Journal of the australian naval institute inc



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Registered by Australian Post Publication No. NBP 0282

ISSN 0312-5807

VOLUME 15 NOVEMBER 1989 NUMBER 4

AUSTRALIAN NAVAL INSTITUTE INC

The Australian Naval Institute Inc was formed and incorporated in the Australian Capital Territory in 1975 The main objects of the Institute are

a to encourage and promote the advancement of knowledge related to the Navy and the maritime profession,

b to provide a forum for the exchange of ideas concerning subjects related to the Navy and the maritime profession, and

c to publish a journal

The Institute is self-supporting and non-profit-making All publication of the Institute will stress that the authors of articles express their own views and opinions and that these are not necessarily those of the Department of Defence, the Chief of Naval Staff or the Institute The aim is to encourage discussion, dissemination of information, comment and opinion and the advancement of professional knowledge concerning naval and maritime matters.

The membership of the Institute is open to

a Regular Members Regular membership is open to members of the RAN or RANR and persons who having qualified for Regular membership, subsequently leave the Service

b Associate Members Associate membership is open to all other persons not qualified to be Regular Members, who profess an interest in the aims of the Institute

c Honorary Members Honorary membership is open to persons who have made a distinguished contribution to the Navy or the maritime profession, or by past service, to the Institute

DISCLAIMER

Views expressed in this journal are those of the authors, and not necessarily those of the Department of Defence, the Chief of Naval Staff or the Institute

CONTENTS

TITLE PAGE

From the President 2

From the Editor 3

Guide for Authors 4

Letters to the Editor 5
Key Concepts in Australian Strategy


by the Minister for Defence to the Australian Naval Institute 13
Indonesia's Perception of SLOC in Southeast Asia

by Major General Subijakto 27
Surveillance Tasks

by Rear Admiral (retired) Yasuo Ito 33

Churchill Fellows Headed Overseas 38

The Evolution of the RAN Intelligence Service — Pari one — 1907-1918

by Wayne Gobert 39

Book Reviews 44.50

Control of Piracy and Maritime Terrorism

by Tun Hwa Ko 45
The Modernisation of Ports

by Commander I T Croser, C.J. Davidson, MG Harvey 51
Draining the Swamp

by Commander C.J Davidson BSc (ENG) RANEM 55

Notice of Annual General Meeting 59

Nomination Form for Election of Office Bearers and Ordinary Councillors for 1989/90 60

Naval Institute Insignia 61

Australian Naval Institute Council Members 62

Application for ANI Membership/Insignia Orders 63

Advertising Information 64

Articles or condensations are not to be reprinted or reproduced without the permission of the Institute. Extracts may be quoted for the purposes of research, review or comment provided the source is acknowledge



Cover Photo

HMA Ships SUCCESS and HOB ART undertaking a RAS during a recent exercise

Journal oi II ie Aufltmi'nn Naval Instilula Novnmbar 89



FROM THE PRESIDENT

The Defence Minister, Mr Kim Bea^ley's delivery of the Vernon Parker Oration on 6 September was a most successful Institute occasion Once again the Military Theatrette at the Defence Academy was filled near to its capacity Mr Beazley's address is the lead article in this issue

Representatives of the Friends of the Naval Institute were present for the Oration (see photo

in page 14 At a small reception for them beforehand. I welcomed the Friends and presented

their special membership certificates In 1990 I intend a Naval Institute Dinner in the March/April

period and at least an Oration The Friends will again be our guests at both these functions

They are a most enthusiastic group and I value their support

For some time the Council has been considering a proposal that it publish a manuscript written by a Chaplain Vivien Thompson during the 1920s, titled History of Garden Island 1788-1922 The difficulty has been that the draft requires extensive editing and re-writing before it is in a form suitable for publication, and no way of carrying out this task could be found Following Council consideration of the matter earlier this year however, Lieutenant Tom Frame volunteered to progress the task and in September the Council agreed m principle to publish the manuscript This will be in the form of a good quality book to be titled 'The Garden of Neptune Discussions with interested publishers are continuing and I will keep you informed of their progress

Although I cannot promise such support for all our authors, writing for the Journal can be a rewarding experience (see the notice on page 4) Please think about it

Sincerely, Ian Callaway

, .

