Judson Middle School Readiness Knowledge and Skills Social Studies 8—staar review



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Judson Middle School



Readiness Knowledge and Skills

Social Studies 8—STAAR Review

ERA 1: Exploration & Colonial Era

1492-1763


Reasons for Exploration

  • God – spread Christianity

  • Gold – gain wealth ($)

  • Glory – fame and international recognition

Leads to discovery of North America and its colonization

French = Friendship, Fish, Furs ($) English = Escape Persecution, Expand Land, Economic Wealth ($)





  • Slavery Established

    The need for cheap laborers to grow cash crops encouraged white settlers to use African slaves



    • Farmers grew cash crops (crops sold for money or profit) on plantations in the South and used slaves so they could produce the cash crops cheaply.

    • Invention of the cotton gin (machine that combed out the seeds from the cotton) made it even easier and cheaper to grow cotton. This led to a higher demand for cotton and thus, more slaves to grow cotton.

    • As America acquired more territory, the issue of slavery became a controversial issue.





Important Dates

1607Jamestown founded: 1st permanent English settlement

1620Plymouth founded: Pilgrims traveled to Plymouth and signed the Mayflower Compact to establish self-government

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People of the Colonies

Thomas Hooker—founder of Connecticut “Father of American Democracy”, who adopted the Fundamental Orders of Connecticut, America’s first written Constitution.

William Penn—founded Pennsylvania as a refuge for Quakers. He supported freedom of worship, welcomed immigrants, and sought peace with Native Americans.

Anne Hutchinson—banished from Massachusetts; one of the founders of Rhode Island.


Early Representative Government

Virginia House of Burgesses—1st representative assembly in North America

Mayflower Compact—signed by Pilgrim men, who agreed to self-government through a social contract



Establishing Colonies

  • Religious and Political freedom

  • Economic Opportunity (Mercantilism and land ownership)

  • Sovereignhaving ultimate or highest authority

Settlement of the American Colonies

1. New England (MA, RI, CT, NH): settled by Pilgrims and Puritans to escape religious persecution in England

2. Mid-Atlantic (NY, NJ, PA, DE) : Diversity & religious tolerance or freedom; NY—key trading area; Quakers led by William Penn founded Pennsylvania was originally Dutch. Philadelphia: city of brotherly love

3. Lower South (VA, MD, NC, SC, GA): Maryland founded by persecuted Catholics; Georgia was created for outcasts and debtors. Crops = TRIC (tobacco, rice, indigo, and cotton or corn)




http://www.proprofs.com/quiz-school/upload/yuiupload/589793012.jpg

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Triangular Trade




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  • French and Indian War (1754-1763)

    • Introduction to a young George Washington

    • British colonists wanted French land in North America

    • British fought against French AND Native American

    • Native Americans fought against the British because they were afraid the British would take their land

    1st Treaty of Paris, 1763Ended the French and Indian War

    • Britain was left in debt and began taxing the colonists to pay for the war and the Proclamation of 1763 was established to keep colonists from settling west of the Appalachian Mts. to stop Native American conflicts.





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Judson Middle School



Readiness Knowledge and Skills

Social Studies 8—STAAR Review

ERA 2: Revolutionary Era

1763-1789


New Ways of Thinking

The Enlightenment—belief that government’s sole purpose is to protect the rights of its people; questioned Kings’ authority

First Great Awakeningreligious revival; belief that God speaks to all people, not just the wealthy or elite; questioned authority





Key Individuals of the American Revolution

George Washington—Commander-in-Chief of the Continental Army; despite loses, kept his army together and motivated

Crispus Attucks—African American who was the first man to die at the Boston Massacre

Samuel Adams—Boston patriot who established the Committees of Correspondence to keep colonists informed of British actions; Leader of the Sons of Liberty

Benjamin Franklin—author, publisher, inventor and diplomat

Patrick Henry—Virginia patriot who gave his famous speech ending in, “give me liberty, or give me death!”

