Key Concept 1 British attempts to assert tighter control over its North American colonies and the colonial resolve to pursue self-government led to a colonial independence movement and the Revolutionary War
APUSH PERIOD THREE KEY CONCEPTS REVIEW
Use the space provided to write down specific details that could be used to discuss the key concepts.
Key Concept 3.1
British attempts to assert tighter control over its North American colonies and the colonial resolve to pursue self-government led to a colonial independence movement and the Revolutionary War.
I. The competition among the British, French, and American Indians for economic and political advantage in North America culminated in the Seven years’ War (the French and Indian War), in which Britain defeated France and allied American Indians.
Colonial rivalry intensified between Britain and France in the mid-18th century, as the growing population of the British colonies expanded into the interior of North America, threatening French–Indian trade networks and American Indian autonomy.
* Period from 1689 through 1815, Second Hundred Years War between Britain and France
* King William’s War / Queen Anne’s War / King George’s War
* wars were largely stalemates that ended with most territories restored to original owners
* New France and New England competing with each other, and Native Americans, to control areas like the Ohio Valley and the Great Lakes
* Native Americans caught between these two imperial powers, although many preferred the French due to the ever-rising numbers of British colonists who wanted their land more than their furs and trade (French goal)
*diseases and wars forced Native Americans to remake themselves repeatedly in process of tribalization, where new tribes were pieced together from old tribes
* after being nearly assaulted by French, Iroquois moved away from English alliance and played French and English off against each other, while Iroquois tried to remain neutral (they accepted gifts, or formed covenant chain with individual colonies)
* Franklin’s Albany Plan tried to organize colonies; rejected
Britain achieved a major expansion of its territorial holdings by defeating the French, but at tremendous expense, setting the stage for imperial efforts to raise revenue and consolidate control over the colonies.
* French and Indian War – French kicked out of North America (begun when George Washington sent into Ohio to tell the French to get out / forced to surrender / Braddock’s defeat / Pitt takes over as Prime Minister and transforms war into Great War for Empire in order to kick out French / Pitt spends vast amounts of money reimbursing colonies for their military expenses in order to win / victories in Quebec and Montreal)
* Treaty of Paris
* Pontiac’s Rebellion
* Proclamation Line of 1763
* enormous debt, new empire, and decision to assert control led to end of salutary neglect, and attempts to tax the colonies
* Revenue Act of 1762 tried to end colonial bribery of customes officials and rampant smuggling, which had defied Navigation Acts for generations
* stationing of troops in America
* Currency Act of 1764 banned colonies from using paper money, to prevent worthless paper from paying debts
After the British victory, imperial officials’ attempts to prevent colonists from moving westward generated colonial opposition, while native groups sought to both continue trading with Europeans and resist the encroachments of colonists on tribal lands.
* Pontiac’s Rebellion
* Neolin called for all Indians to reject white ways, and white goods, especially rum
* Proclamation Line of 1763
* troops stationed in frontier forts to prevent another Pontiac’s Rebellion / keep colonists from violating Proclamation Line
* Iroquois attempts to remain neutral and sustain control over European trade goods / furs
II. The desire of many colonists to assert ideals of self-government in the face of renewed British imperial efforts led to a colonial independence movement and war with Britain.
A. The imperial struggles of the mid-18th century, as well as new British efforts to collect taxes without direct colonial representation or consent and to assert imperial authority in the colonies, began to unite the colonists against perceived and real constraints on their economic activities and political rights.
