Journal of the australian naval institute inc



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Page 4X j.. .■ I ' .rran.in Nd^ai fnsntule. Nowmtwr 89

Operations ot Counter-Terrorism

Offensive and defensive operations are sometimes the two sides of a coin In the previous section, we have pointed out the logic of terrorist's operations at sea To counter them, the same steps could be followed, that is, step (A) analysis, (B) planning. (C) prep­aration, and (D) execution

In (A) analysis, set out our goals on what to defend, and which group of terrorists we have to watch and counter First, make a

thorough review of our counter-measures in the past to discover our own weaknesses Then, re-estimate the current situation, lay emphasis on our own vulnerabilities Keep on gathering new information and review con­stantly our capabilities to meet the attacks

In the second step (B) planning, up-date our counler-lerronst plans, train our counter-forces, test combat readness Carry out war games with different scenarios High ranking officers in the government, especially those involved in crisis management should be invited to witness the counter-terrorism war games and join in the discussion and criticism, because things may happen in the same way as that played in the games, or with some variation A tremendous amount of thinking and discussion can be saved among govern­mental agencies and officials facing an actual crisis, if all the key players are familiar with the war games, and have played together in the same games

Shipowners, shipmasters and crew, port administrators, and harbour police should also be invited to participate in the war games and to discuss the detailed and practical technical measures for improving the security practices on ships and in port terminals

Conclusion and Recommendation

Terrorist attack at sea is nothing new It happened in early history, and it is still occurring in our time It is. however, in my opinion more difficult for terrorists to hijack a ship on the high seas than it is to hijack a civil airliner in flight It is also more difficult to set instant sensational publicity while a ship is in a remote corner of the sea But. never­theless, it has happened The frequency of terrorism on the whole is declining, but we cannot hope that terrorism, like many other acts of violence, will disappear for ever The nature of terrorism is that it can only be solved by social change and political settlement But, when an act of terrorism is being carried out at sea, it can only be rescued by military action to protect and save the innocent people So, no matter what original mission might have been assigned to a navy of any nation, an additional mission should be added "To combat the terrorism at sea '

Footnotes

1 China Post (Taipeil July 13. 1988. p?

7 Captain John Moore. RN Janes Naval Review Janes

Iv.Mishing Ltd. London 1987 p 38

Adit iral K I I UP 11w,i nifl |, Piracy and Am.

Paper prepared tor Singapore SLOC Conlerern e 1985





USS MIDAY (CV-64) seen alongside in the Fremantle inner harbour on 10 November, 1989 The 64.000 Ion the largest ship lo have berthed in the inner harbour.

Photo: LSPH W McBride. RAN

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il ii". Australian Nm I

"MALTA CONVOYS 1940-43"

By Paul J. Kemp

Arms & Armour Press, London. 64 pp.. distributed in Australia by Capricorn Link of Lane Cove, NSW. 514.95.

The story of the Royal Navy's Malta Convoys is one of the most exciting and great naval campaigns of the Second World War

These British convoys were fought through to the beleaguered island often against overwhelming odds with incredible courage and tenacity Now Paul Kemp has captured the imagination with this pictorial work which includes 120 carefully selected black and white photographs, most from the Imperial War Museum and of a high quality

Each photo is accompanied by a detailed and lengthy caption which takes this work out of the realms of being only a picture book

Lying only 30 minutes flying time from Italian airfields in Sicily, the convoys endured every form of attack imaginable and heavy losses were sustained amongst both the merchant ships and their naval escorts which ran the gauntlet from Gibraltar and Alexandria

One cannot overemphasise the fascinating photos chosen to illustrate this book, the 14th in the "Warships Illustrated" series

Amongst the photos included is an interest­ing shot of the cruiser HMS Liverpool at Alexandria wilh her bows missing after an air attack and a subsequent ignition of petrol vapour, a superb shot of the Italian battleship Littorio underway at speed: Ihe classic destroyer shot of HMS Kipling emerging at speed from a smokescreen in heavy weather to fire lorpedoes; and the tanker Ohio engulfed in a wall of water at the moment ol impact from a torpedo from the Italian submarine Axum