FROM THE EDITOR

As indicated in the previous ANI Journal, the lead article tor this issue is the Vernon Parkei address by the Minister of Defence. Mr Kim Beasley The first awards to authors for articles written expressly for the ANI Journal have been earned by Lieutenant R J Griggs ($20) and M A Head ($36) for their articles published in the August Journal. For further details of the award please refer to page 4

The late issue of the Journal is regretted but by way of consolation the quality of the Journal is being kept at the August level.

It you are in doubt as to contributing an article lor publishing please reconsider and submit More articles are required for the February issue

Finally, I would like to take the opportunity of thanking all those authors who submitted articles for publication during 1989 As you are now aware not all articles received can be published — but most are A thank you is also due to those councillors who have proof-read the Journal articles — it is very much appreciated And to all readers I wish you a healthy and prosperous 1990

Sincerely, Don Agar

MEMBERSHIP RENEWAL

If your membership expires on 31 December this year you will find enclosed an invoice to assist in the return of your remittance Payment must be sent to the ANI postal address or to Russell Offices, A-B-OB.

Multi-year membership is available at reduced rates and is detailed on the invoice

Personnel not wishing to renew their membership are reminded of their obliga­tion under the constitution to submit their resignation

Journal oritur Australian Naval intlitola Noi


GUIDE FOR AUTHORS

In order to achieve the slated aims of the Institute, all readers, both members and non-members, are encouraged to submit articles for publication The billowing guide outlines the ma|or points most authors would need to Know in order to publish a quality article in the Journal A more comprehensive guide is available Irom the Editor

Type ot article

Articles should deal with interesting recent develop­ments in matters relating to maritime matters which directly or indirectly impinge upon the naval profession Overseas contributions are also encouraged To be eligible lor prizes, original articles must be accompanied by statements that they have been written expressly lor the ANI The editor reserves the right to reject or amend articles lor publication The ANI will pay the authors ol articles, specially written lor the Journal and accepted tor publication, $10 per 1000 words commencing Irom the August 1989 edition ol the Journal An annual prize ol $25 lor the best book review will continue These paymenis will not be made to the authors of articles such as stall college prize essays and Peter Mitchell competition entries.

Lenglh o( Articles

As a broad guide, articles should range from 2500 to 6000 words This is between 9 and 21 pages of double spaced typing on A4 size sheets Shod adicles are also welcome Subdividing the Article

Three maior types ot headings are used

  • MAJOR HEADING - Bold Capitals

  • Secondary Heading Bold Capitals and Lower Case ■ " .iry Heading — Capitals and Lower Case

Abstract

An abstract of 75 words at the most is desirable when an article is proposed It should state the scope ol the article and its main features

The Text

The text should be in an impersonal, semi-tormal manner Consistency in spelling, headings, symbols, capitalisation etc is essential

References

U'l.rences should be numbered consecutively and listed at the end ol the paper The preferred lormat is I Smith, R & Jones. A , Marketing Videotex', Journal

of Marketing in Australia Vol 20. No 3 June 1985,

pp 36-40

Photographs

Black and white glossy punts and colour prints are acceptable Clearly identity photographic prints with figure number written on separate slips ol paper attached with adhesive tape to the back ol the prints Captions tor the photographs must be provided

Tables. Diagrams and Graphs

Tables musl be typed on separate sheets and presented so that they may be set by the punter Use diagrams, graphs and illustrations to improve the general presentation ot the article Illustrations, etc . ate referred to in the text by figure numbers, consecutively

Copyright

Authors must complete a Copyright Declaration (see below) and attach this with their final typescript

Clearance to Publish

Authors should gel clearance from their employers it the articles contain sensitive mlormal ion such as costs, unapproved policies critical slatements etc There is no objection to authors staling personal views on subjects where at variance with a corporate view but their viewpoint musl be put in perspective so that readers, including those overseas, do not gain a false impression of the status ol the subject

The Final Typescript

Articles should be typed on A4 paper Good near letter quality |NLQ) dot-matrix punt is acceptable Three copies of the typescript should be senl to the Editor PO Box 80, Campbell ACT 2601 The complete package will comprise, on separate sheets