* Revenue Act of 1762
* Proclamation Line of 1763 denied colonists the spoils of war and expansion westward
* Currency Act of 1764 (hit South particularly hard; resentments lasted for years, because colonial economics more difficult without paper money; postwar recession also fed discontent)
* Sugar Act of 1764 (lowered taxes to try to “trick” colonists into paying them; vice-admiralty courts would be used to try violators without a jury trial; writs of assistance would allow searches of private property to seek violations; )
* Stamp Act of 1765 (colonies given a year to produce alternate taxes if they didn’t want Stamp Act; attempted to directly tax colonists, by putting tax on anything that might be printed, including newspapers, land tiles, slave sales, legal documents, books, dice [celluloid wrappers], diplomas, liquor licenses, every advertisement, every almanac, every deck of cards – if Parliament had TRIED to find a way to anger every colony and every social class, they couldn’t have done a better job; James Otis: “One single act of Parliament set the people a’thinking in six months more than they had done in their whole lives before”)
* Quartering Act of 1765 (colonial assemblies would be required to house and feed British troops stationed in their colonies – wartime measure colonies had always resisted, but now it’s peacetime)
* resistance to Stamp Act (Patrick Henry compares George III to Charles I, who lost his head; James Otis calls for Stamp Act Congress, which issue the Stamp Act Resolves demanding only assemblies could tax their own colonies; Franklin’s call for direct representation vs. virtual representation; BOYCOTT; Sons of Liberty use threats and intimidation against officials, led by John Hancock and Samuel Adams; Stamp Act largely dead before it even took effect ) [Stamp Act called the “first step to rivet the chains of slavery upon us forever”; John Adams called it “That enormous Engine, fabricated by the British Parliament, for battering down all the Rights and Liberties of America”]
* Stamp Act repealed (largely due to boycott, so British merchants got the act repealed because their profits were gone)
* Declaratory Act of 1766 (Parliament has the right to tax and legislate for the colonies)
* Townshend Act of 1767 (taxes on paper, paint, glass and tea – and the money would go to pay salaries of governors and judges, to make them independent of colonial control, as well as paying for troops)
* Revenue Act of 1767 (new customs officials, who could now receive 1/3 of profits from catching smugglers, which colonists saw as incentive to be less than honest about who was smuggling…)
* Restraining Act of 1767 (NY assembly dissolved by Parliament when they refused to comply with Quartering Act)
* resistance to Townshend Act )(Franklin had argued that the problem with the Stamp Act was that they were internal taxes, rather than external taxes – he said Americans had no trouble with taxes on trade; Franklin was wrong…John Dickinson argued in Letters from a Farmer in Pennsylvania that the intent of the legislation was true division – and Townshend Act clearly intended to raise money, NOT regulate trade) (Massachusetts sent a “Circular Letter” to other assemblies condemning Townshend Act and arguing no taxation without representation; British send more troops to Boston as a result) (new BOYCOTT – best tool!; Sons of Liberty enforced it)
* repeal of Townshend Act, except for tax on tea (again, largely due to boycott – like Declaratory Act, tax on tea was kept to show Parliament had right to tax) (Franklin called again for his Albany Plan, to divide sovereignty; Thomas Hutchinson said the idea of dividing sovereignty was ridiculous)
* Boston Massacre of 1770 (colonists provoked the soldiers, who accidentally fired; soldiers put on trial, and Sam Adams got his cousin John Adams to defend them, to show British trial by jury was essential right of ALL British citizens; Sam Adams kept a yearly parade every March 5th to keep resistance going)
* Gaspée Affair of 1772 (customs ship went aground; local Patriots went out and burned the British ship down to the waterline; British wanted culprits caught and sent back to Britain for trial)
* Committees of Correspondence (created by Sam Adams as a means of keeping resistance going; spread to other colonies after Tea Act; led fight against Tea Act)
* Tea Act of 1773 (match thrown into the tinder pile – Parliament wasn’t trying to tax Americans – they were trying to rescue the British East India Company, but Patriots saw this as a bribe to get them to surrender principles)
* Boston Tea Party (Gov. Hutchinson insisted on landing the tea and selling it; Sam Adams organized the Tea Party, which peacefully dropped all the tea in the harbor, and even replaced the lock they broke; they caught one guy stuffing tea in his pockets, stripped him naked, and threw him in the harbor…; Boston Tea Party infuriated George III and Parliament, and convinced the British it was time to bring out the hammer and punish the colonials)
* Coercive Acts of 1774 (Intolerable Acts) (designed to punish Massachusetts and make an example – failed, as the other colonies backed them up: four parts 1) Port Bill closed down Boston Harbor until tea was paid for; 2) Government Act annulled Massachusetts charter and banned town meetings; 3) Quartering Act required building of barracks or housing of soldiers; 4) Administration of Justice Act allowed British officials accused of crimes to be tried in Britain, not Massachusetts)
* Quebec Act of 1774 (not a part of Coercive Acts, but seen as such – French Canadians given Ohio Valley, which infuriated Virginians and Pennsylvanians, and Catholicism protected, which angered New England) [actually a landmark in toleration, but not seen as such in America)
* First Continental Congress of 1774 called in response to Coercive Acts (Calloway Plan considered and rejected – largely a revival of Franklin’s Albany Plan) (passed Declaration of Rights and Grievances, which called for repeal of Coercive Acts and Declaratory Act; called for new boycott, and also threatened to stop exportingfor the first time
* Lexington and Concord of 1775 (General Gage sent in to crush dissent in Boston; went out to Lexington and Concord to seize arms and arrest Hancock and Sam Adams; Paul Revere and two other riders went to warn them; accidental firing led to Lexington, and then minutemen assaulted British all the way home from Concord )
* Second Continental Congress (creates Continental Army, puts George Washington in charge; Olive Branch Petition; Declaration of the Causes and Necessities of Taking Up Arms; votes for independence)
* Invasion of Canada (failed)
* Thomas Paine published Common Sense in 1776 (shifted argument away from Parliament to monarchy itself; ridiculed idea of an island ruling a continent; catalyst for convincing substantial numbers of Americans that independence was a good idea)
* Declaration of Independence (Jefferson wrote most of it, but he cribbed the ideas from John Locke; he also tried to blame king for slavery, but South insisted that be removed)
B. Colonial leaders based their calls for resistance to Britain on arguments about the rights of British subjects, the rights of the individual, local traditions of self-rule, and the ideas of the Enlightenment.
