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111. al-Harith bin Labid, SAZ says he is al-Harith bin

Asad who is Abu 'Abdallah a1-Wuhasibi, previously mentioned.

112. A1-Safa, hill in the sacred territory of becca, Rodwell, The Koran, p. 354, note 3 (Everyman edition); ,uir and Weil, The Life of Aohammad, by index.

393


113. Sa,lih bin 3ashir bin Wadi' ran Abi al-Aq'as Abu dieter al-QVi, known as al-! urri, This is from SMZ. See Ad-Dhahabi, op. cit., 477; al--Samanl, fol. 525 (a).

114. SYZ comments, "I know nothing of his circumstances".

115. tamkin "The Sufi. 'Way': the process of purification and elimination of evil from the soul finally leads to reunion of the soul with God". There are three stages, the third one being achievement (tamkin) which is the end of the

Path, the Goal of the Quest, attainment of the Unitive Life. The mystic now dwells in an abode of perfection and has found

rest within the very shrine of Deity. In the light of Love and Union he sees the glory of God and while still in this world penetrates into the mysteries of the world to come."

Mar. Smith,_Early Mysticism in the Near and Middle East, 203.

See. Jurjanl, op.cit., p.80,292; Trait6 cur le Soufisme

el-Icochairi, translated by Mme. Olga de Mbedew, pp. 50 ff. 116. Galen,the Greek Physician, 130-about 200 A. D.

117. Ibrahim bin Khalid bin Abi ' 1-Yaman a1- Kalbl, a jurisconsult. Originally belonged to Irakian school, but later

joined al-Shafi'i, whose older writings he transmitted to posterity. d240/854 or 246/860, Eney. of Islam, i, p.111 Ibn Thal. , i, 6

118. AbU Sa ' id Yahya Ibn Sa' ld al-f•_attan, imam and hhAfiz

of great reputation for veracity and piety. During twenty

394

years he read the Qur'Rn through once every night and for



forty years he never missed the evening Worship at the mosque.

d. 198/813; b.158, Ibn Kraal., ii, 679, note 4.

a

119. Shaikh Yasr Ibn IbrRhim Ibn Tasr a1-Aagdasi, an imam of great authority and a pillar of Islamism, equally learned nd pious. Composed: Fahdhik, the 21agsud, the Kafi, and a commentary on the Isha.rah, d. 490/1097, buried at Damascus where his tomb continues to be highly venerated, Ibn Khal., i, p.42, note 2.



120. Al-iansur, Abu Ja'far 'Abdallah bin 4uhammad, the second 'AbbAsid Caliph, d. 158/775, Ency. of Islam, iii, p.248

SMZ comments that it was not the Caliph Aansur, but Ja'far bin SulaimAn al-Hashami.

121. al-mustakrah, the subject is discussed in books of

filth; others are youths, insane, men asleep, drunk, or in a

swoon. See. HAshiyat al-3aluri 'ala Abl-Shins', Cairo, 1303, ii, p.ldl, also p.143 near middle of commentary, and p. 153,

foot of margin.

122. Mahdi: S Z comments, "He is Abu 'Abdallah Muhamm ad bin 'Abdallah bin 'All bin 'Abdallah bin 'Abbas, the third 'Abbas

id Caliph." See: Nuir, the Caliphate, pp.464-469

123. Rabia al-RU Abu Othman Rabia Ibn AM 'Abd al-Rahman F'arrukh, a mawla of the Aunkadir family--great jurisconsult

of Medina (2nd c. of Islam) generally known surname of

395

Rabia al-Rai because he drew many of his 1eGa1 decisions from We fourth source of uhammadan law, which is entitled rRi (view, private Judgment) or gins (analogy); d. 136/753-4 Ibn Khal., 1, 517-18



124. Harfn a1-Rashld, fifth 'Abbasid Caliph, d. 193/809, see, Muir, The Caliphate, pp. 470-483; also Lane-Poole, the Moha.mmadan Dynasties, p.12

