JAMES ROUND 4
1. The background of this painting depicts scenes from the Passion of Christ as a feather-duster hangs nearby. Summer is signified by a cherry tree seen through an open window in this painting, and the artist of this work signed his name and "fuit hic" in it on a back wall. A single candle is lighted on a (*) chandelier at the top of this painting, and a convex mirror reflects the central scene. A fluffy dog at the forefront of this painting and clogs lying on the floor signify the title couple's wealth, while a woman in this painting wears bright green. For 10 points, the title Italian merchant is shown holding his wife's hand in what van Eyck painting?
ANSWER: Arnolfini Wedding (accept Arnolfini Portrait; accept Arnolfini Double Portrait; accept anything else that includes Arnolfini and/or him getting hitched)
2. The stretch rule states that this quantity does not change when an object is distorted along its axis of rotation. The tensor for this quantity is symmetric, and is diagonal in some orientation, defining an object's principal axes. If this value is given for one axis of rotation it can be found for certain others using the (*) parallel axis theorem. It is calculated by summing or integrating mass times distance from an axis squared, and rotational kinetic energy is equal to this quantity times the square of the angular velocity. For 10 points, identify this quantity, the rotational analog of mass, which often has units of kilograms times meters squared, symbolized I.
ANSWER: moment of inertia
3. In one of this author's works, the narrator is married to Ilsebill and the title fish is put on trial for helping to overthrow matriarchal society. This author of The Flounder described Wolfgang Stremplin being shot by Konny Pokriefke in Crabwalk, while another of his novels describes a character with a huge Adam's apple; that character is "The Great (*) Mahlke." This author of Cat and Mouse wrote a novel about a boy who can shatter glass with his voice and decides to stop growing at the age of three. That character, Oskar Matzerath, receives the title instrument for his birthday. For 10 points, name this German author of the Danzig Trilogy and The Tin Drum.
ANSWER: Gunter Grass
4. On this peninsula, Mulhacen is the highest point on the continental portion of one of this peninsula's countries. That peak is located in the Sierra Nevada Mountains in the southern portion of this peninsula. Llanito ["Yanito"], a native language mixed with English, is the vernacular spoken in one territory on this peninsula. At Valladolid [Vaa-ya-doh-lid] on this peninsula, the Pisuerga River joins the (*) Duoro which has its mouth at Porto. The longest and second-longest rivers on this peninsula are the Tagus and Ebro, respectively. For 10 points, name this large European peninsula upon which Portugal and Spain are located.
ANSWER: Iberian Peninsula
5. During this period an attempt was made to have drivers stop at green traffic lights. A supposed attempt to overthrow one leader during this period was called Project 571, while the use of big character posters began during it. The Down to the Countryside Movement was initiated during this period in which a group including a major leader's (*) wife called the Gang of Four gained influence, though it was defeated by Deng Xiaoping. Roving students named Red Guards engaged in wanton destruction and academics were frequently attacked during this period. For 10 points, name this tumultuous period of purges of capitalist elements in China.
ANSWER: Chinese Cultural Revolution
6. One of this faith's members summarized its principles in the Tablet to the Hague. A symbol of this religion is the Ringstone. Four goals of this religion were developed in the Ten Year Crusade, and one of its leaders eulogized two brothers and attacked a critical cleric in the Epistle to the Son of the Wolf. This religion's only Guardian was (*) Shoghi Effendi. Jesus and the Bab were among the Manifestations of God in this religion whose holy text, the Book of Certitude, was written by Baha'u'llah. For 10 points, name this Persian religion centered in the Universal House of Justice in Haifa.
ANSWER: Baha'i faith
7. Synthesis of this protein is inhibited by a lack of the cofactor vitamin C; this inhibition results in scurvy. This protein contains the amino acids hydroxyproline and hydroxylysine, and glycine and proline appear at regular intervals along its length. It forms a (*) triple-helical structure and links together to form fibrils. Gelatin is derived from this protein, and long chains of this protein are found in the extracellular matrix of animal cells. This tension-bearing protein is found in connective tissue such as tendons, ligaments and bone. For 10 points, name this protein, the most common in the human body.
