The War to End War, 1917-1918
IV. SINGLE-ANSWER MULTIPLE CHOICE.
Mark the one best answer for each of the following questions.
1. President Wilson broke diplomatic relations with Germany when
a. the Zimmermann note was intercepted and made public.
b. Germany announced that it would wage unrestricted submarine warfare in the Atlantic.
c. news was received that a revolutionary movement had overthrown the czarist regime in Russia.
d. Germany rejected Wilson’s Fourteen Points for peace.
e. it appeared that the German army would take Paris.
2. The Zimmermann note involved a proposed secret agreement between
a. Britain and France.
b. Russia and Germany.
c. Germany and Mexico.
d. Mexico and France.
e. Germany and Canada.
3. The United States declared war on Germany
a. in response to demands by American munitions makers.
b. as a result of treaty obligations.
c. because Wall Street bankers demanded it.
d. after Mexico signed an alliance with Germany.
e. after German U-boats sank four unarmed American merchant vessels.
4. President Woodrow Wilson persuaded the American people to enter World War I by
a. appealing to America’s tradition of intervention in Europe.
b. convincing the public of the need to make the world safe from the German submarine.
c. pledging to make the war “a war to end all wars” and to make the world safe for democracy.
d. promising territorial gains.
e. declaring that only the navy would be involved in combat.
5. President Wilson viewed America’s entry into World War I as an opportunity for the United States to
a. reestablish the balance of power in European diplomacy.
b. expand America’s territorial holdings.
c. rebuild its dangerously small military and naval forces.
d. establish a permanent military presence in Europe.
e. shape a new international order based on the ideals of democracy.
6. Which one of the following was not among Wilson’s Fourteen Points upon which he based America’s idealistic foreign policy in World War I?
a. reduction of armaments.
b. international religious freedom and toleration.
c. abolition of secret treaties.
d. a new international organization to guarantee collective security.
e. the principle of national self-determination for subject peoples.
7. The major problem for George Creel and his Committee on Public Information was that
a. he oversold Wilson’s ideals and led the world to expect too much.
b. he relied too much on formal laws and military force to gain compliance.
c. the entertainment industry was not willing to go along with the propaganda campaign.
d. U.S. allies refused to cooperate.
e. the public was skeptical of government propaganda.
8. Match each civilian administrator below with the World War 1mobilization agency that he directed.
A. George Creel 1. War Industries Board
B. Herbert Hoover 2. Committee on Public Information
C. Bernard Baruch 3. Food Administration
D. William Howard Taft 4. National War Labor Board
a. A-4, B-1, C-3, D-2
b. A-2, B-4, C-1, D-3
c. A-3, B-2, C-1, D-4
d. A-2, B-3, C-1, D-4
e. A-1, B-2, C-4, D-3
9. When the United States entered World War I, it was
a. well prepared thanks to the foresight of Woodrow Wilson.
b. well prepared militarily but not industrially.
c. well prepared for land combat but not for naval warfare.
d. well prepared industrially but not militarily.
e. poorly prepared to leap into global war.
10. During World I, civil liberties in America were
a. protected by the Espionage Act.
b. limited, but no one was actually imprisoned for his or her convictions.
c. extended to everyone in this country, because the war was fought for democracy.
d. protected for everyone except German Americans.
e. denied to many, especially those suspected of disloyalty.
11. Two constitutional amendments adopted in part because of wartime influences were the Eighteenth, which dealt with __________ and the Nineteenth, whose subject was __________.
a. prohibition; an income tax
b. direct election of senators; woman suffrage
c. prohibition; woman suffrage
d. an income tax; direct election of senators
e. women suffrage; prohibition
12. As a result of their work supporting the war effort, women
a. in large numbers secured a foothold in the work force
b. finally received the right to vote.
c. were allowed to join the air force.
d. organized the National Women’s Party.
e. all of the above.
13. During World War I
, the government’s treatment of labor could be best described as
b. strict and financially unrewarding.
c. extremely brutal.
d. so good the right to form unions was finally granted.
e. decent for native Americans but harsh for ethnic groups.
