|Kefaya (enough) to cleanse Egypt!
"Judicial and documentary file"
"Corruption in Egypt…A dark cloud that does not vanish"
Ibn Khaldoun "Introduction"
Introduction to Hurt Egypt
Corruption rules in Egypt " Corruption Government" (Corruptionistan)
Egypt is a model example for the corruption phenomenon.
The Political Regime Corruption
Corruption in Government Sectors: Agriculture – Investment – Banks – Culture- Health- Oil- Public Business Sector- Media.
The most well known corruption issues and its most well-known figures in Mubarak's Egypt.
Fourth Section: Hidden Corruption.
An outline f the most important elements of the press statement:
1-Seriousness of the issue, and spread of its phenomenon, and accidents.
2-Documentation of corruption crimes in both the present and the future of this nation since Mubarak assumed power in early 1980s. Being so many and hidden make us feel that corruption is bigger than our efforts and understanding during Mubarak's era.
3- Corruption in this report is a comprehensive phenomenon: there are various kinds of corruption; obvious, hidden, political, cultural, economic, social ….it even becomes a social law (status quo).
4- The report confirmed that corruption was the main reason for wasting several opportunities of development in addition to corrupt associations, brain drain, weak construction amid a high rate of only destruction and selling.
Five relying on some cases that were settled while others are still pending due to the influence of defendants.
Introduction to the Harmed Egyptian Nation!
Corruption rules in Egypt "Corruption Government" (Corruptionistan)?!
The main problem of corruption is not only related to the successive arrests of its figures who belong to or may be close to the ruling regime, such a series is no longer interesting as it has been repeated several times. Corruption has actually become a social law and a hidden behavior that would rule the different aspects of the Egyptian life.
The political corruption is the basis of the political crime that continued for two decades and half – the period of the current regime – to violate freedoms, practice torture, construct detention camps and destroy institutions, emphasizing a state of emergency for 25 years. The economic corruption was, also, the cause of wasting several development opportunities in Egypt during the 25 years. Corruption became a ruling social law that corrupted tastes, ambitions and the spiritual value of justice, equality and equal opportunities among the Egyptian citizens. It also spoiled the society right criteria. We kept on watching this gloomy series everyday, the fall of senior and junior figures in all fields and in the different media and governmental institutions in this Mubarak's (certainly unblessed) era. It was natural in this era that Egypt would lose much of its media leadership when its economic drive was obstructed; favoritism spread with a negative influence on the economic and social development.
The development rate dropped 2% currently against 4.6% two years ago. Depression dominated the Egyptian markets while citizen's purchase ability decreased. The interest rate problem led to the retreat of the Egyptian pound against the dollar. Competition increased between local products and those imported ones in addition to the few foreign investments in the country. The UNCTAD report on the international investment reported that the foreign investment decreased in Egypt from $600 millions to only $200 millions. Egypt was one of the most developing countries that was able to attract investment in the 1980s.
There is also a rising rate of unemployment and poverty. Official statistics said that the number of the unemployed in Egypt rose from 112.535 in 1950 to 5 millions in early 2004, meaning that the number of the unemployed increased at a rate of 4000% in the last 54 years, in case of these statistics are authentic. If the successive governments were serious in confronting unemployment, the unemployed rate would not have risen from 1.2% in 1950 to reach 3.4% in 1970, 7.10% in 1986, 11.1% in 1990 and 13% early this year. The current unemployment rate in Egypt meant that it exceeded limits, as economic studies agreed that the safe rate of the unemployment in any society should range at 4.3%only.
Concerning poverty, The World Bank report in 2003 indicated that 52% of the Egyptians were living with less than two dollars daily and that about 23% were living under poverty line. It was not either serious or joking; it has to do with the corruption that characterized the successive governments during Mubarak's era.
Every day, we hear of a new corruption crime or the arrest of a big corruption figure. Killing a citizen in the police station or drowning hundreds in the sea is not the first while suppressing the elites in central Cairo is not the last as well. Such series of corruption cases only confirm that a desire to reform such a worn out regime represents only a camouflage and a justification to keep the current regime as it is, maintaining absolute tyranny and corruption! Corruption is the opposite of reform; it is the tyranny of those people having power.