8. One character in this novel follows as her daughter is taken around nine villages by the Oracle of the Hills and the Caves. This novel ends with one character's neighbors refusing to touch him after he hangs himself after murdering a messenger. A seven year exile results from a disruption of the (*) Week of Peace in this novel in which Ikemefuna is killed by his adopted father. The Reverend Smith replaces the kinder missionary Mr. Brown in this novel. The protagonist had in his youth defeated Amalinze the Cat in a wrestling contest and fears looking lazy and weak like his father. For 10 points, name this novel about Okonkwo by Chinua Achebe.
ANSWER: Things Fall Apart
9. One of these conflicts contained the Battle of "The Saw" and the leader Hanno. Sacred chickens were thrown overboard before the Battle of Drepana in one of these conflicts, among which the Mercenary War is counted. A key naval battle at Mylae ["my lie"] was won in the first of these wars using the corvus ["cohr wus"], and a weak center and (*) flanking maneuver led to a rout in one battle from one of these wars. In the second of these wars battles occurred at Lake Trebia and Trasimene, and Scipio Africanus was victorious at the Battle of Zama. In that war, the Battle of Cannae was won by Hannibal. For 10 points, name these wars between Rome and Carthage.
ANSWER: Punic Wars (accept specific wars like First, Second, Third or Mercenary)
10. One form of this quantity is equal to n times R over gamma minus one. One scientist modeled solid particles as phonons to find this value proportional to temperature cubed. Beside that Debye [duh-"BYE"] model, the molar value of this quantity for crystals is 3 times R or the ideal gas constant by the (*) Dulong-Petit Law. Its general value is Q divided by dT and can be found by using bomb and coffee cup versions of an instrument. Its high value for water is 4.184 Joules, or one calorie, per gram, and can be found with calorimeters. For 10 points, name this quantity representing the amount of heat needed to raise a substance's temperature by a given amount.
ANSWER: heat capacity (accept specific heat)
11. Employees of this company have filed a class-action lawsuit after they had to wait to have their bags searched during lunch breaks. This company was accused in a Senate investigation of using the "Double Irish arrangement" to avoid paying taxes. In July, this company was convicted of leading a conspiracy to raise prices with HarperCollins and other (*) publishers. In August, the Obama administration vetoed a ban on some of this company's products which resulted after a copyright battle with Samsung. This company contracts with the Foxconn manufacturing plant in China, and its current CEO is Tim Cook. For 10 points, name this company which offers the iPhone.
ANSWER: Apple Inc.
12. Odin asks his son Vidar to give up his seat to this figure during a feast in a work named after this god's "flyting." The horse Svadilfari was unable to finish building a wall because this figure turned into a mare to distract him; that adventure led to this figure becoming the father of Odin's (*) horse, Sleipnir. This figure once lost an eating contest to fire. This figure is bound by the entrails of his son Narfi to a rock where a serpent drips poison onto his face as punishment for this god's hand in the use of mistletoe to kill Balder. For 10 points, identify this trickster god of Norse mythology.
13. The Abstract Expressionist Rabo Karabekian paints a potato barn as his final work in this author's Bluebeard. Norman Mushari attempts to obtain some of the title character's fortune by having him declared insane in this author's God Bless You, Mr. Rosewater and in another of his books, Malachi Constant visits (*) Saturn; that work is The Sirens of Titan. The science-fiction writer Kilgore Trout frequently appears in this writer's works, and Felix Hoenikker invents ice-nine in this author's book Cat's Cradle. In this writer's most famous novel, Billy Pilgrim meets Trafalmadorians and becomes "unstuck in time." For 10 points, name this author of Slaughterhouse-Five.
ANSWER: Kurt Vonnegut (accept Bluebeard before "author")
14. In a broadcast about this man, Edward Murrow claimed that a "very fine" line existed between "investigating and persecuting" This man, who was attacked on See it Now, ran for Congress with the slogan "Congress needs a tail-gunner." The Tydings committee rebuked claims this man had made in a speech given to the Republican Women's Club in (*) Wheeling, West Virginia. Joseph Welch said that he had "never really gauged [this man's] cruelty" and asked this man "Have you no sense of decency?" during hearings between this man and the U.S. Army. For 10 points, name this Wisconsin senator who claimed to have found 207 members of the Communist party in the State Department.