125. Hijaz, section of the western side of the Arabian Deninsular in which Mecca and Medina lie. MIuir and Weir, the Life of Mohammad, p. lxxxviii

126. Among "the most eminent writers and most celebrated works of this epoch---. The place of honour belongs to the Imam alik b. Anas of Medina, whose uwatta' is the First great corpus of Muhammadan law. He was a partisan of the

'Alids--", R. A. Nicholson, A Literary History of the Arabs, p.337. See also, Incy, of Islam, iii, p. 206, 111, 1; and iv, p.1193

127. Abu Isma'il larmmad bin Sulaiman (SIM~Z says his name is Muslim al-Ash'arl al-;Cuff, a mawla of Abu Musa a1-Ash'ari), d. 120 A. H., Ibn Coteiba, p.240

128. al-mart'ah is discussed in x4uhadarat al-Udaba' of alWghib a1-Isbahanl, vol. i, p.189,middle of page. 129. 1 could not locate Aim.

130. ditto.

396


131.

132. ditto.

133. Abp. '1-Husain al-Hasan Ibn Qahtabah Ibn Ayad bin

I could not locate him.

Khalid, etc., one of the wen of the 'Abbasid government, Ibn Coteiba, p.188

134. Abu Khalid 'Abd al-Walik, surnamed also Abu '1-Walid, the son of 'Abd al--'Azlz Ibn Jurai j, was a native of Mecca and a member (by adoption) of the tribe of Koraish; one of most celebrated men (of that age) for his learning; said to be the first (after promulgation of Islam) to compose books,

d. 149/766 some say 150 or 151, Ibn Khal., ii, p.116 135. I could not locate him.

136. Abu 'Abdallah Sharik Ibn 'Abdallah bin Abi Sharik.(SMZ says he is al-Harith bin Ausi bin al--Harith bin al-Adhhal bin Wahbll bin Sa'd bin Malik bin al-:Takh'), d. 177, Ibn Coteiba, p.254 (foot).

137. il_a' "It is an oath to cease marital relationship for a specified period of time, as 'By Allah, 1 will not have commerce with you for four months'", Jurjani, Kitab al-Ta'rlfat, p. 42.

"A form of divorce in which a man makes a vow that he will not have connection with his wife for not less than four months and observes it inviolate. The divorce is thereby effected ipso facto, without a decree of separation from the

397

judge. See Qur'Sn, ii, 226". Hughes, Diet. of Islam, p.200 See also Macdonald, Development, p.355; also my notes, 79, 30p 81, and 82.



138. Gabriel, Lane, Lexicon, p.374 (b)

139. see Qur'an 2:96; 20:72.

140. bihusban, see Lane, Lexicon, p.564 (c)

141. a1-ahkam or ahkam al-nujum, technical name of astrology; Ency.of Islam, i, pp.494 ff.

142. gadar, "(according to general usage, it differs from

gads'; this latter signifying a general decree of God, as that every living being shall die; whereas gadar signifies

a particular decree of God, as that a certain man shall die at a particular time and place etc.; or particular predestination: thus al-gads' wa 'l-gadar may be rendered 'the general and particular decrees of God'; or 'general and particular predestination' or 'fate and destiny'", Lane, Lexicon,

p. 2495 (c)

143. See q Q., i, p. 194:14-16

144. luhkamat, see -Envy. of Islam, ii, p.1065; Huhkar, see Hughes, Dict. of Islam) p.518 (b) Hugnes, p.200, refers to GIs -.at, ii, chap.1, gar. ed.

