Israel and the Arab World Creation of Israel



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NOTES: Crisis and Conflict in MENA

Israel and the Arab World

Creation of Israel

_______________- Political movement for a Jewish homeland. Jews to return to “__________________________.

Organized by _________________________ in 1897.



Why? Jews faced persecution and genocide throughout their history.

Jews slowly moved to _____________________ in 1890’s – 1930’s. Conflict with local Arabs over land, water, business.

Worldwide sympathy for Jews after WW2.
How was Israel created?

__________________________ settled on Palestine for a Jewish Homeland

Why Palestine?



  1. Ancient kingdom of Israel, “Promised Land”

  2. Not very crowded in the 1940’s

  3. Controlled by Britain, which was willing to give it to Jews

1948 – __________________________ divided Palestine into 3 sections:

  1. Israel for Jews

  2. Palestine for Arabs

  3. __________________________ run by UN for all groups

Immediately triggered the first of many Arab-Israeli wars.
Arab-Israeli Wars

Israel believes it has a right to exist.

Arabs feel that Israel was forced upon them by the West.

Both sides became part of the “Cold War”, aggravating the issue.



  • _________ – “War of Independence”/Nakba: Arab armies invaded, Arab refugees fled, hoping to return after war. Israel won.

  • 1956 – ___________ Crisis: Egypt took Suez Canal from Britain, Israel invaded, and won. USA forced Israel to stop, UN ceasefire.

  • 1967 – _____________________ War: Egypt, Syria prepped for war, but Israel hit first. Total win for Israel, Occupied lots of territory, including ______________, _________, and __________________.

  • 1973 – Yom Kippur War: Egypt, Syria tried to get territory back, surprise attacked. Israel won, with USA aid. Led to “_____________________” on USA

  • Lebanon Campaigns: Israel was attacked across the border by the __________ and later by _________________. Israel invaded Lebanon to create a “safety zone” in southern Lebanon twice – once in 1982, again in 2006.

Major wars ended after ______________________________ Agreements (1977-1978), peace between Egypt and Israel. Other Arab countries still hostile, but no wars since.
Israel vs. Palestine

In the 1948 war, many Arabs left their homes, living in refugee camps in the _______________ and ________________________. After 1967 War, Israel expanded into this captured land, and occupied it to protect itself.


Most Palestinians live in West Bank and Gaza, area which are crowded and poor, and blame Israel for their hard lives. Formed the “____________________________________” to fight Israel.

Three main groups against Israel:



  • ___________________ – Part of PLO, controls the West Bank, backed by Arab countries.

  • ___________________ Controls Gaza, backed by Iran.

  • ___________________ Group in Lebanon, against Israel

Peace negotiations have gone on since the 1990, but several uprisings, called “____________________” have occurred.
Jerusalem

Jerusalem is a holy city for Jews, Christians, and Muslims. It has been fought over for thousands of years.

In the 1967 “Six Day War”, Israel captured the entire city, and made it the capital of Israel. Part had previously been controlled by Jordan.

The Palestinians see it as part of the West Bank, and thus rightfully theirs.

The _________________________________”, part of the ruins of the main temple of Judaism, is considered the holiest site by _____________.

The “________________________________________” is a mosque where Muslims believe Muhammad ascended into heaven.

Both sites are on the same hill, constant tensions between Jews and Muslims.

Iran, Iraq, and the Persian Gulf
USA in the Persian Gulf

Why are we there?

To protect the flow of _______ to the world, mostly. We need it, and that is where it comes from.



What have we done there?

The USA has supported _________________ , overthrown governments, sold weapons to both sides in a war, and fought wars.



What resulted from this?

USA is mistrusted in the region, involved in a long war, and faces terrorism at home.



Was it worth it?

Maybe. Gotta have the oil, after all.



Iraq and Iran – NOT THE SAME




IRAQ

IRAN

ETHNIC GROUP

__________________

PERSIANS

LANGUAGE

ARABIC

__________________

ISLAMIC SECT

____% SUNNI, 80% SHI’A

____% SHI’A

GOVERNMENT

DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC

ISLAMIC ____________

CAPITAL

BAGHDAD

TEHERAN

LOCATION

WEST

EAST

RELATION TO USA

FRIENDLY

_________________


What are the Gulf Wars?