The role played by the ships, aircraft and submarines based in Malta in the disruption of Axis supply lines cannot be underestimated If Malta had fallen, communications with the Middle East and control of the cen'ral Medi­terranean would have been lost and the reconquest of North Africa would have taken immeasurably longer

This book is a tribute to the Malta convoys and the men who fought them through A most enioyable read

Vic Jeffery

UltlUtB NtwemtWf fifl

THE MODERNISATION OF PORTS

by I.T. Croser, C.J. Davidson. M.G. Harvey

Ports all over the world are starting to automate their vessel traffic functions The similarities between these vessel traffic sys­tems, air traffic control systems and naval command and control systems are marked, though there are many differences in detail

The brief article describes the Vessel Traffic Management System which has been recently installed by KAE (Australia) in Port Phillip Bay for the Port of Melbourne Authority (PMA)

Reasons for vessel traffic management

Port operations are complex, requiring the co-ordination of a wide variety of services, the provision and maintenance of navigational aids, the dredging of channels and billing of customers Emergencies such as fire, explosion, spillages and medical evacuation have to be catered for Liaison with many other authorities such as police, customs, and search and rescue units is also required from time to time.

The command and control system for all these tasks has been the shipping control lower, usually well equipped with communi­cations and with a textual movement advice system Some ports are also equipped with radar, often employing the same ARPA (Automatic Radar Plotting Aid) devices which are now standard on merchant vessels

Proliferation of techniques such as VHF/DF, use of radio and telephones, radar and visual sightings has led to the need (or integration of all information sources so that a clearer picture of port operations can be achieved

Systems which provide this integration are known as vessel traffic systems As we move

into the last decade of the century, the ma|oiity of ports worldwide are considering installation of such systems

The attractions of information integration are great

a. knowledge of exact vessel ETA can increase efficiency of tug, pilot and berth usage;

b monitoring of navigational aids can help lo identify vessels which collide with them so that damages may be recovered;

c port charges can be automated.

d traffic can be reliably managed;

e information on movements can be dissem­inated to all potential users eg pilots port vessels, customs, police; and

t navigational advice may be provided to vessels in potentially hazardous situations

System architecture

A typical system architecture is given in Figure 1 Here the information sources are the radar systems, other sensors such as tide and weather monitors. VHF/DF. the shipping movement information system which provides advances, notice of movements, and operator inputs The information outputs are track positions, berthing status, ETA information and recording information

Design problems

Vessel traffic systems present many difficul­ties to be overcome before effective integration can occur Some of the maior difficulties are outlined below

THE AUTHORS

The three aulhorss ol this article, all coincldentally former RAN WE officers, formed the leadership and nucleus of the design and development learn created lo Implement the Port ol Melbourne VTMS project

Journal ol the Australian Naval institute November 89

Figure 1: MTIC 9000 Vessel traffic system block diagram

Ship Movement Inloimation System

Radar Sub­systems

Display Sub­systems

Processing and Control Subsystem

Other Sensor Systems

Recoidmg and Replay Subsystem

Identification

As with the air traffic control and naval combat systems, identification is the key problem to be overcome In clear weather during daylight hours this is not a problem, bul under all other conditions when visibility is impaired, total reliance has to be placed on radio communications with the vessel VHF/DF provides a partial solution, but the accuracy ol these systems is often not sufficient to resolve identity, and in any case these systems

are very expensive and can not identify the smaller harbour support craft and ancillary vessels

The identification problem for vessel traffic systems is different to the other two systems Ports are very cluttered, with tugs, pilot vessels, dredges, busy maintenance vessels, barges, pleasure craft, fishing boats and yacht races all contusing the radar picture Additionally the navigation aids themselves (bouys and bea­cons) provide large numbers ol radar tracks, and correlation with known identities needs to be accurate

A typical port will require at least a track capacity of 250. and some very busy ports (lor example, Singapore which has some 300 large vessel movements per day) may require track capacities of 1,000 The potential for misiden-tification is thus enormous

Clearly a transponder system of some sort is required Since many transponders (at least one for each navigational aid and port vessel) will be needed, they need to be very cheap Additionally, either the transponder system needs to be portable (eg pilots can carry on board) or widely fitted world-wide

The system fitted to Port Melbourne has the inbuilt capability to provide a transponder system. Such a system which uses modulation of the radar PRF as one transponder trigger is under development by CEA Technologies Pty Ltd. a Canberra based research and development company



Figure 2:

1 OVERALL PICTURE

A Williamslown Remote X-Band Radar Site.