The most important of its modern features is corrupt state, cheating, bribery, fraud in dealings. Moroccans interpret corruption as bribery, which Ibn Al Atheir identified it as "reaching the target through compliment". No body will be able to construct the modern developed state except through providing a regime that guarantees necessary punishment to curb corruption and corrupt people.
Kefaya, through this file, tolls the bell of power and favoritism. It warns that life in Egypt is closely linked to the ability to cope with the ruling corruption in the different fields. One of the foreign observers said in one word; "living in Egypt is living under corruption" . Amid the repeated corruption cases in the country, Ahmad Ragab suggested a new term "corruptionistan". He says: "such a government is the only one that does not respond to reports of the Auditing Organization.
Concerning losses of Abu Tartour phosphate, there are 10 billions which were stolen and the government did not search for the felon. It also did not respond to reports of Dr. Gawdat Malt concerning squandering other 10 billions with no justified reasons and without taking the approval of the People's Assembly. The good news is that corruption is now organized in corruptionistan as there is a big corrupt figure, there is a great one, a good one, an aide and another intern ". It is one word that summarizes all our sad feelings. Corruption became the daily crime against such a nation and its citizens, carried out by its rulers. Corruption is found as long as there is tyranny. There are corrupt people everywhere. Rooting out corruption requires getting rid of its roots. Is it reasonable that the Emergency Law no.162 of the year 1958 became the real constitution in the country? The consequences of the political monopoly appeared obviously in the economic performance. Parasite capitalism appeared suddenly with no work or effort, and it became obvious in seizing bank money and smuggling it abroad. Amid an increasing monopoly of power, economic activities decreased, which destroyed the new producers and small enterprisers as people of power and influence controlled the whole market. A corrupt class appeared in consequence, consisting of the parasite capitalism and a number of ministers, in addition to the inflated profits. This led us to talk about the other economic internal factors represented in corruption that broke out in the country in its different forms either political, parliamentary, administrative, party, moral..etc. Recently appeared is a kind of corruption related to businessmen loans from banks. This forced us to ask about who is responsible, whether they were bank officials who allowed businessmen to take loans without enough guarantees amid conditions while the first party lacked honesty? Or the one responsible was the businessman who deceived the bank and offered imaginary guarantees? Or the government was the one responsible as it did not discover the problem since the beginning, tackling it only in the proper time to achieve some political gains? Or may be the absence of transparency and interrogation were responsible.
A year hasn't passed yet after his election campaign and he broke all his promises – which deceived some whereas others propagated for them – especially those concerning freedoms, political and constitutional reform. Some wondered whether the president forgot his promises or this was an expected thing from such a regime. What was really confirmed, and it was recorded in history, was that the ruling dictatorships rejected, till the end, any kind of advice. It even rejected to consider reason and logic, till it was shocked by those free voices that rocked its castle which was thought to be fortified".
Does Egypt's state describe corruption exactly as its rulers describe lying ?!
Egypt's state under Mubarak's regime is an embodiment of corruption; it is even an applied model that is getting obvious every day to identify the meaning of corruption whose concepts and aspects are getting wider. It finds its safe haven in Egypt. This would be clearer when interpreting the definition of corruption, its aspects and the most important features.
It is difficult to find a comprehensive preventive definition of the word corruption. Corruption is not a logical concept, it is a phenomenon and an octopod behavior that could not be curbed once growing amid the ruling regime, while protecting and being protected by the ruler. International Transparency Organization previously defined it as "it is the misuse of the given authority in order to achieve a special interest". It also defined it again as " the officials' behavior in the public or the governmental sector either they are politicians or civilian employees to illegally enrich themselves or their relatives, through using the given authority". In a country like Egypt, it is an unlimited plague. Yet, amid its recurrence, it is totally applied to us as our detention camps, security abuse and emergency law excel others.
