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225. See Q.Q., ii, p.14:1-2

226. ditto i, p. 195:23-24

227. A variation of a iadith Quds!; see, aruhanmad Lialdani,

p.11,7° 56.

228. See Q. Q., ii, p. 14:3-10

229. ditto ii, p. 14:11-16

230. SMZ (p.3666) comments that the darakat are like tae

darajAt except that the dara,jat are used in coanection with Paradise (the Garden), while the darakAt are use in connection with the Fire.

231. See Q.Q., ii, p. 15:1-11

232. ditto ii, p. 14: 16-20 (variations)

233. JAbir bin 'Abdallah bin 'Amr al-Ansar1, d. 74 or 78; Ibn 4oteiba, p. 156.

234. See Q.Q., ii, p.15:13-15

235 ditto ii, p. 15: 23-24

236. h-entioned in the =Qur'an, 7:83; 11:85; 26:179; 29:35; Uncy. of Islam, iv, p.358.

237. See Zweri er, A _'uoslem Seeker after God, p.274; also

aidant, AhAdith al-Qudsiyah, p. 129, /,534.

238. Abu ' 'Abd al-Rahman Ian 'Umar Ion Yuhmid alAuz 'i, famous doctor of law of Syria; born at Saalbek, 88/ 707 or 93; d. at Beirut, 157/774; Ibn Khal., ii, p. 84. 239. Abu 'Abd al--Rahman iatim bin 'Alw~n al-Asamm,


Qushairi in his Risalah calls hir:i o-ne of the most famous shaikhs of Kurasan comments S!-.Z (p.371), d. 237; Smith, An Early .,-'ystic of Ba{:;hdad, p. 257.

240. Abu Yahya '-';~l ik Ibn pin 5x, native of 3asra ana a maawla to the family of the tribe of Koraish, called the 3ani Sama,

d. Basra, 131/748-9; Ibn Khal., ii, p. 549

241. Ibrahi.m bin Adham bin ,,Iansar bin Yazid bin Gabir alTamimi al-' I jll, a famous ascetic of 3alkh, d. 160 -168; Ency. of Islam, ii, pp. 432 ff.

242. Ibn al-Samiaaik Abu l1-'Abbess Muhamad Ibn Sabih, mawla of the tribe of 'Ij1 and a professional narrator of anecdotes, d. Kufa, 183/799-80; Ibn Kha1. iii, p. 18.

243. AbQ 'Abda.llah - akhul Ibn 'Abdallah al-Shami, . 118/

736; Ibn Khal., iii, p. 437

244. 'Abd al-Rahm n Ibn Ghanam bin Kuraib bin Rani bin 31

'ah al-Ash'arl: Ibn Sa'd mentions him in al-Tabaqat; he was an adherent of lu'adh bin vabal, died 78 A. H. (SrZ) 245. Taurat and Ink, see.i"iuir and deir, The Life of •io

hammad, p.150, notes 1 and 2. The former is the Pentateuch W

or tine entire Scriptures of tine Old Testament, whereas the latter is the '•:ew Testament.

246. See Q.Q„ ii, p. 5:13-14

247. ludhaifah bin al-Yaman, d. 36, Ibn Coteiba, p. 134

248. See Q.Q., ii, p. 5:15-16


249. See. ii, p. 5:22-23

250. Ka'b Ibn M ani' al- Iurnairi al-Ai~ba.r (Abu Ishaq), d. under 'Uthman, 32/652 or 34/654 at Homs, Syria; Ency. of Islam, ii, p.582.

251. See. Q.Q., ii, p. 9:16-20

252. Ditto i, p. 194:19-21

253. " 1, p.197:3-6

254. " 1, n. 197:6-7

255. " 1, p. 197:8-9

256. " 1, p. 200:5-7

257. " ii, p. 16:1-2

258. Abu 'All Shaglq Ibn Ibr5hlm al-Balkhi (principal disciple of Ibn Adham) killed in jihad, 194 A. H.; the first to form the concept of tawakkul as a mystic state; Essai, -~assignon, p. 228; see also Scherer, 0 Youth, p. 63, xviii, 2. 259. A1-Dahhak b. JuzRhim al-Hilali Abu 'l-QRsii: , d.102; Ibn Coteiba, p.232.