(Unmanned Communicates with Control Centre via a duplex 2Mbps Telecom supplied link)

D Control Centre and local S Band Radar Site.

C Pt. Lonsdale Remote Display Site. (Communicates with Control Site via duplex 2400 Baud land line)

D PI. Nepean Remote X-Band Radar Site

(Unmanned Communicates with Control Centre via a duplex 2400 Baud radio and land line data link )

irnal ol trie AusTiahin Na.sl Inii.tiito Nuwmliw 89

Sensor siting

Ports usually have complex geographies characterised by winding channels, islandsand large structures The possible sensor sites are confined to land, and may be widely dispersed to achieve the coverage required A good example is Port Melbourne, (Figure 2) where two radars (one on the control tower and the other at Williamstown) are required to cover the main channel up the Yarra and a furthei radar is needed (at Port Nepean) to cover the entrance channels and approaches to Port Phillip Bay

The routing of radar video and track infor­mation from several widely dispersed sites, and the problem of remote sensor control, requires data links In order to minimise costs, it is advantageous to minimise the data rate on these links

The PMA system uses data compression and multiplexing techniques which allow radar control, tracks and four channels of video to be passed on a 2Mbps standard Telecom data channel.

Large targets

In order to resolve close targets of interest in channels, it is necessary to have a high gain (small beam-width) radar antenna Typical beam-widths are in the order of 0.5 degrees

While this gives excellent resolution of small targets even at very short ranges, the narrow beam-width presents problems when attempt­ing to track large targets For a radar with 0 5 degree beam-width, a 1.000 foot vessel will present an echo which is 19 beam-widths wide at 1 mile range, but only 1 beam-width wide at 20 miles range This means that the detector tracker will detect a mass clutter object at short ranges, but a point target at long ranges

Most radar trackers have been designed to cope with air targets, which are relatively small and move at high speeds These trackers usually reject mass targets as clutter.

A vessel traffic system, however, requires an area tracker which can cope equally well with point and mass targets The PMA systems radars are fitted with Australian designed trackers which are capable of 256 simultaneous tracks to 40 miles in range, and which cope with the problem outlined above

Fortunately, since land objects are not of interest, vessel traffic systems are able to blank all land returns using a high resolution stored map at the radar site. This ensures that the tracking system is not overwhelmed by clutter Land can be represented on the operators screen by a synthetic colour map

Radar presentation

For best picture it is desirable to use a high quality colour graphics display. This gives good control of symbology. labelling synthetic maps, and menus, as well as the operator cursor

Two problems are evident, however

The radar video is in PPI (polar) format, while the colour graphics display is raster (cartesian) In order to present the radar picture, it needs to be converted to the new format A compli­cating factor here is the need to be able to offset anywhere in the operating area, and to zoom to any desired range scale This has been solved in the PMA system by using an Australian designed zoom extractor which performs the necessary windowing, scan conversion and video infil at the radar site, prior to transmission across the data link

A second problem is the mixing of the radar video, from perhaps up to four radars, with the normal colour graphics synthetics presented on the display screen This has been achieved for the PMA system using high speed video buffers, a radar video mixing unit, and finally, addition of the radar video to the synthetic information video immediately prior to display The key point is that there are two separate video inputs to the display — the video produced by the radar extractor and the synthetic (menu, map. track) video being produced by the processing system This relieves the graphics processor ot the time consuming task of radar video presentation and allows it to be totally utilised for symbol movement and high resolution map presentation

Dissemination of information

There are potentially large numbers of users of the correlated real time information held in a vessel traffic system These include a. pilot services, which need to know the latest ETA and ETD information as well as pilot launch positions, b tug management, c berthing facilities: d customs, e. police.

f channel movement control: g. costing and port charges, h other authorities such as SAR services, i emergency services, and j coast watch and surveillance organisations

There are thus potentially many displays, most of which require the synthetic information produced by the system (track identity posi­tion, ETA and map data), but usually will not need radar video Additionally, ships would be

