Key Concept 1: Britain’s victory over France in the imperial struggle for North America led to new conflicts among the British government, the North American colonists, and American Indians, culminating in the creation of a new nation



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Key Concept 3.1: Britain’s victory over France in the imperial struggle for North America led to new conflicts among the British government, the North American colonists, and American Indians, culminating in the creation of a new nation, the United States.







Examples of relevant individuals, groups, and movements

Relevant primary and secondary sources

Relevant Thematic Learning Objectives

I. Throughout the second half of the 18th century, various

American Indian groups repeatedly evaluated and adjusted their alliances with Europeans, other tribes, and the new United States government.



A) English population growth and expansion into the interior disrupted existing

French–Indian fur trade networks and caused various Indian nations to shift alliances among competing European powers.










ID-4: Explain how conceptions of group identity and autonomy emerged out of cultural interactions between colonizing groups, Africans, and American Indians in the colonial era.
POL-1: Analyze the factors behind competition, cooperation, and conflict among different societies and social groups in North America during the colonial period.
ENV-4: Analyze how the search for economic resources affected social and political developments from the colonial period through Reconstruction.
CUL-1: Compare the cultural values and attitudes of different European, African American, and native peoples in the colonial period and explain how contact affected intergroup relationships and conflicts.



B) After the British defeat of the French, white–Indian conflicts continued to erupt as native groups sought both to continue trading with Europeans and to resist the encroachment of British colonists on traditional tribal lands.









C) During and after the colonial war for independence, various tribes attempted to forge advantageous political alliances with one another and with European powers to protect their interests, limit migration of white settlers, and maintain their tribal lands.











Key Concept 3.1: Britain’s victory over France in the imperial struggle for North America led to new conflicts among the British government, the North American colonists, and American Indians, culminating in the creation of a new nation, the United States.







Examples of relevant individuals, groups, and movements

Relevant primary and secondary sources

Relevant Thematic Learning Objectives

II. During and after the imperial struggles of the mid-18th century, new pressures began to unite the British colonies against perceived and real constraints on their economic activities and political rights, sparking a colonial independence movement and war with Britain.


A) Great Britain’s massive debt from the Seven Years’ War resulted in renewed efforts to consolidate imperial control over North American markets, taxes, and political institutions — actions that were supported by some colonists but resisted by others.









ID-1: Analyze how competing conceptions of national identity were expressed in the development of political institutions and cultural values from the late colonial through the antebellum periods.
WXT-1: Explain how patterns of exchanging commodities, peoples, diseases, and ideas around the Atlantic World developed after European contact and shaped North American colonial-era societies.
POL-1: Analyze the factors behind competition, cooperation, and conflict among different societies and social groups in North America during the colonial period.
WOR-1: Explain how imperial competition and the exchange of commodities across both sides of the Atlantic Ocean influenced the origins and patterns of development of North American societies in the colonial period.
CUL-2: Analyze how emerging conceptions of national identity and democratic ideals shaped value systems, gender roles, and cultural movements in the late 18th century and the 19th century.
CUL-4: Analyze how changing religious ideals, Enlightenment beliefs, and republican thought shaped the politics, culture, and society of the colonial era through the early Republic.

B) The resulting independence movement was fueled by established colonial elites, as well as by grassroots movements that included newly mobilized laborers, artisans, and women, and rested on arguments over the rights of British subjects, the rights of the individual, and the ideas of the Enlightenment.









C) Despite considerable loyalist opposition, as well as Great Britain’s apparently overwhelming military and financial advantages, the patriot cause succeeded because of the colonists’ greater familiarity with the land, their resilient military and political leadership, their ideological commitment, and their support from European allies.











Key Concept 3.1: Britain’s victory over France in the imperial struggle for North America led to new conflicts among the British government, the North American colonists, and American Indians, culminating in the creation of a new nation, the United States.







Examples of relevant individuals, groups, and movements

Relevant primary and secondary sources

Relevant Thematic Learning Objectives

III. In response to domestic and international tensions, the new United States debated and formulated foreign policy initiatives and asserted an international presence.


A) The continued presence of European powers in North America challenged the United States to find ways to safeguard its borders, maintain neutral trading rights, and promote its economic interests.








WOR-5: Analyze the motives behind, and results of, economic, military, and diplomatic initiatives aimed at expanding U.S. power and territory in the Western Hemisphere in the years between independence and the Civil War.
POL-2: Explain how and why major party systems and political alignments arose and have changed from the early Republic through the end of the 20th century.

B) The French Revolution’s spread throughout Europe and beyond helped fuel Americans’ debate not only about the nature of the United States’s domestic order, but also about its proper role in the world.







C) Although George

Washington’s Farewell

Address warned about the dangers of divisive political parties and permanent foreign alliances, European conflict and tensions with Britain and France fueled increasingly bitter partisan debates throughout the 1790s.