Cover sheet

Title ot article - Authors name (or pseudonym I
and qualifications

Present position — Telephone number - Address


■ Recent photograph and biography ol the author tless

than 200 words)

  • Abstracl - less than 75 words

  • The text

  • Tables, each on a separate sheet

  • Illustrations

  • Photographs, clearly identified

  • List ol captions lor tables, photographs & illustrations

For More Inlormalion

The Editor can be contacted either via the afore­mentioned postal address or by phone on (062) 652020

COPYRIGHT DECLARATION

If your paper has not previously been published, either in whole or in part, you are asked to assign a non­exclusive licence to the Australian Naval Institute, as a condition ot publication Such assignment would not restrict you Irom publishing the paper elsewhere as long as acknowledgement ot the original source is given It your paper has previously been published, either in whole or in part, you are reminded that it is your responsibility to bring this to the notice ol the Institute so that full acknowledgement may be made

i TITLE OF PAPER

  1. I AM WILLING. AS A CONDITION OF PUBLICATION. TO ASSIGN A NON-EXCLUSIVE LICENCE TO REPRODUCE THE ABOVE PAPER. TO THE AUSTRALIAN NAVAL INSTITUTE

  2. THE ABOVE PAPER HAS PREVIOUSLY BEEN PUBLISHED IN

1 NAME OF PERSON RESPONSIBLE FOR CORRESPONDENCE WITH THE INSTITUTE 5 ADDRESS

6 SIGNATURE
TELEPHONE NO

LETTERS TO THE EDITOR

Sir.

Bravo Zulu, Lieutenant Griggs on an excel­lent article countering Commander Allica's article for a Sail Training Ship in the RAN

Having read Commander Allica'sarticle I was impressed with the thought "Since 1988, Naval circles in Australia have been inundated with cries for a Sail Training Ship" Why. prior to arrival of the tall ships in Australia for the Bicentenary, nobody even considered it worthwhile procuring a STS Are people getting carried away by the idea that — "they ve got one, why shouldn't we"

Commander Allica's article gave me the impression that he thought |unior officers today were a "bunch of wimps" and that acquisition of a STS would toughen them up

Being a product of the recent training system I can only defend its worth against the possible acquisition of a STS

Having conducted the training cruises in HMAS JERVIS BAY and spent time albeit a short one in HMAS TOBRUK, I can say that the accommodation onboard is no better than that of a Destroyer Escort. I recently had the honour to serve in.

Lieutenant Griggs is quite right in stating a trainee will be in awe of the sea no matter what ship he goes to sea in first I was, when onboard JERVIS BAY in 1986 when passing through the tail end of Cyclone Winifred off the North Queensland coast, and again in 1988 in the Cook Strait, when JERVIS BAY rescued twelve Korean fishermen from the DONG CHANG 3 which had foundered in heavy seas.

A STS may toughen up the young officer of today, but will it teach him the necessary skills that Lieutenant Griggs refers to A STS will not operate in company with other RAN warships, as OOW manoeuvres would be impossible to carry out

In the RAN today, a ship must be paid off, before another comes into service to replace it. e.g WESTRALIA for STALWART The resources are just not available for a training ship such as JERVIS BAY and a STS

JERVIS BAY provides essential training for Junior Officers at the RAN and is also a valuable vessel for joint service operations because of its cargo carrying ability A STS could not be used in a cargo carrying role, in the way that JERVIS BAY is

Lets not waste resources on romantic ideas of a Sail Training Ship JERVIS BAY fulfils two roles — training and sea transport. A STS could only provide training, maybe9

Sub-Lieutenant Greg Swinden. RAN

The Editor

Journal of the Australian Navat Institute

PO Box 80

Campbell ACT 2600

Sir.