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advantaged by having the port information of traffic movements, ship positions, hazards, berthing arrangements, etc available to them Although at present only two displays are required by the PMA system, the system has been designed to accommodate large numbers of displays, and development of radio linked portable displays (or pilot/shipboard use is in hand

Applications of VTS technology

Vessel traffic systems, and particularly the design installed for the Port Melbourne Authority, have many other potential appli­cation areas These include a oil rig collision warning systems. b coastal surveillance systems, c range safety systems, d radar simulation systems, e. airport ground vehicle tracking systems, f specialised radar measurement systems.

and g enhancements to existing radar systems

System flexibility

As the system was designed for flexibility from the start, it has inherent capability for expansion to accommodate

  • up to 8 radars.

  • up to 8 radar video capable interactive colour displays.

  • up to 20 interactive colour graphics displays.

  • large numbers of remote displays — from portable, to laptop, to hand held,

  • up to 4 VHF/DF systems,

  • radar transponder systems integrated with each radar.

interfaces to Port vessel movement and costing information systems.

  • special purpose customised interfaces.

  • up to 256 tracks from each radar,

  • up to 512 system tracks

An Australian innovation with world market potential

The Vessel Traffic Management System for the Port of Melbourne Authority was imple­mented by a partnership of Australian Industry with more than 75% local content Krupp Atlas Eleklronik (Australia) performed the role of Prime Contractor and carried out the project management, software engineering and Qual­ity Assurance.

CEA Technologies Pty Ltd of Canberra worked in close cooperation with KAE (Aus­tralia) with responsibilities for System Design as well as the design, development and manufacture of the radar processing sub­system and specialised communications equipment

Marine Navaid Systems Pty Ltd of Sydney performed the task of procurement and modification of radar antennae and trans­mit/receive hardware together with overall system installation

The Port Melbourne VTMS is a classic example of how investment in Australian design can pay handsome dividends and is:

  • A delivered system which exceeded the customer's expectations

  • A system which leads all other competing technologies, with a potential world market of 500 ports

  • A system which is capable of penetrating other markets and other application areas

  • Clear lines for diversification and product enhancement

  • Development of a high quality electronic systems design and development team With the successful commissioning of the

PMA VTMS earlier this year, KAE (Australia) and CEA are now working in consortium in active pursuit of potential future opportunities for similar systems and applications of deriva­tive technologies in Australia and Overseas

suim Imiiiuta Novuniboi iiv

DRAINING THE SWAMP

by

Commander C.J. Davidson BSc(Eng) RANEM

It was while serving as a Lieutenant that I first became aware of the central problem facing the Navy

I was committed to the task of Divisional Officer, but letters to Navy Office were either being misinterpreted or (more usually) not replied to Pondering this situation I became aware that the central difficulty was to define the problem before developing strategies for resolution

The First Model

Figure 1 shows my first attempt at unravelling the true nature of Navy Office I had of course read "Parkinson's Law" and "The Peter Principle", but I felt that neither really described the true inner workings of the organisation Defence directories and organisation chads were, of course, worse than useless as aids



Figure 1: Swamp Precursor

t

to understanding What was needed was a simple model which we could all understand

In the figure the establishments and ships feed reports, letters, complaints, lies etc to the head office directorates which are represenled by rectangles The flow of information within head office is represented by arrows — as the direcforates clear their in-trays, the paper is put on file and minuted to the next directorate in the chain

This excellent model had the virtue ot simplicity, and of course explained many features of the Navy Office/Defence Depart­ment throughout the Seventies and Eighties Nothing gets answered • If nothing is done, the system becomes

lammed with paper. so>

  • The number of directorates/size of directorates increases

  • The number of filing cabinets required increases

  • More buildings and desks are required

Promotion

In due course I was promoted to Lieutenant Commander and immediately gained the more balanced and objective insight which comes with greater seniority It was quite clear to me that my model was glaringly wrong — I had al last detected output from the head office

This, of course, comes in the form of Defence Instructions I well remember one of Hie Krai of these, directing the Navy to change the position of name tallies. A field reaction to this earth-shattering instruction (which is repro­duced trom memory) is given in the box

THE AUTHOR Colin Davidson served in the RAN as a Weapons Electrical Engineer Ollicer Irom 1966 to 1986 He now is Ihe Senior Syslems Engineer with CEA Technologies Pty Ltd. a Canberra based Electronic Syslems Research and Development company

I ,,:|r- '.'