* John Adams and James Otis argue that Americans are being deprived of rights of British citizens (in reality, British had vice-admiralty courts too)
* Otis argued writs of assistance were unconstitutional
* Adams defended John Hancock in smuggling case by saying common law mandated a jury trial
* argued Parliament couldn’t overturn common law
* English Bill of Rights cited, which said king couldn’t pass taxes without Parliament’s consent; colonists argued their own taxes had to go through their own assemblies, and right was the same
* Enlightenment taught Americans to question the past and appeal to reason – Locke taught them that man had natural rights to life, liberty, and property, and gov’t’s duty was to protect those rights, which Parliament (to them) clearly wasn’t doing
* Montesquieu argued against arbitrary use of power
* Real Whigs a MAJOR influence: 1) beware of DEBT (British had high debt), because rich will be the ones the government borrows money from; 2) beware of TAXES (British were trying to tax colonists), because the rich now have to be paid back, so they won’t be the ones getting taxed; 3) beware of government getting bigger (British were expanding the customs office, and increasing size of government), because the rich will use that expansion to fill government with their flunkies; and 4) beware of a STANDING ARMY (British were posting troops in America, especially Boston), because in peacetime, the only use for an army is take away your liberties!
* Real Whigs thus provided Americans with a conspiracy theory which drove their paranoia; common argument was Parliament was trying to enslave them; amount of taxes wasn’t the point – it was the principle, the wedge into their freedoms
* salutary neglect had allowed the Americans to develop extensive self-government, especially on issues of taxation, and their control of the royal governors by controlling their salaries
C. The effort for American independence was energized by colonial leaders such as Benjamin Franklin, as well as by popular movements that included the political activism of laborers, artisans, and women.
* James Otis (early Patriot; fought writs of assistance, called for Stamp Act Congress)
* Patrick Henry (threatened King George III; later, “give me liberty or give me death!”
* Samuel Adams (organized Sons of Liberty and Committees of Correspondence)
* John Dickinson (moderate who opposed taxation on general principles, wrote Olive Branch Petition, Articles of Confederation)
* John Adams (defended British soldiers in Boston Massacre trial, major force for independence)
* Benjamin Franklin (primary diplomat in England, and then France; moderate who was driven to the Patriot side by his treatment in England)
* George Washington (military commander; kept the Army going throughout major losses in Revolution; his surrender of power after victory was a worldwide stunner nobody expected)
* Thomas Jefferson (Declaration of Independence)
* Richard Henry Lee (proposed independence)
* Abigail Adams (Remember the Ladies! Also, ran farm while John was gone)
* Mercy Otis Warren (patriot, first historian of the Revolution)
* Sons of Liberty (laborers and artisans; effigies burned, Thomas Hutchinson’s house burned down, boycott supported, mobs attacked non-compliant merchants; danced around Liberty Tree; serenaded Patriot merchants; wore liberty caps)
* Daughters of Liberty (women participated in boycott, producing homespun cloth)
D. In the face of economic shortages and the British military occupation of some regions, men and women mobilized in large numbers to provide financial and material support to the Patriot movement.
