is an obligation on him then is knowledge of spiritual
stood. It is related that the prophets have a degree (darajah) of excellence over the learned, while the learned have two degrees of excellence over the martyrs", coinments Si TZ .
9. Sl,'1Z cormnents, "He was the prime minister of our master, Sulayman, Asif bin Barkhiya bin Ishmu'il, who said that he would fetch the Queen of Sheba's throne."
10. See Qut al-Qulub ii, p.5:25-26. This is one of the references to one of al-Ghazzall's sources and will be mentioned as Q.Q. hereafter. I shall simply note the end of the quotation which may then be located on the table in
11. See Q.Q. ii; p.13:1
12. " " ii, p.12:23
13. 'All, Abu '1-- asan Amir al-Mu'minin 'Ali-bin Abi Talib, fourth caliph, murdered 17th Ramadan, 40/661. Called ~iaidarat (the Lion) by his mother, r ati nah. Used name as a rallyin3 cry. Ibn Khallikan, v.ii, p.220; Ency.of Islam, 1, pp.283 ff.
14. 1 cannot locate Kumail. SHZ says he is Kumail Sin
Ziyad al--Nakh' l , one of 'All's well-known disciples. i ar-
garet Smith mentions him on p.217 of An Early Mystic of Baghdad.
15. See Q.Q., i, p. 198:24-26.
16. See Q.Q., ii, p. 12:24-25.
17. AbR al-Aswad Zalim Bin 'Umru or 'Umru Bin Zalim al
Duwali, d. 69/688-9 There is diversity of opinion about his name. One of most eminent of Tabi's. Invented Grammar on principles laid down by 'All: the parts of speech are three: noun, verb, and participle. A partisan of 'All un
der whom he fought at Sit fin. Ibn Khal., 1,662 and 666 18. Solomon of the Old Testament
19. Abu 'Abd al-RahmAn 'Abdallah Ibn al-,fubarak Ibn Wadlh al-Marwazi, a mawla to We tribe of Hanzala. Possessed pro-.
found learning combined with great self-mortification. He
learned the Auwatta by heart from Sufyan al-Thawrl and nalik Ibn Anas. b. 118/736; d. 181/797 Ibn Khal.,ii, p.12
20. Abu Muhammad Fath • Bin Sa' ld al-A1aws• il3, d.220/835,
an associate of Bishr al-Hafi and Sari Sagatl, conspicuous for his abstinence and spiritual intercourse. p.77, An Early Mystic of Baghdad. S-Z puts his death at 130 which Is obviously wrong.
21. Abu Said al-Hasan Ibn Abi '1-Hasan Yasar al-Basrl, born two years previous to death of Caliph 'Lumar Ibn al
Khattab. He was one of most eminent Tabi's. d. 11/728.
3rockelmann, i, p.66; lbn Khal., i, p.370; Ency. of Islam, ii, p.273.
22. 'Abdallah bin -las'ud bin Ghafil bin Hablb, on'of the
first converts and a Companion of the Prophet. Best known as a traditionist. d. 62 or 63 A. H. Ency. of Islam, ii, p.403.
23. Abu Hurairah, a companion and the most prolific traditionist. G-oldsack, Traditions in Islam, pp. 39-43, considers him one of the greatest forgers of traditions in
Islam. See also Ency. of Islam, i, PP-93 f.
24. Ahmad bin t.uhammad bin Hanbal, b.164/780; d. 241/655, Baghdad. Celebrated Islamic theologian and founder of one of the four well known schools of law. Ency. of Islam, i, p. 188
25, al-Imam Abfl 'Abd Allah =~:uhammad b. Idris al-Shafi' I,
the founder of the ShAfi'I school of law. 3. 150/767;
d. last day of Radjab, 204/820. Ency. of Islam, iv, p.252
26. 'Umar bin al-Khattab, 2nd Caliph, d.23 A. H. Enc,y.
of Islam, iii, pp.982 ff. uir, The Life of Muhamnad, by index.