145. ,'ayal or 'ay,y 5HZ comments, "Al-'Iraqi said, 'Abu

Da.wud quoted this from Saridah's tradition, and concerning

its chain (asnad) ---there are some who are not known---

395


I said, 'He quoted it about addb from a tradition of Abi Ja'far 'Abdallah bin 'h3,bit on the authority of Dahr bin

'Qbdal iah ibn 3aridah from his father from his grandfather,

Daridah bin al-I-Iusaib. 'Abdaylah said, "Tni1e he--that is, Barldah--was sittin„ in a session in Kufah with his compan-ions, he said, 'I heard the lJessenger of Allah say, 'In elo

quence there is magic and in knowledge there is ignorance; in poetry there is compelling power, and in speech is the

about the tradition: 'In knowledge there is ignorance, and in speech there is weakness"', p.229. (The reference to

al-qat is vol.i, p.194:16.)

Another version of the origin of this tradition is given on page 1 of the preface to Freytag's edition of al-Iamasah, beginning at line 12.

See also, Lane: Lexicon, foot of p. 221.2 (c) and top

of 2213 (a).

eihr See, Lane, Lexicon, foot of x.1316 (c) and top of

-T

1317 (a); also, JAAS, Pictorial Aspects of Ancient Arabian Poetry, J. C. Lyall, -OP. 151-152



146. See . ., i, p. 194:17

147. 'his might mean, "the most learned".

148. SMZ com_ients, "These words are supposed to 1--lave been

said when some people came to converse with him about re-

propounding of one's narration', and in al-gut we are

told


390,

ligious matters; and when they 'gad answered well, he said, 'They are almost able to be 'Llama', iiukamd', and Fugaha'. ' Other versions ;dive, 'Udaba', HalamV, 'Ugala', and Fukaha'." S.• Z p. 232

149. Abu Ichaq or Abu Ibrahim Sa'd bin Ibrah1m Ibn 'Abd alRahman bin 'Auf al-Zuhrl, Qadi of hedina, whose mother was Umm KalthUm, daughter of Sa' d. d. 127 A.H. See ibncotelba, p. 122, under ;salad 'Abd al--Ra m n bin 'Auf 150. Yazid Ibn Aban (Ayan) al-Ragashi, a gadi. I could not locate him.

151. Ziyad al-Rum airi, see KitU al-Ansab, al-Sari'ani, 569 b. 152. Farqad Ibn Ya'qub al-Sabakhl, d. 131, Sasra; see Yaqut, Geog. Diet., (ed.1324) vol. v., p.27

153. thakalatka ummuka '" Iay thy, mother be bereft of thee", is an imprecation against him to whom it is addressed, not said with the desire of its having effect, but on an occasion of vehement love--", Lane, Lexicon, p.345 (b). 154. ahl al-'adl wa '1-tawhid SMZ says, "the hu'tazilah",

p. 236; also see Macdonald, Development, p. 136

155. hanif, see The Development of the Aeanin: of Koranic HHa}if, i?. A. Faris and Harold W. Glidden, in a Reprint from the Journal of the Palestine Oriental Society, v. xix, 1939, Syrian Orohana`-e Press, Jerusalem.

156. Ka'bah (also qiblah), see Muir and Weir, the Life of

400

lohammad, pp.189 ff. and by index.



157. shath, "This is a technical term in mysticism, siEni

fyins an 'ecstatic phrase' or more exactly a 'divinely inspired utterance.'

"----adopted in the tenth century A. D. by the Sufis,

it is applied to the perturbation of the consciousness, into

which divine grace suddenly penetrates, then to 'the divine

ly inspired utterance' which this supernatural commotion ex

tracts from the subject."

"----The first 'ecstatic sayings' were incorporated by tradition in the classical collections of Hadith, not as ut

terances of the mystics, but as 'words of God' (hadith qudsi)". Ency. of Islam, iv, pp.355-356; also Lammens, Islam Beliefs and Institutions, p.134; also Dozy, Supplement, 1, p.757 (b); also Massignon, Essai, pp. 99-100.