* women made homespun cloth
* men joined Continental Army and state militias
* paid taxes to Patriot governments
* supported boycotts
* closed courts to prevent land seizures
* women joined army as “camp followers” to cook, clean, and nurse (Molly Pitcher is an amalgam of several women; she never existed)
* donated supplies to army
* women ran farms and businesses while men were away
* slaves and free blacks fought for Continental Army
E. Despite considerable loyalist opposition, as well as Great Britain’s apparently overwhelming military and financial advantages, the Patriot cause succeeded because of the actions of colonial militias and the Continental Army, George Washington’s military leadership, the colonists’ ideological commitment and resilience, and assistance sent by European allies.
* militias throughout the states fought the British
* Despite losing six out of 9 major battles, Washington kept the army together and kept fighting
* Patriots stood firm to protect their rights and liberties
* Dutch provided gunpowder and loans
* After Saratoga, French offered alliance; French aid was the single most critical factor in gaining independence – loans, military aid, naval support (without the French, we would have lost at Yorktown)
The American Revolution’s democratic and republican ideals inspired new experiments with different forms of government.
I. The ideals that inspired the revolutionary cause reflected new beliefs about politics, religion, and society that had been developing over the course of the 18th century.
A. Enlightenment ideas and philosophy inspired many American political thinkers to emphasize individual talent over hereditary privilege, while religion strengthened Americans’ view of themselves as a people blessed with liberty.
* John Locke taught that human beings were essentially good, and that as individuals, we came together to create government, to protect our rights to life, liberty, and property; if government (King George III) didn’t protect those rights, we had the right to revolt and create a new government
* Thomas Paine’s Common Sense taught monarchy was ridiculous
* Montesquieu taught about separation of powers
* Constitution bans noble titles
* John Winthrop’s “City upon a Hill” emphasized American exceptionalism, as did their “errand into the wilderness”
* Pilgrims, Puritans, Maryland Catholics, Quakers, German pietists, and others all came to America to pursue religious freedom
* Great Awakening emphasized individual salvation, and a rejection of Church of England and other religions that rejected the right of an individual to choose his own path to God
* Great Awakening’s conversion of African-Americans led them to emphasize the figure of Moses and the path to freedom
B. The colonists’ belief in the superiority of republican forms of government based on the natural rights of the people found expression in Thomas Paine’s Common Sense and the Declaration of Independence. The ideas in these documents resonated throughout American history, shaping Americans’ understanding of the ideals on which the nation was based.
* John Locke’s theory of government and popular sovereignty
* colonial self-government going back to the House of Burgesses, Massachusetts Assembly, New England town meetings, etc.
* English Bill of Rights creating limited monarchy also established idea that the powers of government could be limited by the people, and written down
* Constitution based on popular sovereignty: “We the People”
* Federalism balancing the national and state governments in the Constitution is a unique blending of popular sovereignty
* John Adams’ promotion of bicameralism reflected in the Great Compromise, with checks and balances of the idealized British government in the three branches, as well as between both houses of Congress (lower house is closest analog to colonial representation; upper house is more Hamiltonian and Romanesque)
* Lincoln used the Declaration of Independence in his Gettysburg Address, emphasizing equality and government for the people
* Seneca Falls Convention rewrote the Declaration: “All men and women are created equal.”
C. During and after the American Revolution, an increased awareness of inequalities in society motivated some individuals and groups to call for the abolition of slavery and greater political democracy in the new state and national governments.
* “All men are created equal.” Massachusetts took that very seriously, becoming the first state to abolish existing slavery (North followed suit gradually)
* Vermont abolished slavery from 1777
* Pennsylvania passed law in 1780 that said any child born afterwards could not be a slave (Quakers were first major group to oppose slavery, led by John Woolman; Franklin, who had owned at least one slave, became an abolitionist towards the end of his life
* During war, British royal governor Lord Dunmore offered emancipation to Patriot-held slaves; raised the Ethiopian Regiment
* Thousands of slaves fled to British to gain freedom
* Jefferson tried to blame King George III for slavery, but passage was removed by South
* Virginia, Maryland, and Delaware passed laws allowing for manumission, which gradually increased #s of free blacks
* Northwest Ordinance of 1787 banished slavery there
* international slave trade could be abolished after 1808 – and was, by Jefferson
* Middle class and westerners pushed for more political control and equality with ruling merchant and planter elites – Paxton Boys, North Carolina Regulators, South Carolina Regulators, Shays’ Rebellion, Whiskey Rebellion
* Capitals often moved inland to put center of power nearer poorer westerners (Albany, NY, for example)
* “middling” classes gained political power; merchant and planter elites increasingly challenged; franchise for white males slowly lost the property requirement
* the idea of deference to your social betters was destroyed
* Abigail Adams, “Remember the Ladies”
* Judith Sargent Murray, “On the Equality of the Sexes”
* Massachusetts and other New England states created more education for women, and schooling spread in northeast
* Women got the right to vote in New Jersey (until 1807)
* “republican motherhood” / “companionate marriage” – in theory at least, women should receive an education, and be treated equally in marriage [largely theoretical]
* Native Americans consistently denied rights; siding with the British in the Revolutionary War and the War of 1812 led to Americans assuming that the land was now theirs instead of the various tribes
D. In response to women’s participation in the American Revolution, Enlightenment ideas, and women’s appeals for expanded roles, an ideal of “republican motherhood” gained popularity. It called on women to teach republican values within the family and granted women a new importance in American political culture.