27. AbO Bahr or Abu 3akr al-Ahnaf Sakhr bin gais, "the
Clubfoot". Some say his name is Sakhr and that Ahnaf is
the followers. He was most ugly by nature and lost an eye at Samarkand, 54 A. H. Noted for his wisdom. i3arbier de geynard, Surnoms et Sobriquets dans la Litterature Arabe, p.31.
his sobriquet and
others say that it is al-Dahhak. One of
28. SAlim bin Abi '1-va'd, d. 100 or 1.01 A.H., Ibn Coteiba, Handbuch der +eschichte, Wustenfeld, p.230.
29. Abu 'Abdallah al-Zubair bin Abi 3akr or 3ikar or al
Zubairi, b. 172; d. 256. I could not locate him.
30. Lugman, legendary figure of the period of Arab paganism: The Aesop of the Arabs. Mentioned in the Qur'an, xxxi. Ency. Islam, iii, PP-35 ff.
SMZ comments that he is one whom Allah praised in His book, and that opinion is divided about his prophetship. Some felt that he was a philosopher; some, a righteous man; some, a tailor, a carpenter, or shepherd; s..me, and Abyssinian; some, a Nubian.
31. Abu iakr Muhammad bin Muslim bin Maid Allah bin 'Abdallah bin Shahab al-Zuhri, d. 124 A. H., Ibn Coteiba, aandjuch der Oeschichte, p.239.
32. See q.q., i, p.198:10
33. Abu Dharr Jundab bin Janadah al-Ghifari, d. 32 A.H. Companion, Ibn Coteiba, op.cit., p.130
34. He is 'Abdallah bin 'Ubaidallah bin 'Abdallah bin Abi
'-ulaikah bin 'Abdallah bin Jud'an al-Taimi of Quraish, d.117 or 118 A. H. Ibn Coteiba, op.cit., p.240.
35. Abu al-Darda' al-Khazraji al-Ansari,d.31 A. H. Encl. of Islam, i, p.82.
36. 'Ata' bin A'bl Rabah, d.114 or 115/733 or 734. Mulatto,
born at, al-Janad, and a mawla of the Fihr family of Mecca. High rank as jurisconsult, a tAbi' and devout ascetic. Ibn Khallikan, ii, p.203
37. The fag1h, Abu Muhammad 'Abdallah Ibn 'Abd al-Hakam.m bin A'yan al-Laith, one of alik's disciples of lower rank, whom I could not locate.
38. See :~Iuir and Weir the Life of Mohammad, pp.463-5
39. formerly a province, now an imRmate in the southwest
of the Arabian peninsular. Ency. of Islam, iv, pp.1155-58. 40. Jesus. See Ency.of Islam, ii, PP-524 ff.. 41. See Q.c., ii, p.24:3-12
42. Abu 'Abdallah bin Sa'Id Sufyan al-Thawrl, b. 95, 56,
or 97/713; d. 161/777-778, Basra. Mater of highest author
ity in tradition and other sciences. Noted for piety, devotion, veracity, and contempt for worldly goods. As an imam, he was counted as one of the •ujtahids. Ibn Khal.,i,576-8 43. 'Asgal n, (the Hebrew 'Ashgelcn), a former coast town of South Palestine, one of the five Philistine towns known to us from the Old Testament. Ency. of Islam, i, pp.487-8
44. Abu Muhammad Sa'i'd Ibn al-Musaiyab Ibn Hazn Ibn AM W .hb Ibn Ariir Ibn Pit: Ibn Irnrun Ibn _akhzurn, a member of the tribe of Qoraish and a native of Vedina. Was one of the seven great jurisconsults of that city. b. 15 orl6/636 or 7 d. 91/709-10 or 95 or in intervening years. Ibn Iihal. 1, 568
45. Abu 'Abdallah ' Ikrimah Ibn 'Abdallah, a mawla of 'rind-allah Ibn 'AbbAs, of Berber origin, one of chief juriscon-
suits of Mecca. d.. 107/725-6 at about
one hundred. Ibn K'n l., ii, p.2o7
46. Yahya bin °iu'adh al-Razi, d. 258, Ibn Kha1., iv,pp 51ff
47. See Q.Q., i, p.199:12-21 This quotation begins at the name Mu'adh bin Jabal on page 39.
48. Zaid and 'U'mr are two popular names which would corres?pond to our Jack and George or the Irish Pat and "Mike. 49. This refers to Qur'an, 11:110
50. al-mala'u 'l-a'la (the most exalted princes, i.e.) the angels that are admitted near (to the presence of God); or the archangels. Lane: An Arabic-English Lexicon, p. 2729 51. For examples of amanah see Lane, op.cit., p. 102, a, 52. rnutakallimun, see iacdonald, Development of Muslim Theology, Jurisprudence and Constitutional Theory by index and especially pp.186 ff. and 193.
