|Terms/Names for the Holocaust
Jews (as defined by the Nazis in 1935): anyone with three Jewish grandparents; anyone with two Jewish grandparents who was a member of a synagogue in 1935
Victims of the Holocaust: Jews, Gypsies, Blacks, Homosexuals, Criminals, Jehovah’s Witnesses, Emigrants, Asocials, political opponents
Einsatzgruppen: SS troops that followed the military troops in the invasion of the Soviet Union. The Einsatzgruppen assignment was to round up the Jews and other undesirables and executed them.
Wannsee Conference: Meeting in 1/42 in Wannsee, a Berlin suburb, at which Nazi bureaucrats planned the Final Solution.
Final Solution: Nazi name for the state sponsored, systematic killing of Jews and other undesirables
Reinhard Heydrich: Head of the Security of Forces of the S.S.; chaired the Wannsee Conference
Danes and the Jews: The Danes saved most of the Jews of Denmark; the only concerted national effort to save the Jews of Europe
Theresienstadt: Model concentration camp; Hitler cleaned up this camp in Czechoslovakia for a Red Cross visit. He fooled the Red Cross, probably because they wanted to be fooled.
Mar. 20: First concentration camp opened at Dachau.
April 26: Gestapo is formed
Oct.-Nov. First major arrest of homosexuals throughout Germany
Apr.: Jehovah Witnesses banned from civil service jobs; many arrested throughout Germany.
Jul. 12: First arrest of German Gypsies; sent to Dachau.
Jul 16: Establishment of Buchenwald concentration camp.
July 6-15: Thirty-two countries at Evian Conference discuss refugee policies; most countries refuse to let in more Jewish refugees.
Oct. 28: First deportation of Polish Jews
Dec. 2-3: Gypsies in Germany required to register with police.
May 15: Ravensbruck concentration camp for women established.
Jun: Jewish refugees aboard the S.S. St. Louis denied entry to the United States and Cuba; forced to return to Europe.
Sep. 2: Stutthof concentration camp established in Poland.
Sep. 21: Reinhard Heydrich (SS) ordered establishment of Jewish Councils and concentration of Polish Jews.
Oct: Hitler authorized "euthanasia program" in Germany. Doctors to kill institutionalized mentally and physically disabled.
Oct. 8: First Polish ghetto established.
Feb. 8: Establishment of Lodz Ghetto
Apr. 27: Heinrich Himmler(SS) ordered establishment of Auschwitz concentration camp; first prisoners, mostly Poles, arrived in early June.
Apr. 30: Lodz Ghetto sealed.
Oct. 3: Anti-Jewish laws passed by Vichy France.
Oct. 12: Establishment of Warsaw Ghetto
Mar. 1: Himmler orders construction of camp at Birkenau (Auschwitz II)
Mar. 3-20: Krakow Ghetto established and sealed.
Jun. 23: Einsatzgruppen began their mass murder of Jews, Gypsies, and Communist leaders in USSR.
Jul. 21: Herman Goering gave Heydrich the authority to prepare a "total solution" to the "Jewish question" in Europe.
Sep. 1: "Euthanasia program" in Germany ended; between 70,000 and 93,000 people had been murdered in Germany during the course of this program.
Sep. 3: The first experimental gassing of Soviet prisoners at Auschwitz.
Sep. 29-30: At Babi Yar, 33,771 Kiev Jews murdered.
Oct. - Nov: First deportation of German and Austrian Jews to ghettos in Eastern Europe.
Oct.: Construction of Majdanek-Lublin concentration camp
Nov. 1: Construction of Belzec extermination camp began.
Nov. 24: Theresienstadt concentration camp established.
Dec. 8: Gassing operations began at Chelmo extermination camp.
Jan. 20: Wannsee Conference held in suburb of Berlin. "Final Solution" coordinated and planned.
Feb. 8: First Jews from Greece sent to Auschwitz.
Mar. 28: First Jews from France sent to Auschwitz
Apr. 29: Dutch Jews ordered to wear yellow badge.
May 27: Belgium Jews ordered to wear yellow badge.
Jun. 7: Jews in occupied France ordered to wear yellow badge.
Jul.22: Treblinka extermination camp completed; by August 1943, 870,000 Jews murdered at Treblinka.
Jul. 28: Jewish fighting organization set up in Warsaw Ghetto.
Nov. 24: Knowledge of extermination of Jews of Europe publicly announced in U.S. by Rabbi Stephen S. Wise.
Jan. 18-22: First Warsaw Ghetto uprising broke out.
Apr. 19 -
May16 Warsaw Ghetto uprising; Jews resist Nazis' effort to deport them to death camps.
Jul. 21: Himmler orders the liquidation of all ghettos in Poland and USSR.
Oct. 2: Nazis attempt to round-up of Danish Jews; Danish people use boats to smuggle Danish Jews (7200) to neutral Sweden.
Apr. 7: Alfred Wetzler and Rudolf Vrba escape from Auschwitz with detailed information about the extermination of the Jews; their report, form Slovakia reaches the free world in June.
Jul. 24: Soviet army liberates Majdanek extermination camp.
Oct. 7: Prisoners blow up one of the gas chambers at Auschwitz
Jan. 17: Nazis evacuated Auschwitz; "death marches" toward Germany
Jan. 27: Soviet army liberated Auschwitz
Apr. 11: U.S. army liberated Buchenwald
Apr. 15: British army liberated Bergen-Belsen
Apr. 29: U.S. army liberated Dachau
May 3: Nazis hand over Theresienstadt to the International Red Cross
May 5: U.S. army liberated Mauthausen
Nov. 20: First major Nuremberg War Crimes Trials began