* Women argued that they needed an education to raise good republican sons
* Women gained that education, particularly in the North
* Women argued republicanism meant they should no longer be second-class citizens (Abigail Adams, “Remember the Ladies”)
* Rise of sentimentalism and marrying for love
* companionate marriage between equals promoted
* paradigm shift: women before the Revolution largely seen as the ones who were dangerous and had to be controlled; by 1800, men were being portrayed as sexual predators, and women had to be protected from their depredations; women now seen as morally innocent and purer than men
* inheritance laws began to shift towards all children equally sharing inheritance, unless a will said otherwise
* women got more respect, but the focus on being a mother kept them in the home (Lowell mill girls, teaching became first jobs outside home; Second Great Awakening got them into reforms)
E. The American Revolution and the ideals set forth in the Declaration of Independence reverberated in France, Haiti, and Latin America, inspiring future independence movements.
* French Revolution heavily inspired by American Revolution
* Lafayette and Thomas Paine were both in the forefront
* Haitian slave rebellion inspired by American and French Revolutions
* widespread independence movements in Latin America often replicated language of Declaration of Independence
II. After declaring independence, American political leaders created new constitutions and declarations of rights that articulated the role of the state and federal governments while protecting individual liberties and limiting both centralized power and excessive popular influence.
Many new state constitutions placed power in the hands of the legislative branch and maintained property qualifications for voting and citizenship.
* Pennsylvania was the most radical, creating a unicameral legislature with no executive branch, and no property requirement to vote at all (only males could vote)
* South Carolina was the most conservative, restricting the right to vote or even run for office to the wealthiest citizens
* Most state constitutions were somewhere in the middle, but held popular sovereignty as a principle; generally speaking, the middling classes gained power in most states, while the elites generally lost ground
* John Adams and the constitution he wrote for Massachusetts became the role model, creating a bicameral legislature, with a strong executive with veto power (the upper house retained a property requirement) and a higher property requirement to be allowed to vote
The Articles of Confederation unified the newly independent states, creating a central government with limited power. After the Revolution, difficulties over international trade, finances, interstate commerce, foreign relations, and internal unrest led to calls for a stronger central government. Delegates from the states participated in a Constitutional Convention and through negotiation, collaboration, and compromise proposed a constitution that created a limited but dynamic central government embodying federalism and providing for a separation of powers between its three branches.
* The Articles of Confederation was a very weak central government with no executive or judicial branches and a Congress where every state had one vote
* Two major weaknesses: 1) needed a unanimous vote to change the rules, so it proved to be impossible to fix; and 2) no power to tax, so all they could do was borrow, beg the states, or print money
* Articles succeeded in raising army, winning the war, and establishing an orderly way to turn the West into equal states (also, Northwest Ordinance banished slavery and set a goal of publicly financed education)
* Other problems couldn’t be solved: postwar recession, failure to pay debts, interstate squabbles, lack of respect from foreign nations (Britain refused to abandon forts)
* Shays’ Rebellion waiting to happen in most states
* Annapolis Convention (called to propose solutions to economic woes; Hamilton and Madison made connections, and pushed for a Constitutional Convention to revise the Articles more thoroughly)
* Shays Rebellion convinced states (except Rhode Island) that they needed to fix the Articles; nationalists swarmed to Philly
* Madison’s Virginia Plan defeated the New Jersey Plan, with modifications
* “We the People” was a deliberate attempt to reach beyond state governments and build popular sovereignty directly (state ratifying conventions was another trick, to sidestep the unanimous requirement)
The Constitutional Convention compromised over the representation of slave states in Congress and the role of the federal government in regulating both slavery and the slave trade, allowing the prohibition of the international slave trade after 1808.