53. See Ency.of Islam, ii, 670; Macdonald, op.cit,, index
54. jjq~h, Ency. of Islam, ii, PP-101-5
55. S=TZ comments that these are two sayings.
56. The Muslim mystics. See p.74, note 2, of IMacdonald's The Life of al-Ghazzali in the Journal of the American Oriental Society, v. xx, 1.899
57. State (hal and. hala, ahw,1) is a term which will occur
eighty. Some say over
very frequently in the translation from al-uhazzali, sometimes in its ordinary meanin- and sometimiries in the technical meaning here intended. Al-~;ushayri in the Risala (pp. 40 ff) explains it, and carefully distinguishes it from magam, (station). It is a condition of joy or sorrow, of elation or depression, of longing, of reverence, and so on which descends upon the heart without intention or assertion or seeking on its part. States are pure gifts, but stations are sought-for gains. States come without effott, but stations are gained the utmost application. He who is in a station remains there, but he who is in a state is always mounting higher from that state. Further details follow in the RisAla as to the possibilities of the continuance of
states. See Imla M i, p. 52. (Unfortunately I cannot locate my source for this.)
58. Skellie in an unpublished thesis on al-Ghazzall's the Wonders of the Heart mentions that S"IZ comments that the nov
ice must put away all sugve tions except that of the Absolute
Reality, and that al-Ohazza.I3 makes the suggestion of the angel equivalent to ilham and that of the demon to wlswas, that is, to general inspiration and to evil prompting. Sometimes it as though he considers that there were but these two and calls them the"two visitations" (lammata.n). Skellie's thesis on the Wonders of the Heart, ppxli. ff.
9. Abu TAlib 1-:uhammad Ibn 'All Ibn 'Atiya al-11arithi al
.~akki, author of Qut al-qulub. Persian Irak (al-Jabal) was his country. He resided at lecca. d. 3aghdad, 386/996 His tomb attracts pious visitors. Ibn Khal. iii, p.20
60. This refers to the five pillars of Islam: the testimony,
ill. Compare Q.Q., i, p. 193:13 ff.
62. The month of fast. See M7uir and Weir, the Life of Mo
hammad, 187, 192 f; also Lane, The :Modern E r~,yptians, p. 93 f. and 478 ff.
63. The tenth month in the Muslim year. Lane,op.cit.,224
64. Literally "agreeing upon"; one of the four usul from which -Muslim faith is derived and it is defined as the agreement of the inuitahids of the people (i.e. those who have a right, by virtue of knowledge, to form a judgment of their own) after the death of Muhammad, in any age on any matter
of faith. It is not fixed by council or synod, but is reached
instinctively and automatically. Its existence on any point is only perceived on looking back. Sometimes it changes
sunnah and makes bid' become sunnah. So in it lie great possibility for progressive change in Islam. Ency. of Islam,ii,448 65. -Thatis, sitting on something taken by forcible unjust
confiscation or looking at someone who is not a blood relation.
worship, the fast, the religious
tax, and the pilgrimage.
66. khatir, sing. (also Khatrah t-trah pl khatarat) (a). opinion, idea, or object of thought bestirring itsdlf in the rPind.
(Lane 765) (b). the a-.locution or suggestion which comes
to the heart of man, with whose c.ming man himself has nothing to do (Jirjani, kita.b al-ta'rifat, p.101) This term is used largely in Sufi writings and especially by al-Ohazzall.
The most common division is the four-fold one:
1) al-khatir al-rabbani; al-hagaan3, which is cast directly into the hearts of mystics who dwell in His presence.
It cannot be opposed and is always good.
2)al-khatir al-malaki which exhorts to obedience and good acts and warns against acts of disobedience and things
which are disapproved. It blames man for acts contrary to divine law and being slow to do what is in agreement with it.
3) al-khatir al-nafel which demands pleasant favors of this passing world and sets forth its invitation to vanity. It is not cut off by the light of devotional practice of
dhikr unless it comes to enjoy divinely given success (tawfiq) in which case its demands are uprooted.
4) al-11.1hatir al-shaitani This summons to disobedience and to things forbidden and disapproved.
