trade ability with Canada and Mexico.


6. What social, political, and/or economic trends to you see in this content?

A great deal of changes took place as a result of the Industrial Revolution, most notably the development of new social trends. Realizing that there was great opportunity present in the states to make money and pursue the American dream, a large number of immigrants made their way to the country. It was not just immigrants floating over, but people also had the desire to settle in more urban areas. Cities rapidly became more populated and dense, and as a result the economy became more competitive. This was ultimately beneficial for the economy, as competition can act as a catalyst for growth and expansion. Overall, the new trends developing from the Industrial Revolution were sculpting an industrial and commerce based society that would continue to dictate the way of life for years to come.


7. What historical context is this content set in?

The Industrial Revolution was a fantastic events which brought about many new opportunities for people in the country. However, while this was playing itself out, an intense issue was escalating, diving the nation into two: the dispute over the institution of slavery. Those pushing for abolition

made their views clear and pushed relentlessly to highlight the evils associated with slavery. They petitioned through protests, published anti-slavery works of literature, and rallied up people from all walks of life who felt passionate on the subject to bring down the evil institution. Women took a more active role than ever in these pushed for reform, preaching morality and equality for all Americans. On the opposing side of this was the rivalry ideology of pro-slavery favoring people. Although this mindset is notoriously affiliated with the south, the ideology was not restrictive to southern states, and was also fairly supported in the north as well. These slavery supporters confronted their challengers with a hostile and violent approach. They suppressed their works, inflicted violence upon protest, and enacted a number of laws which attempted to suppress their voice. All this controversy was escalating and this ultimately foreshadowed the outburst of the American Civil War.

8. What later developments does this content set the context for? (2 examples)

The later developments that this content sets the context are: 1. The Civil War. The different opinions the North and South had about Slavery drove the country in the civil war that will last for Four years. 2. The Civil Rights Movement that will later emerge will cause leaders, such as MLK to rise and fight for his belief. Another thing is also the KKK. The KKK demonstrated their hatred and bigotry towards anyone who isn’t White and Protestant.


Create 2 different writing prompts that require the use of historical argumentation


  1. Compare and contrast the outcomes of the Market Revolution and Railroad Revolution. Who benefited from those two revolutions? Did anyone suffer? If so, state who and how.




  1. While the various revolutions of the 19th century had clear economic effects , some argue it also had significant cultural and social effects. Use your knowledge of the various revolutions and reform movements of the era to support, modify or , refute that statement.

Key Concept 4.2:

Developments in technology, agriculture, and commerce precipitated profound changes in U.S. settlement patterns, regional identities, gender and family relations, political power, and distribution of consumer goods.

  1. Regional economic specialization, especially the demands of cultivating southern cotton, shaped settlement patterns and the national and international economy.

  1. Southern cotton furnished the raw material for manufacturing in the Northeast, while the growth in cotton production and trade promoted the development of national economic ties, shaped the international economy, and fueled the internal slave trade.

  2. Despite some governmental and private efforts to create a unified national economy, most notably the American system, the shift to market production linked the North and the Midwest more closely than either was linked to the South.

  3. Efforts to exploit the nation’s natural resources led to government efforts to promote free and forced migration of various American peoples across the continent as well as to competing ideas about defining and managing labor systems, geographical boundaries, and natural resources.

Summary: The cotton produced in the South became the main reason for success in the North. Trade promoted unity between the Nation, linking the North and Midwest more closely than either was linked to the South. Many people took advantage of the expanding country by migrating west for the mass production of goods, which also led to the forced migration of people, which flourished the internal slave trade. It became a successful time for all, which shaped the international economy, which defined the labor systems, boundaries, and resources.

HISTORICAL THINKING:



  1. Two examples of cause and effect reflected in this content.

As cotton became more in demand and popular among southern agriculture, slave labor became more relevant in the South. Also, because cotton became more popular in the market, it was sent to the North to be used for manufacturing, making the Northern economy flourish as well. The movement of people and mass migration out-west was a cause of fueling the internal slave trade and the new land inhabited helped lead to helping in the mass production of cotton.

  1. Two examples of continuity in this content.

Even though the South shifted away from tobacco, cotton immediately took its place and continued the ways of slavery. Migration from the North to the West continued with easier transportation of goods from the West to Northern seaboard city markets.

  1. Two examples of changes that took place in this content.

The South and the North depended on each other economically between the exchange of cotton and manufactured goods. As cotton became popular, people in the South began to migrate westward to farm new lands that were better suited for cotton production.

  1. Create a start date and end date for this period of content. What would the title of this period be?

1800-1860: Development and Separation of Two Regions Work Forces

  1. What other historical periods or developments can you compare this era to? What similarities and differences do you see?

This could be compared to the beginning of American economy because both regions worked together. This was rare, but they worked together to get the country started.