R. Kligaard defined it as "the person's illegal preference of his own interest, neglecting others' and the principles to which he declared commitment".This is applied to the Egyptian regime of Mohammed Hosni Mubarak along his era. Anti-Bribery Moroccan Society defined corruption as "the unacceptable practice due to the misuse of an economic, judicial, administrative or political authority for the person' own interest, harming the public interest".
One of the researchers determined three cases of corruption, best described in Egypt as its rulers describe lying;
1-Extortive corruption: it includes cases when the ordinary person has to give a bribe to get his basic needs or protect his rights.
2-Manipulative corruption: It has to do with influencing the decision in favor of a certain person, party or a certain category in any field.
3-Nepotistic corruption: it has to do with favoritism of relatives and close circle in posts and advantages, including nepotism.
Corruption has mutual characteristics on the national level, best reflected in Egypt due to the current regime:
Increasing citizen economic burdens as corruption influences the ordinary consumer.
Negligence on the administrative level, especially that is related to public wealth.
Tendency to link efficiency criteria to illicit gain.
A public lack of respect for the current authority in everything related to respect of rules.
The International Transparency Organization believes that the most governmental fields which are subject to corruption in the developing countries are:
2-Division and sale of lands and real estate.
3-Tax and customs fees
5-Regional rule administrations in governorates
Corruption, as previously mentioned, became a social law issued and practiced by superpowers. There are also other kinds of corruption, named in this file as hidden or covered corruption that broke out among junior employees and those low-incomed ones. It represented a wide range of practices that were a part of the “hidden economy “or the “shadow incomes”. It includes nowadays several activities that would influence the public interests, equality in favor of apartheid and private interests as well.
In this file, we concentrate on the documentation of several of corruption cases carried out by this regime on different levels and fields, starting from housing, contracting, economy, privatization, health, communication, trade, banks, drug dealing, violation of the political and security systems, culture, press and other sectors. What we present here in this file concerning corruption cases in Egypt-Mubarak represents a full and comprehensive icon of corruption crimes in this era. A new crime appears every day. Each average citizen, in his relation with the government and the state administration, has a private corruption case. We should have no doubt that nearly 70 million corruption cases; representing the number of the corrupt elements in this society and those related to them, can be included in one file, regardless of the efforts exerted by those who fight the phenomenon. We confirm the responsibility of president Mubarak, in person, for all the crimes that were carried out under his regime during the various governments, not only because he is the only one that controls administration and the government but also due to special relations and contacts between him and those criminals.
Corruption is a daily Egyptian scene for any one who wants to know dimensions of the concept of corruption
Corruption and emergency are a status quo in the Egyptian life in the era of Mubarak, whom we blame together with his regime for the deteriorating situation and the total failure in all levels. Justification can no longer be used. It is there every day for those who feel frustrated all over the country. It represents the “permanent moan" from citizens who lost their feeling of citizenship in this country. The regime, its party and government stole the citizen’s feeling of politics, making it as a meaning of the open detention for decades and security report when the one receives a job. Spreading fear, suppression, revolution and social violence is another form of this corrupt regime.
The citizen is now a servant at the police system; the officer no longer controls the Egyptian street. Police officers and noncommissioned officers control it. This spreads corruption and bribery as a key element in the daily practices. It is a simple daily incident between drivers and those concerned with traffic. This is applied to car license and traffic jam due to the officer’s leniency, especially with the “microbus” drivers who already bribe him. This is a daily scene, which any Egyptian citizen could prove regardless of the denial of both the Interior Minister and his officers.
The existence of the so-called state security courts or the exceptional courts and those military courts, all confirm the confusion between tyranny and corruption in Egypt, certainly apart from the defected judicial authority in Egypt. The writer did not indicate how to solve the problem, which is the non-independence of the judicial authority. The judge in Egypt enjoys many advantages but he still lacks independence. The defect is not only with those helping him including aides or writers; the defect has to do mainly with the whole structure. How can a judge be independent while applying laws issued by a parliament that backs the state and the government? He is paid his salary from different sides. The head of the Supreme Judicial Council is the president. He can issue a pardon or he may ease the sentence which the court issues. A law to punish the ministers was and will not be issued. Besides, there are no plans to establish a court to punish them. The president is not totally responsible before the People's Assembly or any judicial organization. The Egyptian judicial authority lacks administration, which confirms that, it is the right of its noble elements to organize a second uprising for the dignity and the independence of the Egyptian judicial authority, as one of the most ancient regimes in the world .