14. The two groups who suffered most from the violation of civil liberties during World War I were
a. Catholics and atheists.
b. Irish Americans and Japanese Americans.
c. African Americans and Latinos.
d. labor unions and women’s groups.
e. German Americans and social radicals.
15. Grievances of labor during and shortly after World War I include all of the following except
a. the inability to gain the right to organize.
b. war-spawned inflation.
c. suppression of the American Federation of Labor
d. violence against workers by employers.
e. the use of African Americans as strikebreakers.
16. The 191 9 steel strike resulted in
a. the eight-hour workday.
b. the right to bargain collectively.
c. higher wages.
d. a grievous setback crippling the union movement for a decade.
e. a “general strike” in Seattle and Pittsburgh.
17. The movement of tens of thousands of Southern blacks north during WWI resulted in
a. better race relations in the South.
b. racial violence in the North.
c. fewer blacks willing to be used as strikebreakers.
d. a new black middle class.
e. all of the above.
18. Most wartime mobilization agencies relied on __________ to prepare the economy for war.
a. congressional legislation
b. voluntary compliance
c. presidential edict
d. court decisions
e. business trade organizations.
19. Most of the money raised to finance World War I came from
a. confiscation of German property.
b. income taxes.
d. sale of armaments to Britain and France.
e. loans from the American public.
20. In an effort to make economic mobilization more efficient during World War I, the federal government took over and operated
a. the railroads.
b. the merchant marine
c. the telephone and telegraph system.
d. American agriculture.
e. the steel mills.
21. The United States used all of the following methods to support the war effort except
a. forcing some people to buy war bonds.
b. having “heatless Mondays” to conserve fuel.
c. using government power extensively to regulate the economy.
d. seizing enemy merchant vessels trapped in American harbors.
e. restricting the manufacture of beer.
22. The World War I military draft
a. generally worked fairly and effectively to provide military manpower.
b. caused widespread resistance and riots.
c. permitted men to purchase substitutes to go in their place.
d. included women as well as men.
e. was not as fair as the Civil War draft.
23. When the United States entered the war in 1917, most Americans did not believe that
a. the navy was obligated to defend freedom of the seas.
b. it would be necessary to continue making loans to the Allies.
c. the United States would have to ship war materials to the Allies.
d. mobilization for war should be largely voluntary.
e. it would be necessary to send a large American army to Europe.
24. Those who protested conscription during World War I did so because
a. they disliked the idea of compelling a person to serve.
b. the law required the registration of sixteen-year-old males.
c. women were included in the draft law.
d. substitutes could be hired to take someone’s place.
e. there was racial discrimination in the military.
25. During World War I, American troops fought in all of the following countries except
26. The two major
battles of World War I in which United States forces engaged were
a. Ypres and the Ardennes Forest.
b. Verdun and the Somme.
c. Gallipoli and Locarno.
d. Jutland and Trafalgar.
e. St. Mihiel and the Meuse-Argonne Offensive.
27. Russia’s withdrawal from World War I in 1918 resulted in
a. a communist takeover of that country.
b. the United States’ entry into the war.
c. the release of thousands of German troops for deployment on the front in France.
d. Germany’s surrender to the Allies.
e. a setback for the idea of a “war for democracy.”
28. The supreme military commander of American forces during World War I was
a. Theodore Roosevelt, Jr.
b. John J. Pershing
c. Marshal Foch.
d. Eddie Rickenbacker.
e. Dwight D. Eisenhower.
29. The Second Battle of the Marne was significant because it
a. was the first time American troops saw action in France.
b. forced the Kaiser to abdicate.
c. was the first time American troops fought by themselves.
d. saw the first use of combat aircraft.
e. marked the beginning of a German withdrawal that was never reversed.
30. As a condition of ending World War I, Woodrow Wilson demanded that
a. Germany remove its army from Russia.
b. Germany be present at the peace conference.
c. the German government pay for war damages.
d. the German Kaiser be forced from power.
e. Germany accept guilt for the war.
31. The United States’ main contributions to the Allied victory in World War I included all of the following except
a. battlefield victories.
e. financial credit.