158. tAmmnt "expressions of which the Sufis make use in their extasy, and which are very shocking to the true believ

ers", there is reference to Chazzall's Aiyuha '1-Walad, 14,4

a f., ed. Hammer; then to Vullers' Dictionary--, where one

reads also that the Persians use tammAt, which they write without the doubling of the mim, in the sense of 'vain words' or 'futile words'. Dozy, op.cit., ii, p. 59 (a)

159. Civil War, See Wellhausen, The Arab Kingdom and Its Fall, by index.

401

160. See Q. Q., ii, p.21:13-14



161. Darnrah Ibn Rabl'ah al-Ramla Abu 'Abdallah, a Lnuft3

0

for the people of Syria. I could not locate him.



162. .u_zamiad Ibn 'Aun al- hurasa.n1, not located. 163. Abu BKakr uharnmad Ibn S1rin, not located.

164. Abu :Muha had Sulaiman Ibn -ihran al-A'mash, (the blear) eyed) of Kufa, b. 60 or 61/660; d. 148/765, Ibn Khal, i,587ff; also Ibn Coteiba, p. 246.

165. See Q.Q., ii, p.21:14-15

166. See Q.Q., ii, p. 22:4-7

147. Abu Ishaq Sa' d Ibn Abl 4aggaa .. al ik Ibn Wahib, a descendant of 'Abd Li_anat, was by his own account, the third :person whom ~uha,Lnnad converted to Islam, d. between 50-58 A. H.; Ibn Khal., i, p. 570, note 1

1423. ' Abdallah Ibn Rawahah al-Ansarl, celebrated poet who devoted his talents to service of uhammad. =e was of the Bane '1

149. See Q.Q., ii, p.49:14-19 (variations)

150. Abu ' 1-Hasan ,~uhammad Ibn Saliin al-Basrl, one of Abu

alib al--,'akk1's friends, mentioned in article on Abu Talib al-i4akki, Ibn Khal, 11i, p.20.

151. Husain bin _ansar al-Rallaj, pupil of Junaid, d. 309/132, Iar. Smith, An Early Mystic of Baghdad, p. 262;

402

also Vassignon, ssai.



152. 1itdb al-sama', This is translated by Dr. Macdonald in JRAS, 1901, Articles viii and xxvi. 153. Abu Yazid. Taifur al-Sistami, famous ascetic, d.261/

374-5; .Ibn Khal., i, p. 662; Ency. of Islam, i, p.

lassi3non, Essai, pp. 243-256 and by index.

154. H ka. and hikaya, Dr. =acdonald has a long article on hikaya in the Ency. of Islam, ii, pp. 302-305, where he shows that the word Haka originally meant to rinic, and has come around to mean to tell a story for entertainment. See also:

Wright: Grammar, ii, PP-313, 314; Wright, ed. of al-Kamil of isubarrad, p.602, line 8.

155. See Moslem Schisms and Sects, part ii, translated by Abraham S. Halkin, by index.

156. al-Mustazhiri, see Brockelmann, GAL, supplement i, p.

747 and refs.; also, Zwemer, A Moslem Seeker after God, p. 302, # 71.

157. Abu Jahal ' U?nru bin H i sham,

158. He is 'Abd a1-'UzzA b. 'Abd al-guttalib, d. 60/699-700 Ency. of Islam, i, p.98

159. tawatur "This is informantion which is well established

bythe word of people whose mutual agreement to prevaricate is not to be imaSined", Jurjani, itab al-Ta'rifEt, p.74

160. ta'wil "The root meanin , is 'to cause to return', while

686; and


Ibn Coteiba, PP-34 and 174

403


in divine law it is 'to change the obvious meaning; of a verse to one which it can support, provided that the thing supported

is in agreement with the Qur'an and Usage'. For example, in

the jur'wnic verse, 'He causes the living to come forth from

the dead' (6:95), if it i s said to mean, 'He causes the bird to come forth from the egg', this is explanation (tafs1r);

but if it is said to mean, 'He produces a believer from an unbeliever (kafir)', then it is called allegorical interpreta

tion (ta'wi1). Jurjani, OP-cit., p.52

161. See Q.Q., ii, p.13:20--24. 1.62. ditto ii, p.13;25-26

163. nasikh and mansukh, see Calverley, Worship in Islam,

p. 129, note 3; also Ency. of Islam, ii, p.1065 under Koran.