Only when the mirror of the heart is carefully cleared of all fleshly and natural desires by means of asceticism and piety and remembrance can the correct differentiation of
their sources be made. One who succeeds in differentiation enters into the way of the abundant life and mystic
vision, where the surn, estions 'Which seek for fortune's favor pass away and trouble him no more.
This is a summary of Skellie's excellent treatment of the khawAtir as found in his unpublished thesis already mentioned, pages xli ff.
67. for wahy and ilham see 14acdonald's the Religious Attitude and Life in Islam, pp. 252-254.
68. Grammar: Arabic philologists divide it into accidence ('ilm al-sarf or tam f) and syntax ('ilm al-nahu in the narrower sense). There are many stories as to how it began, but most agree that Abu '1-Aswad al-Du'ali was the founder and that probably got its name from unhuhu "!follow
this". It became necessary, when foreigners came into Islam
and did not know Arabic. Ency. Of Islam, iii, 836-7
69. nAsikh and mansukh these terms are mentioned in the article on the Qur'An, Ency. of Islam, ii, p.1065
70. nass, see Ency. of Islam, iii, p.881; also (b) from huC,-hes, "a word commonly used for a text of the qur' a.n, but in its technical meaning here expressing what is meant by a sentence, the meaning of which is made clear by some word which occurs in it. The following sentence illustrates both
z&hir and nass: 'Take in marriage such other women as please
you, two, tEree, or four.' This sentence is 2a.hir, because marriage is here declared lawful; it is riasss, because the words 'one,----four' which occur in the sentence show the un
lawfulness of having more than four wives." 1lughes,Dictionary of Islam, p. 518.
71. This has to do with the manner in wxdich the tradition
has been narrated, and transmitted dwan from the first:
Hughes says it is literally 'a tradition let loose', one which any collector of traditions records with the assertion, "qal al-rusil allah". Hughes, Dictionary of Islam, article
on Tradition, 639 ff.
72. musnad a tradition whose isnAd goes back to the Prophet. Guillaume, the Traditions of Islam, p.182. 73. Compare .Q., i, p.198:7-10
74. al-salAt This is fully treated in Calverley's ~iorship in Islam
75. takbir "The takbir consists of the words: 'Allah is greater!' (than any other' is understood)", Ca1Yerley, op. cit., p. 8.
76. See Q.a., ii, p. 9:8-10
77. Abu Yusuf Ya'qub bin IbrKhim bin Habib bin Sa'd bin Habtah, b. 114; d. 182, Baghdad. Ibn Coteiba, 251
78. al-war' "The lowest degree of fear (i. e. godly-fear)
is th?.t which brin 's a man to abstain from forbidden things.
This de,,- ree is called temperance (war'). A little stronger fear causes a man to abstain :also from that which rfmi ,ht lead him to those forbidden things; this is piety (taqwa). A man is then brought to abandon or forsake even that in which there is no wrong for fear of that in which there is harm;
and this is Generosity in his piety (side)." Gazali, p.216.
Carra de \faux,
79. z i, inf.
signifies, "~~e said to his wife, 'Thou
art to me lire the back of my mother'----the phrase being a
form of divorce used "by the Arabs in the Time of Ignorance",
Lane: Lexicon, p.1927, (a) and (b).
80. 1i'an "mutual cursing" Aform of divorce which takes place under the following circumstances."If a man accuses
his wife of adultery and does not prove it by four witnesses, he must swear before -God that he is the taller of a truth
four times, and then add: 'If I am a liar, may a-od curse me."
The wife then says four times, 'I swear before sod that my husband lies'; and then adds: 'May od's anger be upon me, if this man be a teller-of truth.' After this a divorce takes place ipso facto. (See Suratu 'n-_Mr, xxiv.6; Aishkat,
book xiii, ch.xv.)". Hughes, Dict. of Islam, pp.293-4.
This is developed in v.ii of HAshiyat al-B.,jurl 'ala Abi
Shuja', foot of p. 167 ff. In the same book are developed
salam, i, ; i,iarah, ii, p.27; zihAr, 11,162; ila' , ii,159.