Conflicts between the USA, Iraq, and Iran to control the Persian Gulf. Alliances shift – today’s ally is tomorrow’s enemy!

  1. IRAN-IRAQ WAR (1980-1988): Iran vs. Iraq; Chemical weapons used by both sides, possibly a million people died. US supported Iraq and _________________, but covertly sold weapons to Iran.

  2. GULF WAR (1991): US vs. Iraq; Saddam Hussein invaded ____________ to take the oilfields. USA and coalition fought to protect Saudi and Kuwaiti oilfields. War stopped by UN with Saddam Hussein still in power.

  3. IRAQ WAR (2003-2011): US vs. Iraq; USA and allies invaded Iraq to remove Saddam Hussein. ____________________________ between Shia vs. Sunni vs. Kurds. US withdrew in 2011.


Kurds and Kurdistan

The Kurds are a people who live in the Middle East, about 30,000,000 in all. They have their own language and culture, and a separate identity as Kurdish people.

They have ______________________ of their own, instead living scattered across a dozen other countries, including Turkey, Iraq, and Iran.

They are in conflict with several governments, as some wish to create a separate Kurdish country, called _____________________________.

Kurds often point to the Jews and the creation of _______________ as an example.
Why is there conflict with Iran?

1950’s-1970’s, USA supported the “___________” (Emperor) of Iran because he was anti-Communist. He was a harsh ruler.

In 1979 an ____________ Revolution happened, led by _______________________________, opposed to the USA. They took 50+ American hostages, held them for almost a year and a half.

Iran has opposed the USA on Israel, Iraq, and nuclear weapons. The Iranian government calls the USA the “Great Satan”.

Iran was once ________________________________, a great empire, and it wishes to resume importance on the world stage.

They are currently threatening to close the Strait of Hormuz/Persian Gulf, due to international _______________________ against them.


Terrorism

What is Terrorism?

Terrorism: the political use of __Violence_________ and/or intimidation

Terrorism is designed to make a point, through psychological means, fear.

Terrorism is a ___________________________ act.

Aimed at non-military targets

What does the phrase “one man’s terrorist” is another man’s freedom fighter” mean?
Who and where are terror groups?

  • Members of small groups, or even people working alone.

  • Often supported by countries like _____________, _______________, and North Korea.

  • Have an ideology that calls for violence… political or religious.

  • Found everywhere, not just the Middle East.

  • Most famous group is “___________________________”, the group that did the 9/11 attacks. Led by ______________________________.

  • Al-Qaeda was based in Afghanistan, protected by the ___________________ who ruled there. In October 2001, the USA invaded Afghanistan.

  • Shortly after eleven o’clock on the night of May 1st, (2011) two MH-60 Black Hawk helicopters lifted off from Jalalabad Air Field, in eastern Afghanistan, and embarked on a covert mission into Pakistan to either detain or kill Osama bin Laden.

The Arab Spring
The “Arab Spring” Revolts
The _______________________________ is a wave of demonstrations and __________________ occurring in the Arab world last year and this year.

  • Revolutions in Tunisia and __________________________

  • Civil war in _____________________ resulted in fall of its government

  • Civil uprisings in Bahrain, Syria, and Yemen, resulting in resignation of Yemeni prime minister

  • Major protests in Algeria, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Morocco, and Oman

  • Minor protests in Lebanon, Mauritania, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, and Western Sahara.

  • Clashes between Israel and Palestine along ________________________ also inspired by Arab Spring.


Arab Spring Revolts

The protests have shared techniques of civil resistance, as well as the use of _________________________ (Facebook and Twitter) to organize and coordinate.


Many demonstrations have met violent responses from _____________________, as well as from pro-government __________________________ and counter-demonstrators.
Improvised riot helmets in _________________________________ (Egypt)!!!
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