260. I could not locate him.

261. Raly, the ancient Ra`ha, a town of edia five miles

S.S.E. of Teheran, Ency. of. Islam, iii, pp. 1105-1108

262. SHHHZ comments that they are long woolen coats (p.381)

263. x.uhamm1:nad Ibn ugatil al-RAzl, judge of Raiy, not lo


264. Cf. .Q., ii, p. 185:9-10


265. I did not locate him

266. S IZ (foot of 382) cora::.ents that there are twenty-seven parasangs between Raiy and Qazwln.

267. Yanya bin Yazid Ibn 'Abd al-A1alak bin Naufall bin al

:,arith bin 'Abd al- alab bin Hasim al-?awfall al-.-iadan!,d.165

268. This is Rodwell's translation, ad.loc.

269. HadhIfah bin Hisl b. iabir a1-Yaman, Ibn Coteiba, p.134 .

270. Abu '1-Qasim Samnun Ibn Hamzah, the ascetic, a contem

porary of al-Junaid, Ibn Khal., i, p. 423 and 426 note 2.

271 Salamah bin ' Ljmru bin al-Aiwa' al-Aslam! Abi .uslim and he is ca.ded Abu AyyAs and also Abu 'Amir, d. 94. I did

not locate him.

272. See Q.Q., 1, p. 199:23-25

273. Yusuf bin AsbAt, d. 196/811; ;ar. Smith, An Early

Tystic of Baghdad, p. 75.

274. See Q.Q., 1, p.199:25-200:3

275. ditto ii, p. 3:1

276. " 11, p.3:9-10

277. " 1, p.195:3-4 (variations)

278. " 1, p. 195:4-5

279. plural of badal (substitute), "Acc-ordinG to the most

generally accepted opinion, they are the fifth degree in the Sufi hierarchy. They are forty in number (7) and by their powerful influence participate in preserving the arrangement


of the universe, and are unrLnotn~ to the masses--", Ency. of Islam, i, p. 67 (a); .ushes, Diet.of Islam, pp. 1 and 2; also S- Z, p. 395.

280. Abu Haf s ' • Umr bin S.1 irn al-H• addAd al-lW ay saburl of Kuzdabn, d. about 160; so in Q1ushairl's Risalat ways S.Z p.395. 281. Ibrahlm Ibn Yazid bin Shank al-Tayml, d. 192 (SiZ,

p. 396); Essai, "assignon, p.148; Mar. Smith, op. cit.,p.65, puts his death at 92/710.

282. Abil al--' Alayah al-Riyahl, d. 90 A. i . ,Ibn Cote i'oa, 231

283. tubba' see Ency. of Islam, ii, p. 311 (a and b) under article Himyar.

284. See Qur:'an, xviii:82 ff.

285. ' Abd al--Ral~raan bin Abi Laila, follower, d. 61 or 83; Ibn Khal., ii, p.84

286. See G.Q., i, p. 195:5-8; 10-12

287. ahl al-sulfa or more rarely ashab al-sulfa, see Lane, Lexicon, p. 1694 (a) upper tnira, 6ncy. of Islam, i., p. 165

288. See Q.q., i, p. 195:13-14 (variations)

289. ditto i, o. 196:2-4

290. "

i, p, 196:4-5 (variations) 291 " i, p. 196:6

of 3abylon, on the western arm of the Euphrates, ;Ency. of

292. It

i, p. 196:7

293. a1-KKufah, a once celebrated city south of

the t uins


Islam, pp. 477 f.

294. See Q.Q., p. 196:8-10

295. Badr, a small town southwest of al-nadinah, scene of the battle between i uha mmad' s followers and the people of Mecca, A. H. 2., Ency. of Islam, i. p.559.

296. See q.Q., i, p. 197:10-11

297. ditto 1, p. 197:24-25

298. " ii, p. 11:9--15

299. " ii, p. 11:18

300. Abu 'Abdallah Salman al-Farisi called al-Khair whose origin was from Isbahan, was at the Khandaq; d. 34 A.H. (SHZ)

301. See q.Q., ii, p. 19:16-19

302. SUZ says this is J bir bin Zaid al-Azdi, d. 93 A.H.; Ibn Coteiba, p. 231, puts his death at 103 A.H.

303. See Q.1,., ii, p. 19:23-20:7

304. ditto ii, p. 5:10-13

305. Abu :4iuhammad Sahl bin 'Abdallah bin Yunis a Sunni theologian and mystic, born at Tustar, 203/818; d. 283/696; Ency. of Islam, iv, p.63; Ibn Khal. i, p.602; 1--lassignon,


Eseal, 306.

307. 308. 309

p.264. and following pages.

See Q.q., i, p. 198:21-199:10 ditto 1, p. 201:13-16

This is from Lane, Lexicon, p. 1925 (a).

A town in Arabia not far from Khaibar and like the

latter inhabited by Jews. Ency. of Islam, ii, p.35

310. inna '1-;awad 'ainuhu furAruhu a proverb applied to him whose external state indicates his internal qualities, meaning that one knows his excellence from his lain (i.e. aspect) like as one knows the age of a beast by examining

his teeth", Lane, Lexicon, p. 2355 (b).

311. See Q.Q., ii, p. 8:20 and following.

312. ditto ii, foot of p.8 and upper third of p.9.