81. salam See Lane: Lexicon, p.1414 b.; "payment in advanceE', -acdonald, Development, p.353
82. ijRrah Macdonald, op.cit„p.354
83. It depends on the Qur'an, usage, traditions of the Companions, and agreement of the ,I-uslims comments S M2. 84. The four humors of man: the black and the yellow bile, phlegm, and blood. Lane, Lexicon, 788.b 85. Compare al-a'mAl bi khawatimiha, Wensinck, Muslim
Creeds, PP-55 f.
86. Compare 1 Corinthians 2:9
87. makr Allah "One must not believe that 4uhammad imagined Allah as really plotting intrigues. The threats contained in these words (i.e. makr and kaid, previously men
tioned) might be understood in this sense: that Allah treats everybody in a manner appropriate to his conduct, that no
intrigue can avail against Allah, who brings to naught all
unfaithful and disloyal actions, and who, anticipating the
perverse aims of his adversaries, turns treason and ambuscade aside from the faithful", I. Goldziher, Le Dogme et La
Loi de 1'Islam, translated by Felix Arin, p.23:3-10
"`Then if rnakr and kaid, attributed to Allah, mean nothing more than that he frustrates the stratagems or wiles of
his adversaries, the expression make Allah has none the less passed over from the Qur'an into the customary language of
Islam in such a way as to associate itself quite naturally
with expressions which can not be included under this inter
pretation. quite a favorite Muslim invocation says, 'We seek refuge with Allah from the makr Al1a,'ri, na'udhu bi 'llahi min makr 'llahi: Shaikh duraifish, Kitab al-raud alfa'iq fi '1-mawa'iz wa '1-raga'iq, Cairo, 1310, 10,16;13,26)
which belongs to those forms of prayer where one asks help
from God against God (a'udhu bika minka, cf. 'Attar, Tadh
kirat al-awliyd,IT,80,11; minka ilaika, ZDMG, xlviii,98). Among the Prophet's prayers, the substance of which believers are recommended to use, there is mentioned the following
supplication: 'Lend me help, and do not lend help against me; use makr in my favor, but do not use it against me (wamkur, 1i wa la tamkur 'alAiyi). zawawi, AdhkAr (Cairo, 1312), 175,
6, according to Tirmidhl's translation, 11,272. This expression appears even more marked in the ShVite collection of prayers S hifa kamila (see Melanges N61deke, 314 inf.),33,6: wa-kid lance wa la takid ' alaina wamkur lance way. 1a tamkur bin& Also compare the following: Even if one of my feet were inside paradise and the other were still outside, I should certainly not feel safe from the makr of Allah (Subki, Tabagat a1-Shaf1'iya, 111,56,7 lower third). Cf. 'Attar, loc. cit., 11,178, 21. Muslims themselves understand nothing else from these expressions than the inescapably severe punishment of ;mod.
'-'Toldziher, op. cit., part of note 26, page 254, beginning at line 6.
See also Jurjani: ~itab al-Ta'rifit, 245 and 292.
88. ahl al-dhimmah "The people with whom a compact, or covenant, etc., has been made; those,of the believers in a plurality of gods (by which here are meant the Christians, Jews, and Sabians, but no others,) who pay the tax called jizyah; (i.e. the free non--iTuslim subjects of a -:uslim government, who pay a poll-tax for which the •Auslims are responsible for their security and freedom and toleration)". Lane: Lexicon, p. 976 (c)
89. Si"1Z comments, "One of the gnostic saints well known
for righteousness and piety." I could not locate him. 90. Abu Zakariya Yahya Ibn M~ia'Tn Ibn 'Aun Ibn Ziad Ibn Pestam Ibn 'Abd al-Rahman al- usri, celebrated hafiz. Both Muslim and al-Bukhari learned from him. Ibn Khal., iv,p.24
91. Ibn 4ahfuz a'ruf Ibn Fairuz al-Karkhi, born a Christian. Celebrated saint, had reputation of fulfilment of his pra-ers. His tomb is an approved remedy for everything. He was al-Sari's (al-Sagati) master in Sufiism. The latter said, "I owe my present state (of quietude) to the blessed merits of Ma'ruf"", Ibn Khal., iii, p. 384.
92. Abu 'l-Qwsim bin kiuhaienad bin al-Junaid al-Khazzaz al
Kawartri, a celebrated Baghdad mystic, a pupil of al-Shafi'I,
Ency.of Islam, i, p. 1063; d.297-8/910-l1, said to have made the pilgrimage to -ecca thirty times alone and on foot, Ibn Khal, i, p.338.