Thomas Paine—wrote Common Sense to justify the colonists’ independence; wrote American Crisis to motivate soldiers to keep fighting despite losses and a hard winter at Valley Forge

Abigail Adams—wife of John Adams, known for her support of women’s rights from letters to her husband

Wentworth Cheswell—African-American patriot; rode with Paul Revere during the Midnight Ride; fought at Saratoga

Mercy Otis Warren—Patriot writer who supported independence and convinced other to join the cause. First woman historian of the American Revolution

James Armistead—African-American spy during the war; spied on General Cornwallis’ camp

Bernardo de Galvez—Spaniard sailor who held off the British fleet in New Orleans during the war

Haym Salomon—Jewish banker who spied on the British and also helped finance the war

Marquis de Lafayette—French nobleman who helped train American soldiers during the war

John Paul Jones—“Father of the U.S. Navy”; Led raids on British ships and famously said, “I have not yet begun to fight!”

King George III—King of England during the Revolutionary War

James Madison – “Father of the Constitution”: one of the 2 authors of the “Federalist Papers”, author of the “Bill of Rights”




Increasing Tension with Britain

British Policy

Definition

Colonial Reaction

Proclamation of 1763

Forbade settlement west of Appalachians

Angry; ignored it, moved anyway

Sugar Act

Tax on sugar

Taxation without representation

Stamp Act

Tax on documents

Protests; formed the Sons of Liberty

Townshend Acts

Tax on imports

Boycotts; riots

Tea Act

Tax on tea

Boston Tea Party

Intolerable Acts

Closed Boston Harbor

First Continental Congress







  • Revolutionary War

    First Continental Congress

    • Established due to the Intolerable Acts

    • Tried to get Intolerable Acts repealed

    • Boycotted (refusal to buy certain goods) ALL British goods

    • Told colonies to arm themselves “just in case”

    Lexington & Concordfirst battles of the Revolution

    • British planned to arrest colonial leaders and seize weapons

    • Paul Revere made famous Midnight Ride to warn the militia

    • Known as the “shot heard ‘round the world”

    Second Continental Congress

    • Chose Washington as commander of the Continental Army

    • Approved the creation of a Declaration of Independence

    • Became the nation’s first acting government

    Declaration of IndependenceJuly 4, 1776

    • written primarily by Thomas Jefferson

    • listed complaints against George III and claimed independence from Britain based on the philosophies of John Locke, Montesquieu, and Blackstone

    Saratoga—turning point of the war

    • convinced the French king and other countries to recognize and aide Americans with supplies and the French Navy

    Valley Forge—harsh winter endured by Continental Army

    • Many deserted, Washington had to motivate his troops to stay

    • Marquis de Lafayette and Baron von Stueben arrive from Europe to help train the Continental army

    Yorktown—last major battle of the war

    2nd Treaty of Paris, 1783—ended the American Revolution

    • The 13 colonies become independent from England

    • The boundary of the U.S. extends to the Mississippi River





Government during and immediately after the Revolution

Articles of Confederation

  • First official government of the U. S.

  • Created before the Battle of Yorktown

  • Adopted by the states in 1781 as the nation’s 1st constitution

  • Loose Confederation of states, each with one vote in Congress

Northwest Land Ordinanceset procedure for orderly expansion of the U.S. – only strength

  • Weaknesses: no power to tax or raise an army; states printed own money; Shay’s Rebellion was stopped by a state militia

  • FAILED






Constitutional Convention, 1787

Also called the Philadelphia Convention—Delegates met to revise the Articles of Confederation; instead they wrote an entirely new constitution and formed a new government.






Judson Middle School



Readiness Knowledge and Skills

Social Studies 8—STAAR Review

ERA 3: Forming a New Nation

1783-1791


People and Documents that influenced American Government

Magna Carta, 1215—limited the power of the King; guaranteed the right to a trial by jury

English Bill of Rights—frequent elections; guaranteed right to bear arms, forbade cruel and unusual punishment; trial by jury

John Locke—wrote that govt is a social contract. Govt exists by the consent of the people and must protect unalienable rights: Life, Liberty, and Property or rights that cannot be taken away

Charles de Montesquieu—French philosopher who defined the principle of separation of powers and checks & balances in govt.

