The Nineteenth Century #1
The island of Haiti was a major center of sugar production for France. The French called the island ________________. It was actually the slaves who called it __________. Saint Domingue’s population consisted of 40,000 white French slave-owners, 30,000 gens de couleur (free people of color) and 500,000 black slaves. These slaves worked under brutal conditions, and the mortality rate was very high. There was also a large community of escaped slaves who lived in the mountains called ________.
At the start of the French Revolution, the Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen abolished slavery. However, the slave-owners on the island and the local militia decided to disobey this law and not free any slaves.
A slave revolt began in 1791 with French soldiers and white settlers fighting against the gens de couleur and the slaves. The leader of the slave army was a man named _________________ who had learned to read and write while in slavery. L’ouverture and his army defeated the French militia and quickly proclaimed independence. Unfortunately, the British government thought Haiti could be conquered and its people re-enslaved. So, a fleet of British ships invaded Haiti and a new war began against the British Empire. Again the fighting was brutal and again the former slaves won. The defeated British left and by 1803, the Haitian government established independence.
L’ouverture’s success in fighting the French and British made Haiti only the second nation in the Americas to achieve independence after the USA. The independence created a democratic system. Unfortunately, many nations including the United States of America refused to conduct trade with the new Haiti.
Latin American Revolution
After the American Revolution, South American creoles began to make more demands for independence. The Spanish government refused. Then, in 1800, Napoleon Bonaparte and his French army invaded Spain. The Spanish king fled for his safety along with his government.
The creoles used this as their chance to declare independence. The man who organized this independence movement was _______________. He was a creole officer and he created an army to declare independence and fight the Spanish troops still located there. Bolivar dreamed of a giant South American republic that practiced democracy and maintained freedom from Europe. After the fall of Napoleon, the Spanish government sent more troops to fight Bolivar. Bolivar had created his own army but also worked with local soldiers led by other creole generals from specific regions called ______________. After more than a decade of fighting, Bolivar and the caudillos finally defeated the Spanish troops. With that victory, the creoles replaced the peninsulares as the dominant power in South America.
The victory over Spain provided little relief to Bolivar. The general had defeated the Spanish but soon found that local caudillos didn’t want to give up their power. Bolivar had wanted a massive nation that covered all of Spanish speaking South America but the caudillos wanted smaller nations to rule as dictators. Ultimately, this is exactly what happened. Bolivar’s dream of a large democratic republic collapsed. The many caudillos who had once fought with him, now rebelled from him and created smaller nations like Venezuela, Ecuador and Peru.
There would be no real democracy for South America for more than a century. Bolivar never gave up trying to unify South America, but in the end he was deserted by his army and with only a handful of supporters, Bolivar spent the final years of his life as an outcast until he died of malaria in 1830 at the age of 47.
The Unification of Germany and Italy
In 1862, __________________ unified all the German states and made Prussia the most dominant. Bismarck was not the king of the new Germany but only the prime minister. The king was Wilhelm Hohenzollern or Wilhelm I. The king or kaiser new that he lacked the shrewd political thinking of Bismarck so he let him build Germany without interruptions. After Bismarck unified Germany, he gained the support of the people by winning a war against France and establishing retirement pensions and health care for the people. Bismarck did not believe in democracy but he knew he would need the working people’s support as he started massive industrialization projects in an effort to catch up with Britain. Bismarck also believed in a strong, powerful central government with a military to support it.
In 1870, a revolutionary leader named ________________ unified Italy under King Victor Emmanuel II. He basically used his army to fight the armies of local city-states and force them to unify. Italy established a democratic government with a legislative body to make laws and the king to act as executive.
Both Germany and Italy were able to unify without the massive wealth of a king or a dictator because they had the support of the common people behind them. This is called _____________ and it’s a simple notion based on the idea that people love their country. That’s something people would never have said when absolute monarchs ruled the land. Nationalism began in America with the creation of the United States and it moved to France during the revolution.
In the 1800s, a German Jew named _______________ began to promote an idea wherein Jews would reclaim the ancient homeland of the Jewish people of Judea and Israel. By the 1800s, the region was called Palestine. Of course, the purpose behind this was to escape the anti-Semitism that was all over Europe. The movement grew, but it wouldn’t be until World War I that it would be taken seriously by politicians in Europe.
In 1781, the ________________ was invented by _____________. The steam engine ran on burning coal that heated water, and the steam pressure then pushed against a metal piece called a piston. The piston forced a drive rod to push against metal and move it. This is the high point in what we call the Industrial Revolution.
Of course, there were dozens of other inventions that were important but what is most relevant is that it was Britain where these inventions began. Britain was a good place for the industrial revolution to start. It had enough coal and iron ore to produce energy and steel and it had a large population of people to produce those goods. There was also a considerable amount of capital (wealth) that could finance the building of factories and machinery. Much of this wealth had been acquired in connection to the Atlantic Slave Trade.
The British also began to experiment with better forms of crop rotation as well as creating farm tools like the ______________ that planted crops faster than before.
Textiles (cloth) were important for trade by British merchants. Mechanized cotton weaving machines with names like the __________________ and the ____________ ____________ greatly increased the output of a worker.
In America, cotton was hardly grown because it was so difficult to remove the seeds from the tangled cotton boll which is what makes the thread. _______________ invented the ______________ in 1807 which separated the cotton from the seeds using a machine. The cotton gin increased productivity of removing seed from cotton by a factor of 50. Overnight, cotton became the dominant crop in the American South. It also replaced tobacco and corn as the dominant trade goods from America. Because of slave labor, the cotton growing plantation owners could sell their cotton on the market cheaper than cotton from its native India.