The following image clarifies the executive authority influence on both the judicial authority and the People's Assembly, where the octopod corruption spreads in the different legislation levels:
Concerning allowing parties' formation and party pluralism, parties should not only nominally exist; it should have an effective influence. The current parties actually have no effective role in the political operation or street. Even if it wins elections inside the parliament by majority, there is no legislation that gives the one that wins by majority the right to form the government. The government is formed through the president's appointment. Is not it considered a disorder that the president alone has all authorities? Adding to this is the state of emergency which is forced on the citizen, making him a citizen of a second degree in comparison to the foreigner; the tourist which the government considers better than its citizens. He gives it profits, yet, the citizen is a burden and he should be satisfied with the reality what so ever it is.
One of the forms of corruption is the suicide committed in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs when one of those qualified to pass the commercial representation exams – Said Abdel Hamid Mohammed Shata, in 2003, committed suicide when he found that his and his family's ambitions were forsaken by distinction imposed by those inhumane people. He was rejected because he was a son of a simple farmer. They hurt him spiritually rather than physically. They wrote in his results that he was not socially suitable. This is the disguised and hidden distinction, which does not provoke the corrupt people even when obvious.
The same happened with the Public Prosecution tests in 2003, which required that the mothers of the candidates should be university graduates. This means that Abdel Aziz Basha Fahmy " the first chief justice in a Court of Cassation", Abdel Razak Al Sanhouri, Gamal Abdel Naser and Mohammed Hosni Mubarak would have never won such an honor, which is to be restricted by the Supreme Council on Judicial Authority .
Culture of Corruption in Egypt results from tyranny and unilateral rule
Corruption is there everywhere and the citizen is dealing with the matter as forgranted, even he may coexist with the different ways and forms of corruption while it spreads in all governmental systems and private enterprises, to the extent that it cripples the whole society. The most distinguished thing in the developed countries concerning tackling corruption is bringing the officials to trial during holding power. In Sweden, the judicial authorities decided to hold a judicial investigation with deputy Prime Minister "Mona Sahleen" for a financial violation. In France, the Minister of Transport, Alain Carinon faced a sentence of 10 years in jail for corruption charges. France also punished its former Prime Minister for renting a flat for his son with a reduction of 30%. Those countries enjoy a democratic climate, which gives no official the right to neglect the law even if he is the president. He is subject to observation, interrogation and even punishment in case he is proved guilty.
Mass Media enjoy credibility, being subject to no pressure. It played a prominent role in unveiling corruption like its role in Water Gate, Monica in US, Bersculoni in Italy and many other examples. In the developing countries, on the contrary, matters are totally the opposite. Corruption became a normal phenomenon, which the citizen expects in all his daily practices. What is more dangerous is that the official here neglects law and he may even evade interrogation and punishment. There is for example a former Minister who cooperated with the mayor of Fowa city, Abdel Aaal Dakheil in deporting the fishers from Porolus region, seizing their lands in order to construct private projects. When they rejected and demonstrated, Abdel Aal threatened them that they had to leave or otherwise they would face fabricated charges" Wafd 19/11/1987 p7.
Later in 1990s, a former Minister of Interior cooperated with the corrupt people in gaining great wealth for his family. He was the first minister that dealt in sale and purchase with the detainees. He, for example, bought from the detained Al Maa'ergji a shop at the value of one million and 150.000 pounds. The minister and one of his sons too seized Nabil Mashraki's towers, while he was detained. He, too, sold a villa to Al Habak at the value of 100.000 pounds as he was in the detention camp" Al Shaab 8/8/1997 p8.