William Blackstone—defined individual rights in English law that could not be violated, even by a king





7 Principles of the Constitution (cont’d)

Separation of Powers—splits the powers of govt into 3 branches

http://mrkash.com/activities/images/separationofpowers.jpgChecks and Balances—each branch makes sure the others are working the way they are supposed to

http://firejerryjones.com/content/wp-content/uploads/gov1.jpg

Individual Rights—Bill of Rights protects personal freedoms against the powers of the government



Debate and Compromise over Representation in Congress

The 3/5ths Compromise—slaves were counted as 3/5ths (60%) of a white citizen for purposes of representation and taxation





New Jersey Plan

Equal representation for all states (small states)



Virginia Plan

Representation based on population (BIG states)





The Great Compromise or Connecticut Compromise




Ratification Debates

Federalists—support ratification (approval) of the Constitution

Anti-Federalist—oppose ratification of the Constitution

Federalists

Anti-Federalists

Led by Alexander Hamilton and James Madison

Led by Patrick Henry and George Mason

Favored a strong nat’l govt

Favored strong state govt’s

Wrote Federalist Papers to gain support from the people

Wrote Anti-Federalist papers to gain support from people

Separation of Powers will safeguard against tyranny

Only a Bill of Rights will safeguard against tyranny

The Constitution was ratified or approved in 1787 and the Bill of Rights were added in 1791. BLUEPRINT for U. S. government




Current form of U. S. government:

House – based on population

Senate - equal representation (2/state)

U.S. Congress

One house based on population (House of Representatives)

One house based on equal representation (Senate)



7 Principles of the Constitution

Limited Government—everyone, even govt officials, are subject to the law

Popular Sovereignty—the government was created by the people in order to govern themselves; majority rules

Republicanism—the desires of the people are represented in government by elected representatives

Federalism—power of the government is shared between the states and the national government

http://mrkash.com/activities/images/federalism.jpghttp://admin.bhbl.neric.org/~mmosall/ushistory/topics/federalism.jpg




Bill of Rights—first 10 Amendments to the Constitution

1st—Freedom of speech, press, religion, petition, and assembly

Establishment clause – government may not establish a religion

2nd—right to bear arms

3rd—protection from quartering of troops

4th—protection from unreasonable searches and seizures

5th—protection from double jeopardy and self-incrimination

6th—right to a speedy and public trial by jury in criminal cases

7th—right to a jury in civil cases

If summoned for jury duty, you must go or be arrested



8th—No cruel or unusual punishment or excessive bail

9th—Protection of rights not stated in the Constitution

10th—Powers not listed belong to the states and/or people




Judson Middle School



Readiness Knowledge and Skills

Social Studies 8—STAAR Review

ERA 4: Early Republic

1789-1825



Mercantilism v. Free Enterprise

Free enterpriseeconomic system where the people decide what to make, buy, and sell

Mercantilism – economic system in which England controlled trade of the colonies

Mercantilism

Free Enterprise

British imposed strict control of colonial economy

Govt. does not control but regulates trade to make it fair

Colonies discouraged from manufacturing goods

Americans free to produce whatever goods we want

Colonies forced to buy British goods

Americans can buy goods from any country

Colonial trade with other countries is restricted

Free trade: Americans can trade with any country

British controlled prices of goods

Consumer controls price of goods with supply & demand




Development of Political Parties




Federalists

Democratic-Republicans

Leaders

Alexander Hamilton

John Adams

Thomas Jefferson

James Madison

Government

Strong nat’l govt

Weak nat’l govt

Constitution

Loose interpretation

Strict interpretation

Economy

Based on industry

Based on agriculture

Democracy

Fear of mob rule

Fear of rule by one or a few (tyranny)

Foreign Affairs

Favored England

Favored France






First 5 Presidents

1. George Washingtonno Political Party

  • Hamilton’s Financial Plan—create a national bank; place a protective tariff (taxes on imported goods that are designed to help the U. S. companies compete in the sale of goods)

  • Farewell address encouraged isolationism and no forming of political parties

2. John AdamsFederalist Party

  • XYZ Affair; Alien and Sedition Acts

3. Thomas Jefferson—Democratic-Republican

  • Marbury v. Madison (1803)said that the Supreme Court had right to review all laws made by Congress; established the principle of Judicial Review