164. mafsul and mawsal , al-Suyutl, al-Itgan, part one, the 29th kind haw') concerns and explanation of al-mafsul laf

zan al-mafsul rna'nan (what is connected verbally but sepa

rated in meaning), an example of which is Qur'An 7;109-90p. 92 ad. loc.

165. rnuhkam see Hughes, Diet. of Islam, p. 518 (b)

166. 1utashabih, intricate sentences, or expressions, the

exact meaning of which it is impossible for man to ascertain until the Day of Resurrection, but which was known to the Prophet--" Hughes, op.cit., p.519 (a) (4). 167. The shaikh al-Imam Abu 'l-Hasan 'All Ibn Ahmad bin Mu

g

.



404

ham:aad bin 'All al- Wahidl al-°, aysaburi, the commentator, d. in hysabur,468; Nicholson, A Literary History of the Arabs, Pp. 305 and 307

168. The two Sahlhs of i.iuslim and ,3ukharl, the Traditions in Islam, Goldsack, p.59

169. It follows the >itab al-'Ilm.

170. 'ala 'l-khablr saqatta "On the possessor of knowledv=e thou bast lighted", a proverb current among the Arabs; Lane Lexicon, p. 1330 (a) foot of pale; see AuthAl al-haidani,

(Cairo, 1310), 1, p.317.

171 See Q.q., i, p. 196:12-14 (variations)

172. istidraj Discussing,, the theory of miracles and the objection that they are also ascribed to Pharaoh, Satan, and Anti-Christ, Wensinck says, "Yevertiaeless , an explanation

is found by connecting tc,em with the deluding activity (istid

rR;l, marryy of Allah towards his enemies, which is familiar

to ;Muslims from the Kuran (vii, 181; x, 22; "iii, 42; lxviii,

441'", Wensinck, The huslim Creed, p. 226.

173. mujtahid, one who by his own exertions forms his own opinion, see ncy. of Islam, ii, p. 448, article QtiM 174. Al-ShaibAni, Abu 'Abdallah -.uhammad bin al--asan bin Fargad, mawla of tie 3ani Shaiban, a IanifI jurist, o. 132/ 749/750; d. 189/805; §ncy. of !slam, iv, p. 271 175. Ahalwah a retreat reserved for initiates alone",

P

05



L . zmens, Islam 3eliefs and Institutions, p. 169; "solitude" Var. Smith, ran Early Mystic of ba dad, p.147. 176. Abu Mesa al-ash'arl, see Ian Coteiba, 135.

177. See q.Q,., ii, op. 20:21-21:1

178. See Ahgd!tA judsiyah, uhammad Zadani, p. 32, 1 177. .

179. Abu Air Aamir al-Sha'bl was the son of Sharahil Ibn 'Abd Ibn Zibar, distinguished for profound learning; b.30/

650--1; d. 104/722-3; Ibn Khal. ii, p. 4

180. Zaid bin Thibit Ibn al-Dahhak bin al-Ansar; he was

P

. . .


Iuhamrad's secretary; d. 45 or 48 A.H.; Ibn Coteiba, p. 133; also see Muir and Weil, the Life of -oha.m.iad, p. 285 and by index.

181. al-Khidr, see E'nc,y. of Islam, ii, p.6Si; also hacdon-aid, Aspects of Islam, 205 f.; and Rodwell, The Koran (Everyman) p. 186,note 2.