It is an attempt to create some sort of false concepts among the citizens through trying to convince them that there is nothing better and that the government is not mistaken. Corrupt people are sometimes cleared especially the senior officials to the extent that the country itself is a corrupt association. Some forms of corruption in the society is represented in the involvement of some important figures, ministers, high-ranked officials and People's Assembly members in several crimes like squandering public money and cooperating to facilitate violations . This would be defined as the legal trend in defining corruption. It means that the political behavior is deemed corrupt in case it violates some of the official principles, which are imposed by the political regime on its employees. In Ismalia, in Abu Sultan region, Ismalia former governor distributed wide areas of the state lands to the ministers and the prominent officials." AlShaab 8/1/1994 p2.
In company of Air oil services, chairman Amir Riyad ordered preparing a plane to carry 50 persons, equipped with the latest service tools for passengers. The cost was deducted from the public money. The plane was not to carry out a work mission. It was to carry Minister of Oil, his family, deputy Prime Minister, his family and two maids to resort in Marsa Matrouh. What was really surprising was that the Minister's wife forgot her bag and he in return ordered that another 52-passenger plane would fly to Matrouh to transfer the bag, provided that the two planes would fly at the same time while empty. On the other hand, there was a 50-passenger plane which was to fly for them on the same day" Al Ahaly 8/3/1995. Despite this theft, the citizens are demanded to tighten belts for a national project. They found no means but to cope with those corrupt patterns without a trial to change them. They got desperate and frustrated.
Here comes another definition of corruption, which is the misuse of the public authority related to a special position away from the rules that govern this post. An example for this is some of the former state corrupt officials that earn much through paving the way for the money investment companies to gain millions and smuggle most of these sums abroad. There are loan deputies and the bank officials that facilitate bank loans and credits in return for personal interests, like Abdelullah Tayel, People’s Assembly member who made it easy to seize sums of money in Misr Exterior Bank which he heads. He facilitates loans and credits for his friends and those close to him with no enough guarantees. Among those were Mahmoud Diyab Ghanem, Fouad Iskander Farag, Abdel Rahim Ahmad Samak, Rateb Attiya, Ramy, Boshra Zakhari, Atef Salem, Hani Magdy Yakoub Naseef, Dr. Al Jarhi Mohammed Al Jarhi, Mohammed Al Hawari Abdel Kader, Mohammed Wael Tayseer, Tayseer Al Hawari, Hisham Mohammed Aiyad, Abdel Nasser Eiid, Emad and Alaa Mina and Hassan Mostafa. Corruption is a harmful behavior that has to do with using the public interest to reach private interests. Consequently, It starts to take several patterns and levels in the developing countries:
Top corruption: the corruption related to the minister and it is the most famous in the developing and African countries, especially after the independence that led to a pattern of personal and non-discussable rule. Thus, the policy seems similar to that of a palace where an individual rules while there is a group of beneficiaries that target the achievement of their personal interests. President Mobuto could live a life full of luxury and corruption, reinforced by a strong desire to get the biggest amount of properties. He has luxurious palaces in France, Belgium and Switzerland in addition to eight regions in Zaire and a fortified castle in Nesiley, 40 miles from Kinshasa, which includes the biggest, and the hugest swimming pool in Africa. Besides, he also controlled the National Aviation Company as a private property, most of the stocks in the biggest taxi companies in Congo, Kinshasa bank, skyscrapers in Côte d'Ivoire, company of entertainment and luxury products in Zaire, Lux. The facilitation of the illegal practices for the relatives is considered common in the developing countries. In Egypt, the latest years in the era of Anwar Al Sadat witnessed an increasing corruption as his wife, her relatives and his relatives misused his power and influence in several illegal activities through which they achieved big wealthes. Investigations, for example, held with Esmat Al Sadat, revealed that he turned from a junior employee to a millionaire that had more than $250 millions, through monopolizing the distribution of some products in the black markets, imposing taxes on merchants, seizure of state lands, goods smuggling and drug trafficking. Though President Al Sadat learned of his brother’s actions, he didn't allow that he is sued and he only banned him from travellin abroad or to enter Alexandria port. Al Sadat’s wife, Gihan Raouf misused her husband’s influence in earning great wealth under the cover of charity activities. It seems that discussing corruption in the Egyptian Community, the nation’s readiness and satisfaction to coexist with it would not end. In continuation to what we talked about when we clarified how corruption was penetrating in all the governmental systems, public and private enterprises in addition to stating some red lines at a time of an increasing bribery, favoritism, post misuse, embezzlement, fraud and forgery in official reports. As we saw that the social system is the one responsible for corruption and its culture, making it as an acceptable idea, especially the big corruption that includes the complicated network operations including arrangements and measures that are difficult to be unveiled. It usually includes the senior officials in the developing state and may be the president himself, being characterized with secrecy. Sir Shata indicated that corruption in the public life is represented in using the public authority to attain a profit, prestige or a social position or to achieve an advantage for a group or a category in a way that necessitates a violation of laws and morals.