As a resident of Australia's southern state I infrequently visit Canberra and have only recently seen the National Naval Memorial When I did examine the memorial I was considerably impressed by the symbolism of the centrepiece sculpture and by the main plaque announcing that this was the nation s tribute to naval personnel who have created the naval heritage of Australia'

In a memorial sympathetically portraying the diversity of naval activity I was surprised to find that the battle honours shown pay scant attention to the First World War and therefore do not accurately reflecf the historical range of RAN exploits Action in the Dardanelles and against the Emden are acknowledged but years of worthwhile service between 1914 and 1918

I ,,n..,i ..line Australian Naval ln\t,' -. ., < ' r'aga'

in the Mediterranean, North Sea. Atlantic, South East Asia and Netherlands East Indies (now Indonesia) are ignored

This general failing is difficult to understand but to ignore the RANs exploits in German New Guinea in August and September 1914 is inexplicable In a few short weeks the RAN was instrumental in driving the German East Asia Squadron from the south-west Pacific and preventing it from attacking shipping in Australian waters As well, the RAN played a ma|or pari in destroying the German strategic wireless chain in the region, and escorted the Australian Naval and Military Expeditionary Force (containing RANR members) to Rabaul and New Guinea where Australian administrat­ion was established at gun point

From a historians viewpoint this action is important because it justified the establishment ol the RAN At the fust opportunity the infant navy, formed at considerable expense, was fulfilling its planned role of protecting Australian interest The action is also histor­ically interesting because it was the occasion of the first Australian naval personnel being killed in action and the first loss of an RAN vessel on active service (AEI) It was also the occasion of the first decorations being awarded to members of the Australian Navy — a Distinguished Service Order to Lieutenant T A Bond. RANR, live menlioned-in-despatches to RAN and RANR personnel (and additional mentioned-m-despatches to Royal Navy personnel then serving with the RAN)

Historical importance of an event does not necessarily mean that a battle honour should be awarded but there are excellent grounds for believing that the action around Rabaul qualifies for the award of a battle honour to those RAN units involved According to Alfred Festberg. in his authoritative work Heraldry m the Royal Australian Navy, (ppi25-126). battle honours are awarded for successful war service' and successful operations are those which resulted in the more or less complete frustration ol the enemy's intention at the time, although no warship may have been sunk By any standard naval activities in the south-west Pacific in August and September 1914 meet those criteria

So I remain puzzled Why are there so few battle honours for Ihe First World Warl And why does not 'Rabaul 1914 appear among them'' I cannot help but feel that, until there is adequate recognition of RAN activity during the First World War. the Naval Memorial will be a less than complete tribute to Australia's naval personnel

Ray Jones

Commodore Ian Calloway. RAN

President

Australian Naval Institute

Canberra, Australia

Dear Ian.

Continuing the conversation we began during your too brief visit to the U S Naval Institute, permit me to express some additional thoughts about our respective countries peoples, navies, and naval institutes

Like most Americans — even before the coming of Crocodile Dundee — I viewed most male Australians the way Kipling viewed Royal Marines "They come from our lot. they was brothers to us. they was beggars we'd met and knew. Yes. barnn' an inch in the chest an the arm they was doubles o me an' you "

No. you didn't really come from our lot There were no shackled Americans on the eleven ships that transported the first 776 English convicts to Sydney in 1787-88 Nor were there any among the 168.000 convicts that followed before transporting was abolished in 1868 But you were like beggars we'd met and knew We liked your looks — thin lips, thinning hair. stringly muscles, squinty eyes — and the way you spoke our language, sod of, with your trademark "Mate" that sounds like "mighT instead of "hate" (which you blokes pronounce "height" )

Growing up loving Kipling, how could I not not love the Australians he immortalized when in 1914, the outcast sons of convicts answered the mother country's cry — "The Hun is at the Gate1" — and "Secretly, swiftly from their pods they came, so that before half eadh had heard their name. Half earth had learned to speak of them with fear

Throughout my 21 years of enlisted service in the Marine Corps, I watched the Aussies come lo Ihe ports from the cities, the bush, and the outback to fight beside us and their Commonwealth cousins in World War II and Korea And in the warm glow of campfires beside a billabong. they taught us the fair dmkum meaning of "Waltzing Matilda" and we taught them our own national anthem "Mares Eat Oats. And Does Eat Oats

Imagine my pleasure when, in 1977, the
editor of the Australian Naval Institute's journal
wrote lo me Having served for eleven years
as managing editor of the U S Naval Institute
Proceedings. I was then in my foudh year as
editor-in-chief and he wanted to borrow both
the title and concept of a feature I had created
called "Nobody Asked Me. But I gave him


permission and decided to keep an eye on this publication that might or might not become a clone of our own