ANSWER: Joseph McCarthy [accept the Pepsi Cola Kid; accept Tail Gunner Joe]
15. This opera's most famous aria begins "Recitar! Mentre preso dal deirio", and was famously recorded by Enrico Caruso. A character in this opera sings "I know you hate me" while getting whipped. It begins with a baritone telling the audience that the story they are about to watch is about real people. In a play within this opera, Nedda becomes (*) Colombina, Tonio becomes Taddeo, and Canio becomes the title figure. Canio, after stabbing Nedda, ends this opera by singing "the comedy's over." For 10 points, name this verismo opera containing "Vesti la giubbia," a Ruggero Leoncavallo work about some sad clowns.
ANSWER: I Pagliacci (accept The Clowns until mentioned)
16. This man had the Temple of Friendship built to honor his sister Wilhelmine; that temple was built in the Sanssouci Park surrounding this leader's summer palace at Potsdam. This ruler fought the Potato War to prevent Hapsburg control of Bavaria and he used an oblique order to win the Battle of (*) Hohenfriedberg. This ruler corresponded with Voltaire and composed flute sonatas as part of his "enlightened despot" status. This ruler violated the Pragmatic Sanction in invading Silesia and thus initiated the War of the Austrian Succession against Maria Theresa. For 10 points, name this militaristic Hohenzollern king of Prussia termed "the Great".
ANSWER: Frederick II [accept Frederick the Great before mention; prompt on Frederick]
17. This war is the subject of the poem "Dead Man's Dump," which was written by Isaac Rosenberg. A line beginning "My subject is War, and the pity of War" adorns a memorial to people who served in this war like Siegfried Sassoon. One patriotic poem about it exhorts people to remember "That there's some (*) corner of a field / That is for ever England." That poem, "The Soldier," is contrasted with a darker poem which asks "What passing-bells for these who die as cattle?"; that poem is "Anthem for Doomed Youth." "Dulce Et Decorum Est" is a poem by Wilfred Owen about, for 10 points, a poison gas attack in what war?
ANSWER: World War I or WWI (or the Great War)
18. The direction of these entities is explained by the Ekman spiral, in which they travel at an angle to the frictional forces which form them. These entities have a "boundary" type, while their circular types are called gyres. Though they are not winds, these entities are angled by the (*) Coriolis force. A misnomer for one type of this entity is the rip tide, while other prominent examples include ones called the equatorial and the "surface" type. These entities transport energy and heat as they travel across the globe. The Gulf Stream is an example of, for 10 points, what directed flows of fluid found in the ocean?
ANSWER: ocean current (accept gyres and other specific currents before they are read)
19. Raymond Cattell theorized this concept's crystallized and fluid forms. L. L. Thurstone's seven clusters, Robert Sternberg's triarchic theory, and Charles Spearman's general g-factor are all theories of this phenomenon. Howard Gardner proposed eight (*) "multiple" forms of this ability which included naturalist, bodily-kinesthetic, and spatial. The Stanford-Binet test measures this ability, while another measure of it compares two types of ages and is averaged at 100. Savants may have an exceptionally high number for, for 10 points, a namesake quotient measuring what concept of how smart someone is?
20. Near the end of this film, the brief flash of a skull overlays the transition between a scene with a fly crawling over a hand and a car being dragged out of a swamp. Swirling blood transitions into an eye in a scene from this film that is accommodated by (*) piercing strings music. After one character in this film discovers a mummified body, the antagonist runs in wearing a dress and a wig in a state of split-personality. Near the end of this film, it is revealed the antagonist had faked being his own mother. For 10 points, Marion Crane is killed while showering by the motel owner Norman Bates in what Hitchcock thriller?
21. Results of this event included Coode's Rebellion and the overthrow of Francis Nicholson in Leisler's Rebellion. It was caused by policies like the Declaration of Indulgence and the attempted repeal of the Test Act. An expedition involved in this was started by the Declaration of the Hague. The only battle during this event was at Reading, but it would lead to the Dundee Revolt in Scotland and the Battle of the (*) Boyne in Ireland. As a result of this event, the English Bill of Rights was passed. For 10 points, name this 1688 event in which James II was deposed by Stadtholder William of Orange, also called the Bloodless Revolution.