32. The Germans were heavily demoralized by
a. the United States’ military performance.
b. their defeat at the Battle of Meuse-Argonne.
c. the United States’ unlimited troop reserves.
d. Russia’s entry into the war.
e. American propaganda.
33. The chief difference between Woodrow Wilson and the parliamentary statesmen at the Paris peace table was that Wilson
a. lacked their popularity in Europe.
b. did not command a legislative majority at home.
c. brought some of his political opponents with him.
d. refused to play politics with the peace powers.
e. was not popular with his own people.
34. Woodrow Wilson’s ultimate goal at the Paris Peace Conference was to
a. stop the spread of communism.
b. blame no one for starting the war.
c. force Germany to pay reparations for the war
d. establish the League of Nations.
e. destroy the Austrian and Russian empires.
35. At the Paris Peace Conference
, Wilson sought all of the following goals except
a. preventing a seizure of territory by the victors.
b. an end to the European colonial empires in Africa and Asia.
c. a world parliament of nations to provide collective security.
d. national self-determination for smaller European nations.
e. free trade and freedom of the seas.
36. Opposition to the League of Nations by many United States Senators during the Paris Peace Conference
a. gave Allied leaders in Paris a stronger bargaining position.
b. resulted in the League’s being left out of the final draft of the treaty.
c. led to an abandonment of the Monroe Doctrine.
d. reinforced Germany’s unwillingness to sign the treaty.
e. forced Wilson to weaken the League idea.
37. After the Treaty of Versailles had been signed, Woodrow Wilson
a. remained a popular leader.
b. was condemned by both disillusioned liberals and frustrated nationalists and imperialists.
c. was more popular in Europe than in the United States.
d. realized that he had made too many compromises.
e. planned a shrewd strategy for gaining Senate approval.
38. In the United States
, the most controversial aspect of the Treaty of Versailles was
a. arms limitation.
b. open diplomacy.
c. the permanent U.S. alliance with France.
d. self-determination of peoples.
e. Article X.
39. The initial Republican strategy regarding the Treaty of Versailles was to
a. delay and amend the treaty.
b. defeat the treaty.
c. support the treaty and then sabotage the League of Nations.
d. rush the treaty to a vote before Wilson could get enough support to pass it.
e. make the election of 1920 a “solemn referendum” on the treaty.
40. Senate opponents of the League of Nations as proposed in the Treaty of Versailles argued that it
a. failed to provide enough German financial reparations to the United States.
b. violated Wilson’s own Fourteen Points.
c. robbed Congress of its war-declaring powers.
d. isolated the United States from postwar world affairs.
e. was not fair enough to oppressed colonial peoples.
41. In Congress, the most reliable support for Wilson’s position on the League of Nations came from
a. Henry Cabot Lodge.
b. pro-league Republicans.
c. the irreconcilables.
d. Midwestern senators.
42. The Senate likely would have accepted American participation in the League of Nations if Wilson had
a. stuck to the principles of his own Fourteen Points.
b. guaranteed that American troops would never be used in League peacemaking operations.
c. actively campaigned for support from the American public.
d. been willing to compromise with League opponents in Congress.
e. run for re-election and won on a pro-League platform.
43. Who was finally most
responsible for the Senate defeat of the Treaty of Versailles?
a. Henry Cabot Lodge
b. Woodrow Wilson
44. Woodrow Wilson’s call for a “solemn referendum” in 1920 referred to
a. his decision to seek a third term as president.
b. his belief in the moral unfitness of Warren G. Harding for the presidency.
c. his belief that the presidential election should determine the fate of the Treaty of Versailles.
d. the role of women as first-time voters in the 1920 election.
e. a proposed constitutional amendment authorizing the League.
45. Republican isolationists successfully turned Warren Harding’s 1920 presidential victory into a
a. mandate for international arms reduction.
b. victory for idealism and social tolerance.
c. guarantee of U.S. military withdrawal from Latin America.
d. crusade against Bolshevik communism.
e. death sentence for the League of Nations.
46. The major weakness of the League of Nations was that it
a. had no military power.
b. did not include the Soviet Union.
c. was used by Adolf Hitler to gain power.
d. did not include the United States.
e. permitted a veto by the great powers.