  • Embargo Act of 1807 – Stopped all trade with Britain

(hurt U. S. economy)

  • Louisiana Purchase (1803)—purchased from France for $15 million, doubled the size of the U.S. (Mississippi River to Rocky Mountains)

4. James MadisonDemocratic-Republican

War of 1812

Causes

  • England blockaded our ports (prevented goods from going in or out of an area)

  • Impressment of U.S. sailors (forced to work on British ships)

  • England encouraged Native Americans to attack settlers

Effects

  • Foreign Affairs—America proved it could protect itself

  • Economy—U.S. became more independent of foreign trade; created their own goods, sparked the Industrial Revolution

  • Nationalism—Americans felt more patriotic about their country

  • Henry Clay’s American System - plan for economic growth with protective tariffs, increase transportation system, 2nd national bank

5. James MonroeDemocratic-Republican

  • Monroe Doctrine

  • stated that Europe can no longer establish colonies in North or South America

  • U. S. promised to stay out of European affairs and vice versa

  • America now say itself as a world power

  • McCulloch v. Maryland (1819)—said that a state could not tax a national bank; increased the power of the Federal Govt.

  • Gibbons v. Ogden (1824)—said that federal government had the power to regulate trade between states

**John Marshall—One of the most influential Supreme Court Chief Justices; rulings increased the power of the national Govt. with judicial review



Industrialization

Factors that led to Industrialization (large scale introduction of manufacturing, advanced technical businesses, and other economic activity



Laissez-fiare – limited or minimal government involvement

  • War of 1812–America was forced to make their own goods due to America not able to buy goods from Britain

  • Inventions changed the way goods were produced

  • Improvements in transportation–made it easier, faster and cheaper to send goods to buyers

Main features of Industrialization:

  • More people worked, including women, children, & immigrants

  • People moved to cities to be near their jobs = Urbanization (growth of cities due to people moving for jobs)

  • Protective tariffs encouraged Americans to buy domestic goods

  • Occurred MOSTLY in the North

  • Machines began to do the work that people did

  • Unskilled workers replaced skilled worker

http://www.mrvanduyne.com/jackson/tariff.jpg





Key Inventions

Cotton gin—removes seeds from cotton fiber; faster production

Eli Whitney

Power loom—weaves cotton into textiles (fabric); demand for cotton increases

Interchangeable parts—identical parts that can easily replace another; allows for easy assembly and repair; low skilled jobs

Bessemer process—inexpensive mass production of steal

Telegraph—uses Morse Code to send messages across a cable, created by Samuel Morse

Steel Plow—tool that improved agricultural (farming) production, invented by John Deere



Judson Middle School



Readiness Knowledge and Skills

Social Studies 8—STAAR Review

Age of Jackson / U. S. –Mexican War/ Reformation


Key issues during Jackson’s Presidency:

  • Lots of new voters (common man)

  • Election of 1828—Jackson defeats incumbent John Q. Adams; prior to the election, the Democratic-Republican party splits

  • Jacksonian Democracy—as champion of the common man, Jackson supported increased male suffrage (right to vote)

  • Spoils System—where an elected official hires his supporters into public office; allows average people to work in govt. jobs

  • Nullification Crisis—South Carolina, led by Vice-President John C. Calhoun, Vice President; threatened secession if they could not nullify (ignore) the Tariff of Abominations because it hurt Southern interests

  • Nullification – idea that a govt. could ignore a federal law that they felt would unfairly hurt their state

    • Henry Clay, the “Great Compromiser,” created a plan to satisfy both S. Carolina and Jackson, and thus, avoided war

  • War on the BankJackson vetoed the renewal of the 2nd Bank of the U.S. and transferred its deposits into state banks. This both killed the bank and led to an economic panic

  • Whig Party—Political Party that opposed the policies of Andrew Jackson; led by Daniel Webster and Henry Clay

Native American Policies

  • Indian Removal Act—law that would relocate 5 southeastern Native American tribes to Oklahoma

  • Worcester v. Georgia (1832)—Cherokee nation sued Georgia to keep their lands and won; however, Jackson did not enforce the ruling

  • Trail of Tears—harsh journey of the Cherokee into Indian Territory; estimated 4,000 out of 16,000 died along the way





Transcendentalism

Transcendentalism – philosophy emphasizing the spiritual importance in life over the material importance

  • Ralph Waldo Emerson—writer and poet that stressed spiritual importance in life

  • Henry David Thoreau—wrote Civil Disobedience (passive resistance and idea to peacefully refuse to obey laws one considers unjust) wrote other essays, poems, and supported abolition. Didn’t pay a tax due to government’s support of slavery.