ANSWER Glorious Revolution (also accept Revolution of 1688 or Bloodless Revolution before it is read)
22. One character in this novel convinces Nightingale to marry his love Nancy while rooming with Mrs. Miller. The philosopher Square and the reverend Thwackum tutor this novel's protagonist along with his rival and unknown stepbrother Blifil. The protagonist first loves Black George's daughter Molly Seagrim and then has an affair with Mrs. Waters, who is revealed to be his supposed mother (*) Jenny Jones, but it is later revealed that Bridget is in fact his mother. Squire Allworthy raises the title character, who eventually marries Sophia Western. For 10 points, name this novel by Henry Fielding about a foundling.
ANSWER: The History of Tom Jones, A Foundling
1. The study of this concept is titled epistemology. For 10 points each:
 Identify this concept which may be understood as justified true belief. Solipsism holds that the possession of it outside one's own mind is unsure.
 The experiment of putting this bodily organ in a vat also undermines the certainty of knowledge. In the experiment, a mad scientist sends false images to the neurons of this object, though it doesn't know that.
 This philosopher and epistemologist claimed that knowledge was objective. He was also known for his political tract, The Open Society and Its Enemies.
ANSWER: Karl Popper
2. The League of Cambrai was formed in opposition to this city. For 10 points each:
 Name this city famed for its leaders known as doges [pronounced "doajes"] and its gondoliers, who travel along its many canals.
ANSWER: Venice [accept Venezia]
 The leaders of Venice convinced the Fourth Crusade to sack this city; an action that Innocent III disapproved of. Isaac II Angelos regained control of this city because of the Fourth Crusade.
 This blind doge was responsible for convincing the crusaders to attack Zara and Constantinople. He was already 90 years old when he led the Fourth Crusade.
ANSWER: Enrico Dandolo
3. Plants in this biome are specially adapted to survive while submerged in water. For 10 points each:
 Name this biome, which is characterized by soil that is saturated with water. Examples include swamps, marshes, and bogs.
 Flooding in wetlands prevents decomposition, resulting in the formation of this material. It is commonly burned as a source of fuel and a major component of it is Sphagnum moss.
 Wetlands also filter excess nutrients from water supplies, helping to prevent this process. This process involves algae blooms, which result in hypoxic conditions that can kill fish and other animals.
4. Patrick White is a writer from this country who detailed an expedition into the Outback in his novel Voss. For 10 points each:
 Name this country of origin for Thomas Keneally, who wrote about an Aborigine in The Chant of Jimmie Blacksmith.
ANSWER: Commonwealth of Australia
 Keneally is best known for this novel about a factory owner who protects Jews from Amon Goeth during the Holocaust.
ANSWER: Schindler's Ark (do not accept "Schindler's List")
 This other Australian author described a bet to transport a glass church in Oscar and Lucinda and recreated the life of an Australian outlaw in True History of the Kelly Gang.
ANSWER: Peter Carey
5. His most famous sculptures are made out of marble or bronze, and depict the title animal in motion. For 10 points each:
 Name this Romanian sculptor whose most famous series, Bird in Space, was famously taxed by U.S. Customs because they did not consider them art.
ANSWER: Constantin Brancusi
 Brancusi also created an "Endless" one of these structures. The Greek types of this architectural structure include Doric, Ionian, and Corinthian.
 A phallic looking Brancusi sculpture is titled as a "Princess" with this letter. This letter also appears in the title of a painting of a woman in a tight black dress.
ANSWER: X (accept Princess X; accept Portrait of Madame X)
6. An object used during the title event spends time in the post office, on a shelf in Mr. Martin's grocery store, and in Mr. Grave's barn. For 10 points each:
 Name this short story in which Tessie Hutchinson cries "It isn't fair" as she is stoned to death.
ANSWER: The Lottery
 This author wrote The Lottery. She is well known as a writer of the Gothic genre, examples of which include her haunted house book The Haunting of Hill House.
ANSWER: Shirley Jackson
 Shirley Jackson also wrote this book in which Merricat Blackwood lives with her sister Constance in the title construct, a house which looks "turreted and open to the sky" when it burns down.
ANSWER: We Have Always Lived in the Castle
7. Though many uninformed people believe that Canada is one of the 51 United States of America, it is in fact its own nation with its own subdivisions, provinces and territories. For 10 points each:
 Name this province which is the largest by population and includes the cities of Toronto and Ottawa.
 This province borders Ontario to the west and includes the city of Winnipeg.
 This territory borders Manitoba on the north and was carved out of the Northwest Territories in 1999.