Key Concept 3.2: In the late 18th century, new experiments with democratic ideas and republican forms of government, as well as other new religious, economic, and cultural ideas, challenged traditional imperial systems across the Atlantic World.







Examples of relevant individuals, groups, and movements

Relevant primary and secondary sources

Relevant Thematic Learning Objectives

I. During the 18th century, new ideas about politics and society led to debates about religion and governance, and ultimately inspired experiments with new governmental structures.

A) Protestant evangelical religious fervor strengthened many British colonists’ understandings of themselves as a chosen people blessed with liberty, while Enlightenment philosophers and ideas inspired many American political thinkers to emphasize individual talent over hereditary privilege.









ID-1: Analyze how competing conceptions of national identity were expressed in the development of political institutions and cultural values from the late colonial through the antebellum periods.
POL-5: Analyze how arguments over the meaning and interpretation of the Constitution have affected U.S. politics since 1787.
WOR-2: Explain how the exchange of ideas among different parts of the Atlantic World shaped belief systems and independence movements into the early 19th century.
CUL-4: Analyze how changing religious ideals, Enlightenment beliefs, and republican thought shaped the politics, culture, and society of the colonial era through the early Republic.

B) The colonists’ belief in the superiority of republican self-government based on the natural rights of the people found its clearest American expression in Thomas Paine’s Common

Sense and in the Declaration of Independence.








C) Many new state constitutions and the national Articles of

Confederation, reflecting republican fears of both centralized power and excessive popular influence, placed power in the hands of the legislative branch and maintained property qualifications for voting and citizenship.











Key Concept 3.2: In the late 18th century, new experiments with democratic ideas and republican forms of government, as well as other new religious, economic, and cultural ideas, challenged traditional imperial systems across the Atlantic World.







Examples of relevant individuals, groups, and movements

Relevant primary and secondary sources

Relevant Thematic Learning Objectives

II. After experiencing the limitations of the Articles of Confederation, American political leaders wrote a new Constitution based on the principles of federalism and separation of powers, crafted a Bill of Rights, and continued their debates about the proper balance between liberty and order.

A) Difficulties over trade, finances, and interstate and foreign relations, as well as internal unrest, led to calls for significant revisions to the Articles of Confederation and a stronger central government.








WXT-6: Explain how arguments about market capitalism, the growth of corporate power, and government policies influenced economic policies from the late 18th century through the early 20th century.
POL-5: Analyze how arguments over the meaning and interpretation of the Constitution have affected U.S. politics since 1787.
WOR-5: Analyze the motives behind, and results of, economic, military, and diplomatic initiatives aimed at expanding U.S. power and territory in the Western Hemisphere in the years between independence and the Civil War.

B) Delegates from the states worked through a series of compromises to form a Constitution for a new national government, while providing limits on federal power.

C) Calls during the ratification process for greater guarantees of rights resulted in the addition of a Bill of Rights shortly after the Constitution was adopted.










D) As the first national administrations began to govern under the

Constitution, continued debates about such issues as the relationship between the national government and the states, economic policy, and the conduct of foreign affairs led to the creation of political parties.













Key Concept 3.2: In the late 18th century, new experiments with democratic ideas and republican forms of government, as well as other new religious, economic, and cultural ideas, challenged traditional imperial systems across the Atlantic World.







Examples of relevant individuals, groups, and movements

Relevant primary and secondary sources

Relevant Thematic Learning Objectives

III. While the new governments continued to limit rights to some groups, ideas promoting self-government and personal liberty reverberated around the world.

A) During and after the American Revolution, an increased awareness of the inequalities in society motivated some individuals and groups to call for the abolition of slavery and greater political democracy in the new state and national governments.








ID-4: Explain how conceptions of group identity and autonomy emerged out of cultural interactions between colonizing groups, Africans, and American

Indians in the colonial era.


WOR-2: Explain how the exchange of ideas among different parts of the Atlantic World shaped belief systems and independence movements into the early 19th century.
POL-5: Analyze how arguments over the meaning and interpretation of the

Constitution have affected U.S. politics since 1787.


CUL-2: Analyze how emerging conceptions of national identity and democratic ideals shaped value systems, gender roles, and cultural movements in the late 18th century and the 19th century.

B) The constitutional framers postponed a solution to the problems of slavery and the slave trade, setting the stage for recurring conflicts over these issues in later years.


C) The American Revolution and the ideals set forth in the Declaration of Independence had reverberations in France, Haiti, and Latin America, inspiring future rebellions.









Key Concept 3.3: Migration within North America, cooperative interaction, and competition for resources raised questions about boundaries and policies, intensified conflicts among peoples and nations, and led to contests over the creation of a multiethnic, multiracial national identity.