'•■ N»v«i IrtMiliili' NUVVmtWI H»

In what ways are your journal and our magazine alike'' In October 1873. a baker's dozen discontented officers met one night at Annapolis to form a society they hoped would pluck their service out of the doldrums that followed our Civil War Exactly a century later, a pair of RAN officers — Commodore Vernon Parker and Captain John Robertson — met one night in Canberra and proposed a similar society which might provide for their navy an azimuth out of the malaise that followed Vietnam Both societies pledged the "advance­ment of knowledge'' through the publication of a quarterly journal that would serve as "A forum for the exchange of ideas related to the naval profession '

Both USNI and ANI began with a President. Vice President, and a governing body totally committed to freedom of speech — particularly for the junior officers. The offices have endured, but the commitment has nol always been steadfast in the face of overt or covert pressure from Navy officialdom Knees have been known to buckle and eyes to water in Annapolis and Canberra when the head of either Navy wrote something like, "Overall, you are doing a good |ob, but you should strive for more balance You should at all costs avoid controversy-for-the-sake-of-controversy [by which he meant any kind of controversy] and ad hominern attacks, particularly with regard to official policies"

In what ways are we different? Proceedings is now neither a quarterly nor a journal while you are still both An editorial board composed mostly of high ranking officers decides what articles will be published in Proceedings — but the editor decides when Your editor alone decides what and when to publish Proceed­ings receives thousands more submissions per year than the ANI Journal and pays much more per word, all of which has to do with the elemental difference: ours is a 116-year-old publication serving a 115,000-membership whose main focus is a 500,000 man Navy Your 14-year-old, 600-member society serves a 16,000-man Navy that could fit comfortably in just four of our carriers

One of your co-founders. Captain Robert­son, might have reacted to such patronizing patter by telling the story of the elephant and the mouse "Don't you feel insignificant standing next to me," the elephant asked the mouse, "where I am so powerful and you are so weak?" "Yeah," replied the mouse, "but I've been sick." Robertson's delicious sense of humour, often bordering on the ribald, might have asserted itself by humbly concluding that

"Ours is a sick society

Robertson's lively writing adds sparkle to whatever issue he writes in or on What Proceedings author (other than our irrepress­ible VAdm Chick Hayward) would begin a February 1983 analysis of the Falklands War as Robertson did with a risque' anecdote about Prince Orloff, Catherine the Great's "favour­ite?" No less gifted was co-founder Commo­dore Parker who preceded Robertson as President until Parker's voluntary retirement from the Navy in 1977 forced him to relinquish the presidency

But let's get back to this junior officer thing To get your Jay-Ohs to write, you offered them the anonymity that "Master Ned" and a handful of other young guys employed Did you know that Proceedings went through its first century guided by the Colonel Bhmpish dictum that We're not going to have anybody stand up in our forum wearing a Halloween mask1' Our present publisher, Captain Jim Barber, pretty much skewered that one when he was a Board member by observing that the nom de plume has been around a lot longer than the Naval Institute has.

Thus, all our junior officers (or any aspiring author) now can wrap themselves in the pen name cloak But almost none do That they don't have to is a tribute to all Board members over the years — but especially to a relatively new breed, the junior officer board member — who have taken the heat their thankless jobs often generates At about the time the ANI was starting out. the US Naval Institute hierarchy decided to appoint a junior officer represen­tative to the Board of Control/Editorial Board Because of his ex officio status, he would have no vote Everyone, or nearly everyone realized that not allowing the guy to vote was like not allowing Enrico Caruso to sing, especially in light of the caliber of the first appointees

They have all been cut from the same stuidy bolt of navy blue and gold cloth manufactured at the Severn River plant All but one Never mind where Lieutenant Commander Dennis Fargo matriculated; he turned out well Dennis knew right from wrong and burned barrels of midnight oil before reaching his decision on a program, a policy, or a Proceedings article. His invisible checklist included "Is this right for the naval institute, right lor the Navy, and right for the nation?" — but never "Is this right' for Dennis Fargo?" Still, reaching a decision and casting an open vote can be two different things when your seniors seem to be counting ynui pores and that affable admiral down af

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