8. This function often occurs in combinatorics, and it of n gives the number of permutations of n objects. For 10 points:
 Identify this function, represented by an exclamation point, which for a positive integer is the product of that integer and all those positive integers less than it.
 The factorial of this value is defined to be one, as applying the definition of the factorial to it results in an empty product.
 This function generalizes the factorial function for all positive real and complex values, and is analytic everywhere except negative integers and zero. It of n is not equal to the factorial of n, but rather is equal to the factorial of n-1.
ANSWER: gamma function
9. This country was once known as Abyssinia. For 10 points each,
 Name this country that was invaded twice by Italy, the second time by Mussolini in World War II. It has its capital at Addis Ababa.
ANSWER: Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia
 This Emperor of Ethiopia is the Messiah of the Rastafari movement, leading to him being mobbed by a crowd of thousands when he visited Jamaica.
ANSWER: Haile Selassie I
 During the first invasion of Ethiopia, Italy was decisively defeated at this battle, in which Menelik II was victorious over Oreste Baratieri.
ANSWER: Battle of Adwa or Adowa or Adua
10. Creating a special platinum one of these objects was suggested to avoid hitting the debt ceiling. For 10 points each:
 Name these objects of value which in America usually have denominations under a dollar. Quarters and dimes are examples.
ANSWER: coinage or coins
 Along with banknotes, coins are labeled under this term, which should not be confused with another term that also includes the balances in bank checking and saving accounts.
ANSWER: currency (do not accept or prompt on "money")
 In measuring money supply, the Federal Reserve keeps track of these two aggregates. Name either.
ANSWER: M1 or M2
11. This work discusses the concepts of Virtù and Fortuna. For 10 points each:
 Name this work which at one point essentially says that the end justifies the means. It is by the same author of the Discourses on Livy and is considered a work of realpolitik.
ANSWER: The Prince (or Il Principe)
 The Prince is a work by this Italian statesman.
ANSWER: Niccolò di Bernardo dei Machiavelli
 In chapter XVIII, Machiavelli says that one must be like two beasts. The first is the fox, which can frighten off wolves, and the second is this one, which can recognize traps.
12. This man's Secretary of State, Philander Knox, pursued a policy of "dollar diplomacy" with regards to Latin America. For 10 points each:
 Name this president who claimed that the Payne-Aldrich tariff was the "best tariff bill ever passed" in his Winona Speech. He later served as Chief Justice of the Supreme Court.
ANSWER: William Howard Taft
 The vote for Taft was split in 1912 because this man, Taft's predecessor, decided to run on the Bull Moose Party ticket. This trust-buster based his Square Deal around the "three Cs."
ANSWER: Theodore Roosevelt [accept Teddy Roosevelt; accept TR; prompt on "Roosevelt"]
 Taft had angered Roosevelt by siding with Richard Ballinger, who held this cabinet position, during the Pinochet-Ballinger affair. The first person to hold this position was Thomas Ewing, who held it under Taylor.
ANSWER: Secretary of the Interior
13. One of these pieces opens its first movement with a grave section and is nicknamed Pathétique. For 10 points each:
 Name these 32 compositions by a German composer. Other examples include the Appassionata and Waldstein ones.
ANSWER: Ludwig van Beethoven's piano sonatas (prompt on "piano sonata")
 This sonata, Beethoven's 14th, is subtitled "quasi una fantasia" and was nicknamed for a celestial phenomenon reflecting off Lake Lucerne.
ANSWER: Moonlight Sonata
 This sonata is acknowledged to be one of the hardest pieces ever written for solo piano, and its nickname simply refers to the German word for piano rather than any particularly forceful playing.
ANSWER: Hammerklavier Sonata (or Piano Sonata No. 29 in B-flat Major)
14. The "rubbing" type of this substance is denatured to prevent human consumption. For 10 points:
 Identify this class of organic molecules which include hydroxyl groups. An example of this class of compounds is ethanol, found in wine and beer.
 This other class of organic molecules also includes a hydroxyl group, in this case attached to the same carbon as a double-bonded oxygen. A reaction of this type of molecule with an alcohol can produce fragrant compounds.
ANSWER: carboxylic acids (accept carboxyls)
 This is the class of organic compounds formed from the reaction of an alcohol and a carboxylic acid. One reaction producing them is named for Fischer, and requires an acid catalyst.