182. zindlq "One who is one of the thunawiyyah, (or asserters of the doctrine of Dualism): or one who asserts his belief in (the two principles of) Light and Darkness: or one

who does not believe in the world to come, nor in the unity

of the Creator: or one who causes unbelief and makes an outward show of belief. An Arabicized word, originally Persian,

so they say", Lane, Lexicon, page 1258; see also Hughes, Dict. of Islam, p. 713 (b).

183. SHZ, p. 321, attributes this to 'Ali.

406


184. S •LZ, ad. loc., attributes the verse to Abu ' 1-'Tayyib Ahmad b. iiusayn al-._utanahbi (see _t. icholscn, A Literary History of the Arabs, pp. 304-13 and by index.

185. This is mentioned in Zwerer,A .oslern Seeker after mod,

p. 302, r 67.

186. ihr_!7m "is the prescribed dress worn by a pilgrim and

also his state while wearing; it. It is put on at the last

stage before reaching Hecca, and laid aside after the tenth day, the day of sacrifice", •Iacdonald, in JRAS, 1901, p.248 (note 3), article al-Ghazzali on ;,.usic and Ecstasy.

187. Cf. Q.ur'an, 56:10-12

188. S%IZ, (p.329), comments, t

"al-istAr J ah (i.e. to find

t=

rest or finding rest), and that it is read with X dkmm and



explained as rahmah,(mercy), because it resembles a means of life for the deceased; and it is also explained as alhaiyah al-da'imah (everlasting life) and as al-faraj min alghamm wa 'l-ta'b (relief from grief and fatigue)."

189. SIZ (p.331) comments that al-Shafi'i said this.

190. Latifah "In the words of a Muslim commentator, it is

a 'transcendental (or theolog,ic) subtlety'; that is, a fine,

non-material thing connected with the unseen world", Macdon

ald, Attitudes, p. 221; see also Hughes, Diet. of Islam, 285, and Jur,janI, Kitab al-Ta'rlfat,, pp. 202 and 289.

191. amr, see Wensinck, On the Relation between Ghazali's

407


Cosmology and his Mysticism, pp. 14-19.

192. SHZ comments that sometimes "teacher" is used for al-tarlq al-zahir, and "Euide" for al--tariq al-Min, while

to unite them is to consolidate both kinds of teaching; p.334. 193. Cf. Q.Q.., ii, p.12:15; also Matthew 5:19

w1ensinck, op.cit., (p.3, note 1) remarks,"'Who shall have combined knowledge, work and teaching, shall be called great in the Kingdom of Heaven' is a well known tradition", and cites Tirmidhi, 'Ilm, bab 19; cf. Asin Palacios, Logia et agrata Dornini nostri Jesu Christi, To. 1.

194. cf. Q.Q., i, p.198:1-2

195. ditto i, p. 197:25-198:1

196. Cf. Matthew 7:6; also Zwerner, op, c it . , p. 273 197. tashbih, see Jurjani, op. cit., p. 60.

198. Cf. Q.Q., ii, p. 9:21-23

199. ditto ii, p. 16:15

200. Cf. Matthew 15:14.

201. Ibrahim bin 'Atabah or 'Utbah, one of the ascetics.

202. A1-Khalll bin Ah.nad bin 'Abd al-Rahman al-Farahidl alBa.srl, founder of the study of Arabic meter; b. 100; d. 170, 160, 175 (So in Tarikh al-Dhahabi); lived in Basra, On Khal.

i, 493 ff.; Drockelmann, i, 100

203. Al--Imam, Abu 'All al--Fudail bin 'Aya.d bin Wansur bin Bi; hr al-Tamirnl al- Aarwazi al-Makki, d. 187 A. H.; Ibn Cotei-

408

ba, p.256; ;4acd.onald, Development, pp. 174-5, states that he was a robber who was converted by a heavenly voice.



204. Usamah Ibn Zaid bin Har thah bin harahzl al-K.albi, d. 54 A.H., also called Zaid bin Harithah; Ibn Coteiba, pp. 70 and 71.