SUBVERSIVE OFFICERS MEMORANDUM 1/76

Reference DI(N) ADMIN XX-X

  1. In future name tallies are to be worn backwards

  2. This is so that people can identify themselves in mirrors, and conforms to practices current in the other two services

A N Archy Subversive Officer

The Swamp

The problem of output had to be grappled with as it threatened the simple model I had developed This took time, but after painstaking research I managed to produce Figure 2



Figure 2: The Swamp

In this figure, the establishments and directorates are shown as before Where it dilfers from Figure 1 is in the output mechanism

Directors now have a choice — they can either pass papers on to other directorates as before, or they can throw them into the output mechanism This is known as the committee system, but more precisely identified in the diagram as The Swamp

Here papers float in profusion A vacuum cleaner (with a suction rate equal to the rate at which papers from any one of the estab­lishments/ships reaches head office) plys

randomly over the surface of the swamp, sucking up floating papers and formatting them into Defence Instructions by approp­riately stamping and dating them They are then passed to the outlying ships and establishments

This refinement to the model predicts that • Papers which deal with meaty matters, being

heavy, are more likely to sink and not be

resolved

  • The output is random — no one knows that will eventually go out. or when

  • As the output rate of the system is less than the sum of the inputs, the previously identified increases in staff, filing cabinets and buildings continue, albeit at a lesser rate

Archives

What happens to the water-logged, unre­solved papers which sink to the bottom of the swamp"? If nothing is done about this sludge, the swamp will become full and require enlargement Although we know from obser­vation that the swamp is often increased in size (more committees are formed) there is a mechanism by which the sludge can be drained, known as archiving This process is shown diagrammatically in Figure 3



Figure 3: Waste Removal

Inhabitants of the Swamp

Figure 4 shows the swamp in more detail We all know that garbling occurs, and that papers dealing with financial matters are unlikely to be resolved to the output

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Figure 4: Inhabitants

Cruising the swamp are crocodiles They have a dual role: firstly they mangle papers, and secondly they deter directors from retrieving papers thrown in error This deter­rence is shown in Figure 5. which explains where the expressions "changing your arm" and "right hand man" come from

Also in the swamp are frogs which are particularly attracted to any papers with dollar signs Landing on these, the frogs accelerate the sinking process, and help to keep the top of the swamp free of financial commitments



humiliation (see Figure 5) Thus the way ahead for directors is indicated either leave the system by going to ships/establish­ments, or ■ try for conversion to Committee Crocodile or Financial Frog! (These jobs are also quite good fun)

For those in establishments or ships, there is little advice I can give Writing identical letters at regular (say monthly) intervals will probably mean that different directorates will deal with them, and that multiple copies will end up in the Swamp The problem here is that due to the garbling process, at least two entirely conflicting Defence Instructions are quite likely to result (there is a 12 6 per cent chance of this happening) I leave the decisions on the course to take in this event in your capable hands!

Draining The Swamp

I am at a loss as to what to do about it all The system is very large now, with a plethora of crocodiles and frogs which are nasty customers to deal with (some frogs have been known to rob grandmothers blind) Possibly the recent reduction of Service Swamp positions may help, but if the eliminated functions are performed by extra Public Swampmen then beware: it is obvious that to avoid being working directors they can only become Swamp inhabitants and thus increase the size of the problem

Reading "Up The Organisation" by Robert Townsend (Coronet, 1971) indicates that benign dictatorship might help, but identifying a suitable candidate for the position is difficult

I throw myself on your ingenuity Why not write to the editor with your suggestions''

C.J. Davidson, 21 Bereton Street. Garran ACT 2605


Figure 5: Right Hand Man

Coping With The Swamp

It is apparent that the position of director within the system is a very poor one He has to cope with quite massive flows of paper, both from the establishments/ships in his charge, and with the paper chase around the system If he makes a mistake and tries to recover it. he is very likely to suffer a disfiguring

journal nl Itic AuMMIi.in Navw lnr.1 i -.


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