* 3/5 Compromise (North got the raw end of this deal, since per capita taxation never came into play; south gained a substantial advantage in Electoral College and House)
* international slave trade couldn’t be touched until 1808
* Fugitive Slave clause in place
In the debate over ratifying the Constitution, Anti-Federalists opposing ratification battled with Federalists, whose principles were articulated in the Federalist Papers (primarily written by Alexander Hamilton and James Madison). Federalists ensured the ratification of the Constitution by promising the addition of a Bill of Rights that enumerated individual rights and explicitly restricted the powers of the federal government.
* Federalists were better organized and prepared from the start, including the name, which sounds like they support a group of equals, and forced opponents to be Antifederalists [which sounds vaguely Satanic and un-American]
* Federalists controlled many newspapers
* Federalist Papers (Jay, Hamilton, Madison) well-argued defenses of Constitution (checks and balances, separation of powers, worth of a large republic)
* Antifederalists all worried about tyranny and rule by elites
* Promise of Bill of Rights won the day
* Rhode Island had to be threatened with being treated as foreign country if they didn’t ratify, which they did after Washington was in office
* Bill of Rights protects individuals and states from federal government (First: freedom of speech, press, assembly; separation of church and state; 2nd: gun ownership; 4th; no illegal searches and seizures; 5th: no double jeopardy; no self-incrimination; no deprivation of life, liberty, or property without due process of law; eminent domain; 6th: right to trial by jury; 8th: no cruel or unusual punishments; 9th and 10th, reserved powers to states and the people
III. New forms of national culture and political institutions developed in the United States alongside continued regional variations and differences over economic, political, social, and foreign policy issues.
During the presidential administrations of George Washington and John Adams, political leaders created institutions and precedents that put the principles of the Constitution into practice.
* created the cabinet: Jefferson at State, Hamilton at Treasury, Knox at War
* established title of “Mr. President”
* created U.S. Army
* put an unofficial two-term limit into play
* maintained right to fire any government appointee under him without Senate approval
* president doesn’t go to Congress [one time didn’t work]
* established neutrality as our foreign policy, until WWII
* Washington used the veto twice
* federal court systems established
* oversaw Bill of Rights [he had no formal role]
* oversaw first new states: Vermont (1791), Kentucky (1792), Tennessee (1796)
* Assumed national and state debts / excise taxes to service debt / created Bank of the United States [Hamilton]
* Selected site for national capitol on Potomac
* Jay’s Treaty and Pinckney’s Treaty established foreign treaties
* Farewell address warned about parties and foreign alliances
* created U.S. Navy and Marines
* XYZ Affair leads to undeclared naval war, which Adams ends with first peace treaty instead of further war
* establishes Library of Congress
* fires Hamilton’s stooges from Cabinet, establishing president as head of party and government
* decision to hand over power peacefully to Jefferson establishes precedent of peaceful transfer of power to political enemy
* appointment of John Marshall creates a strong Supreme Court
Political leaders in the 1790s took a variety of positions on issues such as the relationship between the national government and the states, economic policy, foreign policy, and the balance between liberty and order. This led to the formation of political parties — most significantly the Federalists, led by Alexander Hamilton, and the Democratic-Republican Party, led by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison.
* Hamilton’s assumption of the national and state debts served his desire for a strong national government that would be more powerful than the states, as well as creating a permanent debt that would tie the upper classes to the national government through his interest bearing loans
* Hamilton’s creation of a national bank created a constitutional crisis over the issue of strict vs. loose construction. Those like Jefferson and Madison who wished to keep the federal government relatively weak believed in strict construction (you can only do what the Constitution specifically says you can do. Those like Hamilton who wanted a strong national government asserted a loose construction, in which, so long as the ends are mentioned in the Constitution, the means are wide open (elastic clause / “necessary and proper” clause). Hamilton won, getting his bank, but driving J & M to leave the Federalists and create the Democratic-Republican party, thus forcing Hamilton to protect his own interests by creating the Federalist party.