  • Emily Dickinson (poet)…Edgar Allan Poe (writer/Poet)





Women’s Rights—sought equal treatment & suffrage for women

Susan B. Anthony—leader in women’s suffrage movement (right to vote) for 50 years

Elizabeth Cady Stanton—author of “Declaration of the Rights of Women”, seeking equal rights for women. She and Lucreitia Mott held the first women’s rights convention in Seneca Falls, NY

Seneca Falls Convention—meeting in Seneca Falls, NY

  • Declaration of Sentiments drafted which defines the injustices of men toward women; demanded equal treatment in society






Abolitionthe movement to end slavery

The North banned slavery and wanted the South to do the same



William Lloyd Garrison—wrote the newspaper, The Liberator

Harriet Beecher Stowe—wrote Uncle Tom’s Cabin, which portrayed the realities of slavery

Frederick Douglass - escaped slavery and became leading abolitionist speakers

Harriet Tubman—former slave and conductor of the Underground Railroad, which were escape routes into Canada

John Brown—militant abolitionist who killed slavery supporters in Kansas and led a raid on a federal arsenal at Harper’s Ferry

Sojourner Truth – former slave who fought for women’s rights and abolition of slavery






Mexican War (James K. Polk) 1846-1848

  • America and Mexico argued over the border between the Texas and Mexican border (Rio Grande and Nueces River)

  • Mexico crosses into disputed territory and spills American blood (Rio Grande)

  • Mexico surrenders (“Stonewall” Jackson a hero)

  • Mexico gave up the Mexican Cession (CA, UT, NV, AR, CO) which helped complete Manifest Destiny with the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo








  • Political Parties

    Political parties began over a disagreement about the power of the federal government and foreign policy

    • Federalist Party – Believe in strong national governments; higher tariffs, government support of industry (Alexander Hamilton, John Adams)

    • Democratic Republicans (Anti-federalist) – strong state governments; lower taxes; support of agriculture and craftsmen (Thomas Jefferson, James Madison)

    • Democratic Party Modern Democratic party began with the election of 1828 Andrew Jackson became the first Democrat when the Democratic-Republicans party split

    • Republican Party – Modern Republican Party formed before the Civil War as an Anti-slavery party. Abraham Lincoln was the first Republican President; Republicans temporarily dominated U. S. politics after the Civil War



  • Reformation

    Second Great Awakening—religious revival that focused on change and repairing moral wrongs; launched the Age of Reform:

    James Audubon painted natural elements in countryside including an extensive book on native birds still sold today

    Public Education

    • Horace Mann—believed all children should have an education; “Father of Public Education

    Labor

    • Workers protested to get better wages, hours and conditions

    Temperance

    • Social movement to stop the sale and consumption of alcohol

    Prison/Hospital

    • Dorothea Dix—fought to rehabilitate prisoners and to improve conditions for the mentally ill




Judson Middle School



Readiness Knowledge and Skills

Social Studies 8—STAAR Review

Manifest Destiny and Westward Expansion



Manifest Destiny

  • Manifest Destiny—the idea that America is destined to expand from “Sea to shining Sea” or the Atlantic to the Pacific

  • Belief that Americans should own their own plot of land

  • Divine - God

Reasons for Expansion

We didn’t want anyone to get there first and try to colonize (Spanish or French)



  • Wealth from rich farm lands, timber, minerals and gold $$$$

  • Many Americans believed it was important for all Americans to have their own plot of land

Issue: led to conflict with other peoples and nations (American Indians)

Louisiana Purchase (1803) – land bought by Thomas Jefferson from Napoleon Bonaparte (France) for $15 million. We finally had full access of the Mississippi River without foreign involvement.