Corruption is found also in some companies like the money investment ones which some former state officials have contributed to its growth and have earned much through employing laws and creating chances for these companies to earn millions, smuggling most of it abroad. “Corruption Use” book for writer Badr Okal, says that the former attorney general, Abdel Kader Ahmad Ali was facing charges after his wealth surprisingly increased from about half million pounds to about three million pounds. Investigations held with him unveiled charges and doubts against 25 political figures including seven prime ministers and former ministers, 12 of People’s Assembly members and a number of former governors. He indicated the involvement of those people through misusing their power and post in money investment company illegal practices, he also indicated that some of these figures already participated in some activities of these companies, as subscribers or depositors either with their names or their relatives’, including sons or brothers. Among those was Kamal Hassan Ali who was appointed as a prime minister in July 16th, 1984 when he rendered these companies a great service through ousting the Minister of Economy in his government, Dr. Mosataf Al Said for the sake of the currency traffickers who became later the owners of these companies. There was also engineer Osman Ahmad Osman, the engineers’head and chairman of the popular development committee in the National Party. He was considered the spiritual father of some of these companies and the partner of accountant, “Ashraf Al Saad” with a rate of 40% in a clothes factory. He justified his stance by saying that those companies were established upon government approval, and left them for 10 years. This, in his opinion, indicated that these companies are deemed legal and approved. The list also included former Giza governor, Abdel Hamid Hassan who left his post to work in Al Raiyan company, the former Interior Minister, Al Nabawi Ismail, former governor of Al Sharkiya, Amin Mitikis. Al Rayan company was reported as saying that “we represent a state inside a state…we are paying to all”. The deposit interest was determined according to the depositor’s post and influence as it reached, sometimes, 100%. There is also the hidden bribery and divine loan, meaning that a sum of money is deposited on the name of the official and his sons. It is mainly a loan from the company to be divided into installments from its big interest till it is paid fully, and thus the capital is to be owned by the official…and what is in return??
The press, on the other hand, stood with motionless during this period when these companies were growing fiercely. It did not criticize, object or say the truth. On the contrary, they were bribed and there were some companies that bought prints at the value of more than 50 millions. As investment was not that important, those sums would have been used in establishing more than 10 modern printing houses. The main aim was to silence them. The last of those that resist was Rose Al Youseif that concluded a prints contract at the value of more than two million pounds in fall 1987 with Al Rayan company. Here, editor-in-chief Abdel Aziz Khamis stopped his campaign against those companies when he wrote, “the campaign which some newspapers and magazines launched against money investment companies adopted some sort of certain exaggeration… I personally was sure of some exaggerations among some writers and editors that participated in the campaign against these companies, I knew that some of these companies were already working in the field of production and that the result of its work deemed obvious. Then he spoke about how those campaigns were terrible against those companies and he started praising them “Rose Al Yousef, Feb. 2nd, 1987, page 23. The government, through its men, behavior, and its associations contributed in paving the way for these companies. As corruption results in corruption and the general reflect the particular, the national economy collapses and some gets the price.