313. " ii, p.10:15-17

314. " ii, p. 10:17

315. " ii, p. 10:24-25

316. " ii, p. 11:4-8

317. Bilal Bin Sa'd bin Tamim (Tumain) al Ash'ari or al

Kind! Abu 'Uxnr or Abu Zir'ab al-Damashql, died in Hisham's

Caliphate (105-125 A. H.) (SMZ); see Calverley, Worship in

Islam, p. 184, note .

318. See, ~.Q., ii, p. 10:25-p. 11:2

319. ditto ii, p. 11:22-26

320. " ii, p. 25:26-26:2

321. Dhimmat! (bima aqul) rahlnah wa ana bihi za'lm, see

Lane, Lexicon, p. 976 (c) middle of page.

322. See Q.Q., ii, p. 12:2-11 (variations) 323. ditto ii, p. 16:3-9

324. This is Rodwell's translation, op.cit.


325. See, Q.Q., ii, p. 23;6-18 (variations and omissions)

326. Ibn Jabr a1-=akki Abu '1-Hajjaj mawla Hani :iaknzurm,

d. 102, Mecca; mentioned in Ency. of Islam, ii, p. 101 (a) under article filth (middle of page).


328. See ,.Q., ii, p. 40:1-3

329. ditto ii, p. 40:3-5

330. Al-Hajjaj bin Yusuf al-Thagafl, (the well known)

as it is related that Qatadah knelt to worship and a piece of the matting got in his eye. So he cursed al-I;ajiEi(SMZ)

331. See Q.Q., ii, p. 48:1-2

332. ditto ii, p. 48:9-12

333. " ii, p. 48:16-17

334. " ii, p. 49:5-7

335. Marwa,n bin al-Hakm bin AbI d. 65 A.-el.; Ibn
Coteiba, p. 179

336. Abu Sa'Id %alik bin Sanan al-Khudri, d. 74 A.H.i Ibn

Khabbat 'ashawEt, see Lane, Lexicon, p. 699 (a)

Coteiba, p. 136; ~Ency. of Islam, 337. See Q. Q., ii, p. 49:20-22 338. ditto ii, p. 49:23-24

339. a ii, p. 58:5-7

340. tt ii, p . 59:21-23

341. " ii, p. 60:10-11

342. it ii, p. 60:1-10

i, p.

185 (Ahl al-sulfa)



See Q.Q. , ii, p. 60:2j-61:4

344. ditto ii, p. 60:24:-25

345. ,jawhar, See Ency. of Islam, 1, p. 1027

340'. Ibn Omara al--3ar7.I Ian 'Azab, one of the Ansars, ci. 71/690-1 (1'ujum); Ibn Khal, iv, p. 286, note 27

347. Rukaiya Tamim Ibn Ans al-Dari was ori-;inally a Christian, but embraced Islamism in the 9th year of the .iijra, and became one of A uharn:nad' s companions (d. 40 A.:.); Ibn Khal, ii, p. 21, note 3

348. A' isha bint Abi Bakr, favorite wife of uhamnad, d. 58; Ency. of Islam, i, p. 216

349. taylasan, see TRAS, 1935, pp. 334-5, in article on r=otes on Costume from Arabic Sources by Reuben Levy.

350. see Dozy, Supplement, p.752, discours denue de lens.

351. S I-2 says ':the people of the Rif", (p. 467)

352. fang, a measure well known in al-MMedina: 16 pints:

Lane, Lexicon, p. 2385 (a)


I. Encyclopedias

1. Leyden: The Encyclop'edia of Islam, A Dictionary of the Geography, Ethn_ograp4y, and 3iography of the .uaammad Peoples, prepared by a 'H under of Leadin`, Crientalists, Leyden, 1913

2. Hughes: Dictionary of Islam, being a Cyclopedia

of the Doctrines, Rites, Ceremonies, and. Customs, together with the Technical Terms and Theological Terms of the .4uharnnadan Religion, by Thomas Patrick Hughes, London, 1865

3. Brockelmann: Geschichte der Arabischen Litteratur, von Karl 3rockelirann, Zwel ~ ande, i'eiiiar, 1896, 1902.

4. 'icholson: A Literary History of the Arabs, by Reynold A. ;icholson, London, 1907 II. Lexicons

5. Lane : An Arabic-En ;lish Lexicon, by Edward William Lane, 1863

6. Dictionary of the Technical Terms, used in the Sciences of the Husalmans, edited under superintendence of A. Sprenger and W. •assau Lees, Calcutta, 1362



7. al-Ta'rifat) Definitiones viri

meritissimi Sejjid Scherif Ali ben lohammed Dschordschani, edidit Gustavus Flugel, Lipsiae, 1845