Florida Cession (1819) – Land Given to U. S. by Spain in with Adams-Onis treaty

Gadsden Purchase (1853) – Land purchased from Mexico for $10 million, it completed the transcontinental railroad bypassing the Rocky Mountains…U. S.

Homestead Act – a family could obtain a title to 160 of public land after clearing and improving it for 5 years


Transportation

Colonial Era

  • Trade and travel occurred along rivers and coast

  • Roads improved during this time but very rough


Early Republic

  • Alexander Hamilton increased taxes in order to improve the national transportation system

  • Steamboat invented by Robert Fulton allowed for goods to travel faster and more efficiently


Westward Expansion

  • Canals helped linked farms and cities and made it easier to transport people, information, and goods

  • The ability to transport people and goods allowed cities to grow and expand

  • The growth of cities, trade, and the migration of people all increase with the development of the railroad


Improvements

Canals—helped link western farms to northern cities and made it easier to transport people and goods: Erie Canal in NY

Steam boat—allowed for goods to travel faster

Railroads—helped expand the growth of cities, trade, and the migration of people

Transcontinental Railroad – Railroad line that linked the well-developed network on the East coast with rapidly growing California

http://i278.photobucket.com/albums/kk98/sookikin/manifest.jpg



Judson Middle School



Readiness Knowledge and Skills

Social Studies 8—STAAR Review

Antebellum Era

1836-1860


Important Supreme Court Cases

John Marshall – One of the most influential Supreme Court Justices; he helped establish the idea of Judicial Review which made the Supreme Court more powerful

Marbury v. Madison (1803) – said that the Supreme Court had right to review ALL laws made by Congress; established the idea of Judicial Review

Worcester v. Georgia (1832) Cherokee Nation sued Georgia to keep their lands and won, but were removed by Jackson anyway

McCulloch v. Maryland (1819) – said that a state could not tax a national bank, increased the power of the national government

Gibbons v. Ogden (1824) – said that federal government had the power to regulate trade between states

Dred Scott v. Sanford (1857) - said that African-Americans were not citizens of the U. S. and said that Missouri compromise was unconstitutional, increased sectionalism



Sectionalism

Tension between the North and the South as each “section” of

the country places its own interests above the country as a whole


  • The North relied on factories and manufacturing

  • The South relied on plantations (slavery) and farms

  • The West relied on farms with no slaves

  • They had different economic interest

  • Each wanted the National Government to side with them on

Political issues.

The Tariff of Abominations and the Nullification Crisis increased

sectionalism in the country

Compromises on Slavery

Slavery Act 1807 – Prohibited importation of slavery

As the nation expanded, the question of whether slavery would be allowed in newly acquired territories was a continuous debate:



Missouri Compromise (1820)

  • admitted Missouri as a slave state and Maine as a free state

  • kept balance between free and slave states in Congress

  • prohibited slavery north of Missouri

Compromise of 1850

  • California becomes a free state

  • No slave trade in D.C.

  • popular sovereignty to determine slavery in Mexican Cession

Fugitive Slave Law helped slave owners recover their runaway slaves from the North
Kansas-Nebraska Act (1854)

Nebraska Territory was divided into two territories



  • replaced the Missouri Compromise

  • Slavery in each territory to be decided by popular sovereignty (vote by the people)

  • Anti-slavery and Pro-slavery forces rushed into the territory in order to vote

  • A key figure was John Brown who was an extreme abolitionist that murdered slavery supporters


Bleeding Kansas”—Conflict between pro-slavery and anti-slavery supporters in Kansas from 1854-1856




Judson Middle School



Readiness Knowledge and Skills

Social Studies 8—STAAR Review

Civil War

1861-1865


Secession

  • withdrawal of Southern States from the Union

  • Southerners did not trust Lincoln and had threatened to secede even

  • before Lincoln won the Election of 1860

  • They based their arguments on the ideas of State’s Rights

  • They argued that they had voluntarily joined the union and therefore

had the right to leave voluntarily

  • December 20, 1860– South Carolina becomes the first state to secede

  • other southern states soon followed and formed the Confederate

States of America with Jefferson Davis as their President

  • 13 states total formed the Confederacy




Emancipation

Emancipation Proclamation freed all of the slaves in the Southern States

Issued by President Lincoln on January 1, 1863– Lincoln did not, however, have the power to free the slaves in the Southern States so in reality it freed very few slaves

Reconstruction

The process of re-admitting Southern States into the Union



  • Lasted from 1865-1887

  • Andrew Johnson was the President during Reconstruction after Lincoln’s death. Impeached but not thrown out by Radical Rep.