  1. What social, political, and/or economic trends to you see in this content?

The economic trends contained the South and the North feeding off each other by selling cotton and manufactured goods between one another, this helped both of their economies thrive. Socially, the gap between the rich and the poor greatened, there were a small amount of plantation owners with many slaves that dominated the South’s economy. In the North, factory owners were extremely outnumbered by their workers, but received a lot more pay that separated them socially from their workers.

  1. What historical context is this content set in?

The developments in technology and agriculture in the U.S. lead to the transportation revolution, and it forced the migration of American peoples across the country, and created competing markets. This lead to a demand for ways of transportation for farmers to ship their goods to the seaboard markets.

  1. What later developments does this content set the context for? (2 examples)

The Civil War was created by differences between the North and the South, and in this period the South and the North worked together, but had different views on each other’s work forces. As the cities populations grew tremendously, many immigrants came to overpopulate cities and a need for limitation on immigrants became apparent.

  1. Create 2 different writing prompts that require the use of historical argumentation.

The cotton gin was responsible for all of the nation’s success. Do you agree why or why not?

How did Americans’ efforts to exploit the countries national resources lead to the forced migration of various American peoples across the nation, as well as competition between different labor systems?

Carolyn Stoughton, Katie O’Connor, Hannah Moore

APUSH Period 1



Key Concept 4.2:

Developments in technology, agriculture, and commerce precipitated profound changes in U.S. settlement patterns, regional identities, gender and family relations, political power, and distribution of consumer goods.

Summary: The economic changes made during the market revolution had a major impact on the way of life of the people in the U.S. Through the development of technology and agriculture, new family and gender roles were created in society. Women were now able to have jobs outside of their homes. New jobs were also available for men, including new ways of farming and jobs in factories. The market revolution also caused migration throughout the colonies, with the opening of canals and new roads. The opening of the canals and roles caused native born white citizens to move westward and relied more on new community systems that were form other than their old family and relationships. As the migration increased, so did the the population in the East and Midwest. This caused new independences to be formed between the Northeast and Old Northwest. During this event, the South found a way to stay politically and culturally separate and relied exports to Europe for their economy. They continued to use slaves as their source of labor, even though the North was moving toward abolishing it entirely. The main economic issues during this time included slavery, the national bank, tariffs, and international improvements. With so many different views on each problems, it was hard for the U.S. to decide on what should be done about them. This caused more focus on regional issues than national concerns. This is mainly because of the conflict between the north and south over the use of slavery. In conclusion, the Industrial revolution caused a major change in the migration of the U.S. citizens, in which they began to move when new necessities were developed, gender and family relationships changed, where women were able to work outside of their homes, and distribution of political power, where regional challenges were given more attention than national problems.

III. The economic changes caused by the market revolution had significant effects on migration patterns, gender and family relations, and the distribution of political power.

A. With the opening of canals and new roads into the western territories, native-born white citizens relocated westward, relying on new community systems to replace their old family and local relationships.

B. Migrants from Europe increased the population in the East and the Midwest, forging strong bonds of interdependence between the Northeast and the Old Northwest.

C. The South remained politically, culturally, and ideologically distinct from the other sections while continuing to rely on its exports to Europe for economic growth.

D. The market revolution helped to widen a gap between rich and poor, shaped emerging middle and working classes, and caused an increasing separation between home and workplace, which led to dramatic transformations in gender and in family roles and expectations.

E. Regional interests continued to trump national concerns as the basis for many political leaders’ positions on economic issues including slavery, the national bank, tariffs, and internal improvements.

HISTORICAL THINKING:



1. Two examples of cause and effect reflected in this content.

The opening of new paths and canals such as the Erie Canal, led to more people moving west, especially farmers who could farm on the vast amount of land that was now accessible to them. Industrialization led to job openings in different fields causing employment opportunities for women outside the home.



2. Two examples of continuity in this content.

One continuity was the continuation of slavery. Slave owners were not even considering giving up their slaves, now being able to use the excuse that slaves were cared for better than the Northern factory workers. Another continuity was the constant search for a woman’s role in society. Women read books to discover what they should be doing in and out of the home. There was also mixed opinions on the role of women since some were starting to employ outside the home and others remained finishing their domestic duties.



3. Two examples of changes that took place in this content.

The market revolution caused an increase in separation between home and work, and led to changes in gender and family roles. The development of new roads and canals led to the movement of white natives to the west to establish new relationships and ways of life.



4. Create a start date and end date for this period of content. What would the title of this period be?

This period started at the beginning of the Industrial Revolution in 1808 and ended at the end of the Revolution in 1850. This period would be titled the Industrial Revolution.



5. What other historical periods or developments can you compare this era to? What similarities and differences do you see?