93. Abu '1-Hasan Sari Ibn al-~Jughaliis al-Sagatl (the seller of cast off clothes)
/, d. 251, 253, or 257 at Baghdad, Ibn Khal., 1, p.555; Junaid was his pupil and had himself buried in his tomb, Ency. of Islam, iv, p.171
94. Abu 'Abdallah Harith bin Asad al-'Anaz!, called Muhasi
bi, i.e. he who examines his conscience. b. Basra, legist
of ShVi'i school; advocatdd use of reason. d. 243/857, Baghdad, Ency of Islam, iii, p. 699. See Margaret Smith: An-Ear
ly Mystic of Baghdad for fuller treatment of his life.
95. The Secession party which reacted from the tradition
al teachings at the beginning of the second century after the Hijra. See Macdonald: Development, pp.129-30 and by index.
96. Abu 3akr al-Siddlq (Abu 'Abdallah bin 'UthmAn), the first Caliph, d. 13 A.H., Ency. of Islam, 1, pp.80 ff.;
see Muir: the Caliphate, pp.1-86 (1891 ed.)
97. baoign om 'lel, who asked about the dubious things in the Qur'an, Ad-Dhahabl, al-Moschtabih, ed.de Jong,p.319
98. sirr "A subtlety (latifah) which is placed in the heart as the spirit (is put) in the body, and it is the place of vision, just as the spirit is the place of love and the heart
is the place of exnerientir.1 knowledge (ma'rifah)", Jurjanl Kita.b al-Ta'rifat., p. 123
'1sirr (conscience) which was the inmost part, that which later mystics called the 'ground' or 'shark' of the soul. Of
this latter, al-SarrAj says that it is that part in which evil suggestions of the self are not felt, it is the secret shrine of Jod Himself, wherein He knows a man and man can
know Him", Miar. Smith, op.cit., p.201, referring; to Kitab al-Luma', p. 231.
99. The Imam Anas bin !Rlik, Abu Hamzah, d. 179/795, Ibn Khal., ii, 545
100. Aba Hanlfah,'0the first student and teacher to leave behind him a systematic body of teaching and a missionary school of pupils (in Islam)", (d. 150 A. d.) Macdonald,
Development, op. 94-102.
101. Abu :luhammad al-Rabi' Ibn Sulaiman al-; uradi, of Das
ra. Special traditionist of works and words of al-Shafi'l
and the last to hand them down in Egypt. Ibn Khal., i, 519
(b. 174; d.220, SMZ, but 270/684, Ibn Khal.)
102. Abu Ya'aub Yasuf Ibn Yahya al-Suwaitl ~ l-: isrl, most
eminent and most distinguished disciple of a1-gh5fi'l for his
talent. £i-:led place as professor, d. in prison 231/846 or
232, Ibn Khal., iv, p.39
103. Abu 'All al-Husain Ibn 'All Ibn Yazld al-Carablsl,
of Baghdad, one of al-Shafi'i's distin3uished disciples,
d. 245 (S AZ) or 248/862-3, Ibn }ihal., i, p.416
104. Abu 'Abdallah Ahmad bin Sibt Yahya bin al-Wazir bin Sulaiman bin al- uhAjit al-Sijlni al-Aasr5, o.171; d. in
prison, 251 A. A. I could not locate him.
105. Abu 3akr 'Abdallah bin al-Zubair Ibn ' I sa. al- gar shi al-Asda al-Hamidl al-Aa :k1, d. .Tecca, 219 A. H. (went to 1gypt with al-Shafi'i,; Ion Coteiba, p.262 106. dirham A certain silver coin the wei3ht of which
varied in the Time of Ignorance, but which weiShed sixteen
carats when known as 'dirham islami', see, Lane Lexicon,876
107. dlnar "A certain Sold coin; its weight is seventy-one
barley-corns and a half---", Lane, Lexicon, p. 919 (a). 108. Sufyan bin 'Uyainah bin Abi 'UArEn , d. 193 A. H. ,
Ibn Coteiba, p.254; al-lawawl, p.289
109. 1 could not locate him.
110. 'Umar Ibn Nabatat, SAZ comments, "I do not know any-thing of his circumstances nor did 1 find any mention of him in tabaqah ashAb al-Shafi'i."