Other nations were involved in the Industrial Revolution as well. Germany and France both mined for coal and iron ore in their river valleys where coal and iron was in abundance.
In the 1700s, the Netherlands began to process of reclaiming land from the sea. As more and more land was now made available, the Dutch states were able to grow crops and build larger ships to maintain their massive fleet which controlled the Dutch East Indies (Indonesia) and Ceylon (Sri Lanka).
In 1776, ________________ published a book called the _______________ in England. It opposed the idea of mercantilism and the idea that governments have the right to set prices on average things. Smith said that if the buyers and sellers work in their own best interest, they will reach an agreement on the best price for an object. Smith called this the “________________” of economics. Smith said the king’s method of setting prices on all goods was obsolete! The first nation to adopt capitalism was the United States of America. The British adopted the policy soon after. An extreme form of Capitalism is called _______________ which argues that there should be no government interference at all. Unfortunately, this opened the door for corrupt business owners to create unsafe work locations and jobs for the workers.
Changes in European Society
Family structure changed dramatically during the European Industrial Revolution. For working class / poor families, not only did a husband work in the factories and the machine shops but the wives and children did as well. This is because workers were moving to the cities and towns of industries in search of better work. What they found were low wages and high food and rent. There was no time for the education of children when the family needed them to work in the mines or factories or mills.
If a husband made enough money to be considered “______________,” the wife was expected to stay at home and maintain a respectable image. This was called the “_______________________.”
In the 1800s, a “_________________” was created where workers used machinery to produce products like cloth or even railroad trains. The key to the success of the factory system was that many different _______________________ were used to make something; that way, if a steam engine developed trouble, only a few parts would be needed instead of an entire steam engine.
As a result of industrialization, a new __________________ emerged. Industrial nations needed raw materials from other lands. There was a need for ____________ from America, India and Egypt, and ___________ from Brazil and the African Congo.
We call products grown on a farm that are meant to be sold overseas as cash crops. Latin America, Sub-Saharan Africa, South Asia, and Southeast Asia became dependent on exporting cash crop products to the industrialized nations, but established little or no industrialization themselves. Most of the profits from these cash crops went abroad, and wealth was concentrated in the hands of the few. Another product with cash crops is that there is little farmland left to grow crops to feed to local population.
Child labor existed before the Industrial Revolution but with the growth in industry, it became more visible. Many children were forced to work in relatively bad conditions for much lower pay than their elders, 10%-20% of an adult male's wage. Children as young as four were employed. Beatings and long hours were common, with some child coal miners working from 4am until 5pm. Conditions were dangerous, with some children killed when they dozed off and fell into the path of the carts, while others died from gas explosions. Many children developed lung cancer and other diseases and died before the age of 25. Workhouses for orphan children would sell them as "pauper apprentices," working for just board and lodging. Those who ran away would be whipped and returned to their masters, with some masters shackling them to the walls. Children employed as mule scavengers by cotton mills would crawl under machinery to pick up cotton, working 14 hours a day, six days a week. Some lost hands or limbs and others were crushed. Young girls who worked at matchstick factories, suffered because inhaling white phosphorus fumes would cause the deterioration of calcium in the face and jawbones.
The Industrial Revolution Continues
The creation of the steam engine led to the creation of steam ships and steam locomotive trains. Many industrialized nations built special __________ that cut through the land for barges to send raw materials from the seaport to the inland factory. Then in turn, finished goods went from the factory on barges to the seaport and awaiting ships.
By the late 1800s, the coal fired steam engine was replaced by the ___________ _________________ which used oil to fire the pistons and drive rods. Thus, by 1900, oil was replacing coal and becoming the driving force of industry.
The telegraph and telephone also sped up communication in industrialized nations like Britain, America, France, Germany and the Netherlands.
Talk of Rebellion by the Poor
As the 1800s progressed, beliefs in the Enlightenment were put aside by many. The desire to acquire wealth became the overwhelming passion of factory owners who competed amongst themselves to build the most massive home or have the most lavish parties. In contrast, the conditions in the factories and machine shops were always dangerous and had always led to long term health problems. The cost of living might rise but the salary of a factory worker would not. As tensions grew between the owners and workers, a series of reform movements began among the workers. Where once kings had controlled the power and wealth, it was now in the hands of the _________________ (upper middle class and upper class).
In England during the 1840s, a German immigrant named ______________ invented a philosophy called ______________. Communism was a political belief where the working people rebelled against the governments that supported the ultra-rich bourgeoisie. Marx said that if the people took over the government, they could make laws to divide wealth amongst the people. Marx believed that if the people owned a stake in the businesses, then they would work harder. Eventually, the people would get rid of government altogether and create a utopian society. Marx believed that the only way for Communism to establish itself was through revolution.
A popular economic system among the workers was called ____________. The idea was that taxes on the bourgeoisie would be used by the government to provide assistance for the poor and sick. Karl Marx supported most of these socialist ideas but felt violent revolution was a necessity and that taxation wasn’t enough! Many government did begin to take tax dollars in the 19th century and use it for socialist systems. Governments expanded to pay for fire departments and police stations as well as public libraries and even museums.
Some workers in factories began to create ______________. Their argument was that if the workers united together and refused to work or “strike,” they could force the bosses to raise their wages or make the job site safer. When workers did go on strike, the owners would call the local authorities for help who in turn would send the army to break up the protest. Fights between strikers and troops led to many tragedies. Sometimes the strikes were mildly successful but most of the time they were not.