* Hamilton’s vision of the future was of a strong federal government and strong presidency, serving the rich mercantile elites in forming an urban, mercantile, manufacturing nation like Britain, as opposed to Jefferson’s vision of a weak national government and strong local governments, serving the common man in an agricultural future of independent educated yeoman farmers
* Hamilton and Adams were pro-British; Jefferson and Madison were pro-French; the French Revolution drove them further apart, due to the adoption of atheism, the execution of the king, and the reign of terror. Hamilton feared a French Revolution here (he would have been a prime target). When the Whiskey Rebellion adopted some of the language of the French Revolution, he and Washington rode out to crush it.
* Jay’s Treaty infuriated Jeffersonians, who went on a rampage burning effigies and protesting what they saw as a pro-British, anti-French bias which allowed the British to continue blocking American shipping (even though Jay also got the British to abandon the western forts and stop arming Native Americans)
* Pinckney’s Treaty calmed down the Republicans, by getting the rights to use New Orleans, which Western farmers desperately needed
* 1796 election saw Adams win the presidency, but his political opponent Jefferson became his VP due to the election rules of the time.
* XYZ Affair exploded between the two parties under Adams, as the French demanded bribes, and Adams publicly embarrassed Jeffersonians by printing the letters asking for a bribe; war fever raged, as an undeclared naval war with France resulted, and the Federalists won big in the congressional midterms in 1798. Shamefully, Adams and the Federalists then used their increased power to pass laws that have remained notorious: the Naturalization Act made immigrants wait 14 years to become citizens, instead of 5 (and was aimed at the immigrants who were joining Jeffersonians); the Alien Act allowed the deportation of foreigners (again, Jeffersonians); the worst of them all was the Sedition Act, which violated the First amendment’s guarantees of freedom of speech and press by allowing the jailing of anyone who criticized the president or Congress)
* Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions: because the Supreme Court had not yet declared a federal law unconstitutional, no precedent for how to handle the federal government violating the Constitution yet existed. So Jefferson and Madison went to the states, and argued that the states had created the Constitution, so they had the right to decide what was constitutional. This states’ rights position has reappeared over time, including the Nullification crisis and the Civil War.
* 1800 election became a referendum on these acts, and Jefferson won in what he called “the Revolution of 1800.” The Acts were quickly overturned in his administration.
The expansion of slavery in the deep South and adjacent western lands and rising antislavery sentiment began to create distinctive regional attitudes toward the institution.
* The Articles granted the southern states control over the Old Southwest – they spread slavery rapidly into Alabama and Mississippi
* The Northwest Ordinance of 1787 banished slavery from the Great Lakes states
* The north had begun abolishing slavery after independence, and never had a substantial need for slavery in the first place
* the cotton gin would accelerate the profitability of slavery
* the North became an area of immigrants, who provided the cheap labor supply as the North industrialized
* the South remained tied to slavery and agriculture
* the Missouri Compromise revealed how far apart they were
Ideas about national identity increasingly found expression in works of art, literature, and architecture.
* Patriotic call for an American Literature (the “rising glory of America”) and art (Benjamin West, Gilbert Stuart, portraits)
* Webster created an American English, with different spelling, in his Dictionary and his “blue-backed speller”
* Joel Barlow wrote an American epic poem in The Columbiad, and an excellent poem in “Advice to a Raven in Russia”
* Charles Brockden Brown wrote gothic novels like Wieland, with an evil hypnotist as the villain
Migration within North America and competition over resources, boundaries, and trade-intensified conflicts among peoples and nations.
I. In the decades after American independence, interactions among different groups resulted in competition for resources, shifting alliances, and cultural blending.
A. Various American Indian groups repeatedly evaluated and adjusted their alliances with Europeans, other tribes, and the U.S., seeking to limit migration of white settlers and maintain control of tribal lands and natural resources. British alliances with American Indians contributed to tensions between the U.S. and Britain.