Examples of relevant individuals, groups, and movements

Relevant primary and secondary sources

Relevant Thematic Learning Objectives

I. As migrants streamed westward from the British colonies along the Atlantic seaboard, interactions among different groups that would continue under an independent United States resulted in competition for resources, shifting alliances, and cultural blending.

A) The French withdrawal from North America and the subsequent attempt of various native groups to reassert their power over the interior of the continent resulted in new white–Indian conflicts along the western borders of British and, later, the U.S. colonial settlement and among settlers looking to assert more power in interior regions.








ID-5: Analyze the role of economic, political, social, and ethnic factors on the formation of regional identities in what would become the United States from the colonial period through the 19th century.
ID-6: Analyze how migration patterns to, and migration within, the United States have influenced the growth of racial and ethnic identities and conflicts over ethnic assimilation and distinctiveness.
PEO-5: Explain how free and forced migration to and within different parts of North America caused regional development, cultural diversity and blending, and political and social conflicts through the 19th century.
POL-1: Analyze the factors behind competition, cooperation, and conflict among different societies and social groups in North America during the colonial period.
WOR-1: Explain how imperial competition and the exchange of commodities across both sides of the Atlantic Ocean influenced the origins and patterns of development of North American societies in the colonial period.
WOR-5: Analyze the motives behind, and results of, economic, military, and diplomatic initiatives aimed at expanding U.S. power and territory in the Western Hemisphere in the years between independence and the Civil War.

B) Migrants from within North America and around the world continued to launch new settlements in the West, creating new distinctive backcountry cultures and fueling social and ethnic tensions.

C) The Spanish, supported by the bonded labor of the local Indians, expanded their mission settlements into California, providing opportunities for social mobility among enterprising soldiers and settlers that led to new cultural blending.









Key Concept 3.3: Migration within North America, cooperative interaction, and competition for resources raised questions about boundaries and policies, intensified conflicts among peoples and nations, and led to contests over the creation of a multiethnic, multiracial national identity.







Examples of relevant individuals, groups, and movements

Relevant primary and secondary sources

Relevant Thematic Learning Objectives

II. The policies of the United

States that encouraged western migration and the orderly incorporation of new territories into the nation both extended republican institutions and intensified conflicts among American



Indians and Europeans in the trans-Appalachian West.


A) As settlers moved westward during the 1780s, Congress enacted the Northwest Ordinance for admitting new states and sought to promote public education, the protection of private property, and the restriction of slavery in the Northwest Territory.








POL-1: Analyze the factors behind competition, cooperation, and conflict among different societies and social groups in North America during the colonial period.
PEO-4: Analyze the effects that migration, disease, and warfare had on the American Indian population after contact with Europeans.
WOR-5: Analyze the motives behind, and results of, economic, military, and diplomatic initiatives aimed at expanding U.S. power and territory in the Western Hemisphere in the years between independence and the Civil War.

B) The Constitution’s failure to precisely define the relationship between American Indian tribes and the national government led to problems regarding treaties and Indian legal claims relating to the seizure of Indian lands.






C) As western settlers sought free navigation of the Mississippi River, the United States forged diplomatic initiatives to manage the conflict with Spain and to deal with the continued British presence on the American continent.











Key Concept 3.3: Migration within North America, cooperative interaction, and competition for resources raised questions about boundaries and policies, intensified conflicts among peoples and nations, and led to contests over the creation of a multiethnic, multiracial national identity.







Examples of relevant individuals, groups, and movements

Relevant primary and secondary sources

Relevant Thematic Learning Objectives

III. New voices for national identity challenged tendencies to cling to regional identities, contributing to the emergence of distinctly American cultural expressions.


A) As national political institutions developed in the new United States, varying regionally based positions on economic, political, social, and foreign policy issues promoted the development of political parties.









ID-5: Analyze the role of economic, political, social, and ethnic factors on the formation of regional identities in what would become the United States from the colonial period through the 19th century.
WXT-2: Analyze how innovations in markets, transportation, and technology affected the economy and the different regions of North America from the colonial period through the end of the Civil War.
WXT-4: Explain the development of labor systems such as slavery, indentured servitude, and free labor from the colonial period through the end of the 18th century.
POL-2: Explain how and why major party systems and political alignments arose and have changed from the early Republic through the end of the 20th century.
CUL-2: Analyze how emerging conceptions of national identity and democratic ideals shaped value systems, gender roles, and cultural movements in the late 18th century and the 19th century.
ENV-3: Analyze the role of environmental factors in contributing to regional economic and political identities in the 19th century, and how they affected conflicts such as the American

Revolution and the Civil War.



B) The expansion of slavery in the lower South and adjacent western lands, and its gradual disappearance elsewhere, began to create distinctive regional attitudes toward the institution.

C) Enlightenment ideas and women’s experiences in the movement for independence promoted an ideal of “republican motherhood,” which called on white women to maintain and teach republican values within the family and granted women a new importance in

American political culture.










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