  • Followed Lincoln’s goals for reconstruction and pushed for the ratification of the 13th amendment, which prohibited slavery.

  • Radical republicans wanted to use the Federal government to impose a new order on the South and grant citizenship rights to former slaves.

Reconstruction Amendments to the Constitution

13th Amendment—Freed Slaves in all states

14th Amendment — Made all former slaves American Citizens

15th Amendment — Allowed all former slaves the right to vote

People of Reconstruction

Hiram Rhodes Revels — American clergyman and educator who became the first black citizen to be elected to the U.S. Senate (1870-1871) during Reconstruction. He performed knowledgeably in office, advocating desegregation in the schools and on the railroads.

Vocabulary

Scalawags – a native White Southerner who collaborated with the occupying forces (Northerner) during Reconstruction, often for personal gain

Carpetbaggers – Northerner who went to the South after the C. W. and became active in Republican politics, especially so as to profit from the unsettled social and political conditions of the area

Freedman’s Bureau – Govt. Agency that provided assistance to freed slaves including schools to learn how to read and write

Black Codes – Laws passed mainly in the south to restrict freedoms of African Americans

Segregation – legal separation based on race

Jim Crow Laws – Laws that forced segregation

Dawes Act – Assimilation (adaptation) of Native Americans by sending them to white schools, having them own land, and opening extra land to non-white settlers

Morrill Act – granting federal land to establish colleges i.e. Texas A & M

Battles of the Civil War

Fort Sumter

  • first shots of the Civil war

  • before supplies could arrive Confederate troops attack the fort and the Civil war begins

Battle of Antietam

  • Single bloodiest battle of the Civil War

Siege of Vicksburg

  • Important Union victory

  • Confederates lost control of the Mississippi River

  • Vicksburg, Mississippi was the last Confederate stronghold along the Mississippi River

Battle of Gettysburg

  • Important Union victory

  • The only time the Confederate Army tried to win a battle in Northern Territory

  • Pickett’s Charge was the turning point in the battle

  • Pickett led Confederate soldiers into the middle of Union forces and it was disastrous

  • Lincoln gave the Gettysburg Address here in honor of the dead Union Soldiers stating the Union was worth fighting for, included ideas about liberty and equality.

Appomattox Courthouse

  • Lee Surrenders; War is over

  • Last battle of the Civil War

  • Lincoln Assassinated 6 days later

More People of the Civil War…

William Carney 1st African-American awarded the Medal of Honor while serving with the 54th Massachusetts Regiment during the Civil War. Held the flag at Fort Wagner.

Philip Bazaar Navy Seaman who was awarded the Medal of Honor for his valor in the Battle for Fort Fisher of the American Civil War.

Julia Ward Howe – wrote the “Battle Hymn of the Republic” for Union soldiers. She felt “John Brown’s Body” needed more uplifting words

border states civil war history map.jpg

People of the Civil War

Abraham Lincoln– President of the United States during the Civil War.

(Emancipation Proclamation, Gettysburg Address)


Jefferson Davis– President of the Confederate States of America. Inaugural address proclaimed States’ Rights.
Ulysses S. Grant– Commanding Union General– won major victories for

the Union (Shiloh and Vicksburg)- defeated Lee’s troops in Virginia and

accepted Lee’s surrender at the Appomattox court hose in 1865
Robert E. Lee--Confederate General– commanded the Northern Army of

Virginia-respected by Northerners and loved by white southerners– won



early victories and invaded the north twice and lost both times (at Antietam and Gettysburg)- surrendered at Appomattox

Civil War (1861-1865) — Fighting between the North and South over the issue of slavery. North wins and slaves are granted Freedom, Citizenship, and the right to vote.





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