205. darak, S 11,01Z (p.354) comments that this is a step or stage downward; while dara) is used to designate a step upward.

206. Salaam the son of 13eor, Deuteronomy 23:4. 207. See Q. ., ii, p. 10:21-24

208. David o ' the Old Testament

209. See q.Q., ii, p. 10:17-21 (dislocation of text)

210. SMZ (p.357) comments that it is most likely that these are the words of al-Hasan a1-3asri.

211. `_Lahya bin -~u'adh bin Ja'far Abu Zahariya al-Razi,

d. in 1_ aysabur 258 A. Massignon, Essai, pp.238 ff.

212. i=alik bin DinAr al-Basri, one of the well known ascetics, d. 127, Massignon, Essai, by index; Ibn Coteiba, p.233, says he died a little before the plague which was in 130 A.H. 213. Chosroes, Title given to the Persian kings of the Sassanian dynasty, dortabet and Porter, Arabid-Eng1ish Dictionary (1893), 3eyrout, p. 594; see Lane, Lexicon, p.2612 (a,b) 214. 'Abdallah Bin Tahir Bin al-,uasin, a rich vizier who

possessed many fine clothes", SV,Z p.358

409

215. Richly decorated with gold, silver, and silk--; he



is mentioned in the (~.ur'an, 28:76-79; 29:38; 40:25.

216. C f . v at Chew 5:13; :=Luke 14:34.

21.7. See, Q.Q., i, p. 200:3-4

'

218. Abu {asr Bishr bin al-Harith bin 'Abdal-Rahman bin Ata' bin Hilal al- MIarwazt, d. 226-7 A. ii. ;Enc,y. of Islam,



0

i, p.732.

219. A1-Imam Abu Iuhammad Sahl bin 'Abdallah YUnis al-Tustart, lived in 3asra, d. 183 A.H.; Ency. of Islam, iv, p. 63; I bn .1hal. , p.602

220. See a1-Qut ( .Q.), ii, p.9:5-6;

Cf. last phrase with the following: concerning the

question, "Do man's works have any relation to his eternal fate?" Wensinck says, "The last question is answered in the

affirmative though not plainly. uslim attached it to the tradition on the guardian angel of the embryo,--. This tradi

tion goes on: 'It may be that one of you performs the works of the people of Paradise, so that between him and Paradise there is only the distance of an arm's length. But then his

book (i.e. what has been decreed concerning his fate) overtakes him and he begins to perform the works of the people

of Hell, the which he will enter. Likewise one of you may

perform the works of the people of Hell, so that between him and Hell there is only the distance of an arm's length. Then
410

his book will overtake him and he will begin to perform the works of the people of Paradise, the which he will enter",

( uslim, Kadar, trad. 1)

b

"This tradition implies that the final works serve as the criterion----. In other collections this doctrine is summarized in the sentence: 'Works must be judged from the concluding acts (al-khawAtIm) only', (innama '1-a'mal bi '1khawAt1m, Bukhari, Kaada~r, b.5; RAM, b.33; Tirmidhi, Kadar, .4." Wensinck, the Auslim Creed, pp.55--56.



221. Abu Sulaiman 'Abd al-Rahmdn Ibn Ahmad Ibn 'Atiyah alAnsi al-Ddranl, one of those most successful in their efforts to attain communion with the divinity, d. 205/820 Ibn Khal. ii, p.88.

222. See Q.Q., i, p. 200:7-8

223. "If the isnad, although complete, is comparatively

very short because the last authority only received the statement from the original authority through the intermediary of few parsons, the tradition is called 'all. This is considered a great advantage, because the possibility that errors have crept into the tradition is very small in this case", Ency. of Islam, ii, p. 192, article HaT dith 224. SAM bin Hasan(or K!sAn) Abu '1-Harith al-.asri, and says SRZ the right name is al-%aadari, related to ±,aby al-`:adair. Two of these are in Ibn Coteiba, p.245.

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