* British alliance for Native Americans turned disastrous due to the Revolutionary War (and again as a result of War of 1812) as Americans claimed lands all the way to the Mississippi River were theirs
* Native American groups rejected those claims, but Americans forced Iroquois to hand over large sections of New York and Pennsylvania over to them; alcohol and bribes drove the Iroquois into smaller and smaller areas
* Same thing happened in Ohio, but Native Americans refused to accept the outcomes; Little Turtle and the Western Confederacy defeated not one, but two, American armies
* “Mad Anthony” Wayne then defeated the Western Confederacy at the Battle of Fallen Timbers; Treaty of Greenville, however, recognized that Native Americans owned Ohio, and paid them for it; Native Americans accepted they were under American sovereignty
* British had been arming Native Americans; Jay’s Treaty got them to agree to stop
* Most Americans wanted the Native Americans dead; Washington and Henry Knox preferred what was then the liberal response to the issue: assimilation
* Native American groups often responded with hostility towards those who had assimilated, and forced them out
* Handsome Lake, on the other hand, blended animism with Christian elements (heaven, hell, personal morality) – but Red Jacket rejected him, splitting the Senecas in half
* Native American women refused to give up control of agriculture; Native American men refused to become farmers, and chose ranching instead
B. As increasing numbers of migrants from North America and other parts of the world continued to move westward, frontier cultures that had emerged in the colonial period continued to grow, fueling social, political, and ethnic tensions.
* Kentucky and Tennessee had been filling up with squatters (they had attempted to form the state of Franklin, but Congress rejected it to maintain control of the process) (squatters were often Scots-Irish and other poor immigrants, while the speculators tended to be English descendants)
* speculators bought up huge tracts, which put them into conflict with the squatters (in Ohio as well)
* Pennsylvania, New York, and Connecticut were fighting over conflicting land claims out west until they ceded all land claims to the national government
* Shays’ Rebellion and Whiskey Rebellion are both frontier rebellions, defying political controls back east (many frontiersmen were Scots-Irish, who resented authority of almost any kind, but they were particularly hostile to “revenue hounds”)
* fears that the West and Southwest would join the Spanish, due to control of the Mississippi River
* Yazoo land fraud (Georgia sold huge tracts of land it may not have owned, sometimes multiple times; resolved by Fletcher v. Peck) / Pine-Barrens scandal sold three times the amount of land that was available
C. As settlers moved westward during the 1780s, Congress enacted the Northwest ordinance for admitting new states; the ordinance promoted public education, the protection of private property, and a ban on slavery in the Northwest Territory.
* Ordinance of 1784 set up process to become state
* Land Ordinance of 1785 set up grid surveying system
* Northwest Ordinance of 1787 set up portion of land sales to finance public schools and banned slavery in Old Northwest
* meant West would be equal partners, not colonies
D. An ambiguous relationship between the federal government and American Indian tribes contributed to problems regarding treaties and American Indian legal claims relating to the seizure of their lands.
* See A above – Treaty of Greenville and other conflicts with Native Americans
E. The Spanish, supported by the bonded labor of the local American Indians, expanded their mission settlements into California; these provided opportunities for social mobility among soldiers and led to new cultural blending.
* Father Junipero Serra set out to build missions, using the encomienda system of forced labor
* land grants would also be available
* missions were intended to secure California against possible American claims
* in the nineteenth century, Mexico freed Native Americans and granted large ranchos; Native Americans intermarried, as did Yankee traders in leather
II. The continued presence of European powers in North America challenged the United States to find ways to safeguard its borders, maintain neutral trading rights, and promote its economic interests.
A. The United States government forged diplomatic initiatives aimed at dealing with the continued British and Spanish presence in North America, as U.S. settlers migrated beyond the Appalachians and sought free navigation of the Mississippi River.
* Jay’s Treaty got the British to agree to abandon Northwest Territory Forts more than a decade after they were supposed to
* Pinckney’s Treaty secured the right to use the Mississippi from the Spanish
B. War between France and Britain resulting from the French Revolution presented challenges to the United States over issues of free trade and foreign policy and fostered political disagreement.
* Neutrality Proclamation by Washington designed to allow American commerce to continue with both sides; American economy recovering from Revolution and being locked out of British trading system due to high price of farming produce
* French were officially our allies, and tried to enact the alliance, but Hamilton and Washington insisted that was with the king whose head they had chopped off (which upset Jefferson who was pro-French)
* British and French both stopping American shipping, but British had the larger navy and were also impressing American sailors
* Federalists hated atheism of French Revolution, as well as the Reign of Terror, and the fear that the poor would rise up against them in America
* Jeffersonians hated British, because of the Revolution
* Jay’s Treaty infuriated Jeffersonians, who saw it as a de facto alliance with British
* XYZ Affair drove Federalists and Republicans further apart
C. George Washington’s Farewell Address encouraged national unity, as he cautioned against political factions and warned about the danger of permanent foreign alliances.
* Farewell Address established American foreign policy until WWII, but it failed completely to prevent the rise of political parties