During this period, farmers became very reliant on credit and if they had one bad harvest, the bills couldn’t be paid, putting the farmer in debt, and eventually leading to the downfall and the foreclosure of their farm. This can connect to the 1920’s and the Stock Market Crash. The 1920’s was a time when people were economically dependent on credit and put all their trust in the stock market. When the stock market crashed in 1929, it led to the destruction of the American economy leading to the Great Depression. The industrialization and how quickly the agricultural nation transformed into an industrialized nation is also comparable to Stalin’s Five Year Plan. The Five Year Plan were a series of economic plans in the Soviet Union, imposed by Stalin, which aimed to force a large amount of industrialization into a short amount of time. Stalin wanted to take the Soviet Union economy from agriculture to industry in five years because the Soviet Union was not nearly as industrialized as the rest of Europe and America. The plans called for advancements in capital goods, consumer goods, agriculture, transportation, communications, health, education, and welfare, and it forced Soviet people into a time of struggle. While industrialization in America wasn’t forceful, it was another example of when a nation took a short amount of time to shift from an agricultural economy to an industrialized economy.



6. What social, political, and/or economic trends to you see in this content?

There were social and economic trends during this period. An economic trend would be that with the new transportation methods, more agriculture was used in the commercial market, causing farmers to switch from subsistence farming to commercial farming. Another economic trend would be that when America created the idea of interchangeable parts for machines and products; it resulted in an increase in production, money, and made factory work more efficient. A social trend would be that as more labor was needed in the factories, women began to be employed outside the home. Another social trend is that workers formed communities and united through their work, resulting in recreational changes, labor unions, protests, and strikes against employers.



7. What historical context is this content set in?

The historical context for this content are reform movements for women, the creation of Utopian societies, and the consistent divide between the North and the South because of slavery.



8. What later developments does this content set the context for? (2 examples)

This period sets the context for Women’s Rights Movement because during this period movements began to be created so that women could be thought of as equals to men. They wanted to be able to vote and hold real jobs outside the home. It also set context for labor strikes because there were horrible working conditions during the Industrial Revolution like low pay and long hours and the workers were getting tired of it.



9. Create 2 different writing prompts that require the use of historical argumentation.

1. How did the Industrial Revolution change gender and family roles and expectations in the American economy?

2. How did the Industrial Revolution further divide the South and the North?

Key Concept 4.3:

U.S. interest in increasing foreign trade, expanding its national borders, and isolating itself from European conflicts shaped the nation’s foreign policy and spurred government and private initiatives.

I. Various American groups and individuals initiated, championed, and/or resisted the expansion of territory and/or government powers.

A. With expanding borders came public debates about whether to expand and how to define and use the new territories.

B. Federal government attempts to assert authority over the states brought resistance from state governments in the North and the South at different times.

C. Whites living on the frontier tended to champion expansion efforts, while resistance by American Indians led to a sequence of wars and federal efforts to control American Indian populations.



The continued territorial expansion in the West brought forth a new debate over the role of the federal government and how to define new territories.

HISTORICAL THINKING:



  1. Two examples of cause and effect reflected in this content.

Westward expansion caused conflict and the eventual destruction of the Native American population.

As America expanded west and slavery also expanded it caused increased separation and conflict between the North and the South over the role of slavery.

  1. Two examples of continuity in this content.

The Federalist/ Anti- Federalist debate and separation was continued in the era expansion.

As settlers wanted more land they continued to have conflict with the Native Americans.

Frontiersmen felt entitled to the land and continued to expand with or without governmental endorsement

The government, federalist or anti federalist, generally encouraged westward expansion, often with monetary incentives

  1. Two examples of changes that took place in this content.

A demographic change took place where the population migrated away from the East coast and began farming communities further inland.

Expansion and Industrialization brought immigrants from Europe who brought their own cultures.

  1. Create a start date and end date for this period of content. What would the title of this period be?

1800-1860 Age of Expansion

General Westward expansion was the defining characteristic of this time period, influencing political policies and economic change for years to come.

  1. What other historical periods or developments can you compare this era to? What similarities and differences do you see?

This era is similar to the era of colonization many people were migrating in search of land and more economic opportunity, they were both characterized by conflict with the Indians and there was a large debate over the role of the government as people were seeking more freedom.

  1. What social, political, and/or economic trends to you see in this content?

Social - people moving further inland and developing a new frontier culture.

Economic- Industrialization and the development of factories and transportation in the North. And heavy dependence on cotton in the south.

Political- The growth of a strong national government and increased separation between the interests of the North and South

  1. What historical context is this content set in?

Expansion of America and Industrialization in the North vs Slavery is the South

Animosity towards Native Americans (wars and conflicts)

Jefferson and his promotion of expansion/subsistence farmers/small government

  1. What later developments does this content set the context for? (2 examples)

The economic and political separation between the North and South over slavery set the context for the Civil War. And the growth of industry and factories set the context for immigration and the growth of cities.

  1. Create 2 different writing prompts that require the use of historical argumentation.

Was the westward expansion in the time period from 1800-1860 a positive development for American society or actually detrimental to the growing nation?

With the expansion of the nation, was it necessary for the federal government to increase their role in society or was greater centralized control contrary to the independent spirit of expansion and the frontier?



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