15. For 10 points each, name some pharaohs of Upper and Lower Egypt:
 The Great Sphinx and the Great Pyramid were both built for this Old Kingdom pharaoh.
ANSWER: Khufu (or Cheops)
 This pharaoh is best known for rejecting the sun god Ra in favor of his namesake deity. His consort was Nefertiti.
ANSWER: Akhenaten (or Amenhotep IV; prompt on "Amenhotep")
 The tomb of this son of Akhenaten was discovered by Howard Carter and George Herbert in the Valley of Kings at Luxor. This child pharaoh died when he was about 19.
ANSWER: Tutankhamun or King Tut (or Tutankhaten)
16. Incarnations of this superhero have included Jay Garrick and Barry Allen. For 10 points each:
 Name this "Scarlet Speedster" from the DC Comics universe who posses super-speed and has a lightning bolt insignia.
 This third incarnation of the Flash took over after Barry Allen was killed during the Crisis on Infinite Earths. He was the nephew of Barry's wife Iris.
ANSWER: Wally West
 This enemy of the Flash uses a freeze-ray type gun to fight. His real name is Leonard Snart.
ANSWER: Captain Cold
17. He wrote a long essay on the nature of poetic myth titled The White Goddess. For 10 points each:
 Name this British writer who in one novel depicted a character with a limp visiting the Sibyl of Cumae.
ANSWER: Robert Graves
 Graves is best known for this novel about the previously described emperor in which he survives amid political intrigue by pretending to be a harmless idiot.
ANSWER: I, Claudius
 Claudius was an emperor from this empire which Edward Gibbons wrote about the "Decline and Fall of."
ANSWER: Rome (accept word forms)
18. He depicted his half-brother playing with his pet squirrel. For 10 points each:
 What colonial artist painted a man aiming a harpoon at an aquatic beast in Havana Harbor in Watson and the Shark?
ANSWER: John Singleton Copley
 The other colonial artist Gilbert Stuart painted the Lansdowne portrait of this man. Stuart's unfinished Athenaeum portrait of this man is on the one dollar bill.
ANSWER: George Washington
 This colonial artist showed an American Indian sitting hunched by the title figure in The Death of General Wolfe.
ANSWER: Benjamin West
19. The circuit diagram symbol for this component is a triangle and a line. For 10 points each:
 Name this electrical component that allow current flow in one direction. They have a light emitting type.
ANSWER: diode (accept light emitting diode; prompt on "LED")
 Diodes usually consist of this type of junction in which two halves of a semiconductor are doped differently.
ANSWER: p-n junction
 The bipolar junction type of these other electrical components tend to have PNP and NPN types. They also have field-effect types.
20. For 10 points each, name these gods and goddesses of love:
 This Roman God of desire and affection is the son of Venus. He is often contrasted with the Greek Eros and usually is depicted as an archer with arrows of gold which cause people to fall in love.
 Associated with love, music, dance, and motherhood this cow-headed Egyptian goddess is said to hold up the sky.
 This Hindu god of love and affection was burned by Shiva's third eye after a fight and rides a parrot.
21. One religious member of this family is depicted chained up next to Charles V in one cartoon. For 10 points each:
 Name this family that has produced such popes as Clement VII and Leo X.
ANSWER: de' Medici
 This grandson of Cosimo de Medici became known as "the Magnificent" for his expertise in ruling and contributions to art. He narrowly survived the Pazzi Conspiracy that killed his brother Giuliano.
ANSWER: Lorenzo de' Medici or Lorenzo the Magnificent
 After a public uprising in Florence against the Medici, this friar took control of the new republic. He led the burning of books at the Bonfire of the Vanities.
ANSWER: Girolamo Savonarola
22. This group of organisms is not actually a clade, but instead contains all eukaryotes that do not fit in Animalia, Plantae, or Fungi. For 10 points each:
 Name this paraphyletic kingdom, which includes ciliates, amoebae, and certain algae.
ANSWER: Protista or protists
 Some protists, including amoebae, move by means of these structures, which form by projection of the cytoplasm.
ANSWER: pseudopods or pseudopodia
 This group of protists are characterized by a boxlike cell wall composed of silica. They are the most common kind of phytoplankton, and some store energy in the form of oil.