8. Dozy: Supplement aux Dictionnaires Arabes, Saar R.Dozy, Leyde, 1881

9. IIava: An Arabic-English Dictionary, J. G. Hava,

Beyrouth, 1899

10. Wortabet: Arabic-End<;lish Dictionary, W. T. Wortabet, Beyrout, 1893

III. Grammar

11. Wright: A Grammar of the Arabic Language, by W. Wright, third edition, revised by Smith

and de Goeje, 2 vols., 1933, Cambridge

IV. Theology, Philosophy, and -.ysticism

12. Development of Muslim Theology, Jurisprudence,

and Constitutional Theory, by Duncan B. Macdon

ald, New York, 1903

13. The Religious Attitude and Life in Islam, D. B.

acdonald, Chicago, 1909

14. Aspects of Islam, D. 3. Hacdonald,M7ew York, 1911 15. de Boer: The History of Philosophy in Islam, by

T. J. de doer, translated by E. R. Jones, Lon

don, 1903


16. Goldziher: Le Do~~_ie et la Loi de l' Islam, trans

lated by Felix Arin, Paris, 1920

17. Ialkin: Moslem Schisms and Sects, (al-Fark


Bain al-Firak) of Abu Mansur 'Abd al-Kdhir Ibn Tihir al-.3aghdadi (d. 1037), part II., trans

lated by A. S. Halkin, Tel-Aviv, 1935

18. Lammens: Islam Beliefs and Institutions by H.

Larnmens, translated by Sir Z. Denison Ross,

London, 192

19. .M_akkl. Qut al-Qulub, by Abu Talib al- MMakkl, 2 20 vols., Cairo, 1351/1932 20. •fassiZnon: Essai Sur lee Ori ;fines du Lexique

Technique de la Mystique ..usalmane, par Louis

MM.assiSnon, Paris, 1922


. Nicholson: Studies in Islamic MXysticism, R. A.

~'icholson, Cambridge, 1921

22. 'IT icholson: The Mystics of Islam, R. A. N icholson

London, 1914

23. Schmolders: Essai cur lee Ecoles Philosophiques

chez les Arabes oar Au~uste Schmolders, Paris, 1842.

24. Sell: Sufiism, Canon Sell, in the Islam

London, Madras and Comombo, 1910

25. Smith: An Early Mystic of Bad; hdad, Margaret Smith,



London, 1935

26. Smith: Studies in Early Mysticism in the Year

and :addle :`,past, Margaret Smith, London, 1931 27. Al-Suyuti: Kitab al--AtQan f! 'ulum al-Qur'an,

a1-Imam JaT1 ad-Din al--Suyuti, Cairo, 1318 A.H. 28. Wensinck: On the Relation Between Ghazali's Cos

mology and His Mysticism, A. J. Wensinck, Amster

dam, 1933

V. HHiuhammad, the qur'an and Traditions

29. Flue gel, Gustavus: Corani Textus Arabicus, Leipsig, 1858

30. Fluegel, Gustavus: Concordantiae Corani Arabicae, Leipsig, 1898

31. 1Miuir: The Life of nohammad, William -uir, revised

by T. z. Weir, Edinburgh, 1012

32. Rodwell: The Koran, u. A. Rodwell, London, 1929 33. Goldsack, The Traditions in Islam, W. Goldsack,

Madras, 1919

VI. History and Biographies

34. Hell: The Arab Civilization, J. Hell, CambridGe, 1926

35Lane-Poole: The Mohammedan Dynasties, Stanley LanePoole, 1894

36. uir: T'_~e Caliphate, _Its Rise, Decline, and Fall,


Sir William 00ir, 1391, London

37. Ibn Coteiba's Handbuch der Geschichte,Gottingen, 1850

38. Ibn Khallikan's 3iograpahical Dictionary, translated from the Arabic by Baron ,ac zuckin De Slane, 4 vols., Paris, 1842, 1871

39. Barbier de heynard: Surnoms et Sobriquets dans

la Litterature Arabe par A.-C. Barbier de Meynard,

Paris, 1907

VII. A1-Ghazzali

40. Carra de Vaux: Gazali, par le Baron Carra de Vaux, Paris, 1902

41. Gardner: al-Ghazali, W.R.W. G-ardner, Madras, 1919 42. Field: The Confessions of al-Ghazzali, Claud Field, 43. Calverley: Worship in Islam, E.E. Calverley, nadras,


44. Macdonald: al-uhazzall, in Ency. of Islam, i, pp. 146 ff

45. ->Iacdonald: The Life of al-Ghazza1I, in JAGS, 1b99, pp. 71-132

45. Scherer: 0 Youth, I.H. Scherer, Beirut, 1933

47. Zwemer: A Moslem Seeker after God, S. =l. Zwemer,

Yew York, 1920
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