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Design of PowerPoint presentations to support face-to-face instruction

This pattern is concerned with how to present information in PowerPoint presentations, to support face-to-face instruction. It addresses how to combine text and graphic content to enhance learner engagement and comprehension. It is a way of helping to implement the patterns INTRODUCING FACE-TO-FACE INSTRUCTION, SEQUENCING CONTENT IN FACE-TO-FACE INSTRUCTION, and FORMATIVE ASSESSMENT THROUGH DIRECT QUESTIONING.

♦ ♦♦

The use of PowerPoint presentations to support face-to-face instruction has become ubiquitous. Overuse of text, and a tendency for text to mirror verbal delivery, has given rise to the expression "death by PowerPoint'! Used in this way, PowerPoint presentations are demotivating for learners, lead to learner disengagement, and can negatively impact training outcomes. Used appropriately, PowerPoint is a powerful visual medium that can be used to incorporate multimedia learning in face-to-face instruction. This can have a positive effect on learner engagement, and enhance learner comprehension.

Microsoft PowerPoint is a powerful tool for the delivery of multimedia learning in the context of face-to-face instruction. PowerPoint supports pictures, graphic representations, video, audio, and animation.

PowerPoint's capacity to deliver multimedia learning is often underexploited in training applications. Presentations commonly contain only text, which often mirrors the instructor's verbal presentation. When pictures or other graphic content are incorporated in presentations they

often serve a design purpose rather than an explanatory one. PowerPoint presentations often appear to be used as speakers' notes, more for the instructors' benefit than the trainees!

The core principle of multimedia learning, from a psychological perspective, is the combined comprehension of text and pictures. Numerous studies have shown that students generally learn better from words and pictures than form words alone.24

When learners process multiple representations in a multimedia learning environment they develop a richer overview of the domain, which facilitate more in-depth knowledge construction. This is based on the concept that relating and combining multiple representations promotes deeper reflection than the processing of single representations.25

The multimedia effect is consistent with generative learning theory, which involves the integration of new ideas with the learner's existing schemata. When learners are presented with multiple representations, in a multimedia learning environment, they must select relevant information from that presented, organise the information into a coherent mental representation, and integrate the newly constructed representation with others. This process promotes deep learning.26

Based on a review of research Mayer (2005) identified a number multimedia instructional design principles for reducing the load on working memory and promoting deeper learning. They are as follows: 1. The coherence and redundancy principles recommend minimising the amount of unneeded and confusing detail in the graphical and textual materials in multimedia messages. Words,

  1. (Schnotz, 2005).

  2. (Van der Meij & de Jong, 2011)

  3. (Mayer, 2010).

pictures, and sounds that are not directly relevant to the goal of instruction should be removed leaving only the core of essential content that is salient to the learner.

  1. The signalling and spatial contiguity principles recommend providing cues, such as an outline and headings, to direct the learner's cognitive processing of the essential material.

  2. Based on the redundancy principle, when a multimedia message consists of animations or illustrations and narration, no redundant on-screen text that mirrors the narration should be included.

  3. Based on the spatial contiguity principle, when a multimedia message contains images and text, the text should be collocated with the part of the image it refers to.

  4. Based on the temporal contiguity principle, it is important to present corresponding animation and narration at the same time.

Supporting the third design principle, Schnotz (2005) suggests that individuals learn better from pictures combined with spoken explanation than they do from pictures combined with spoken and text-based explanations. He points out that when text and a picture are presented together, the learner's attention is split between the two pieces of visual information. He also theorises that the negative effect of presenting pictures with spoken and redundant written text might be a problem of synchronisation between listening and reading.

Ainsworth (1999) suggests that learner exposure to multiple representations leads to deeper understanding by enabling learners to consider complex ideas in a new way. It is hoped that by providing

Journal of the Australian Naval Institute



learners with a rich source of domain representations they will translate or construct references across these representations. Ainsworth (1999) further suggests that if multiple representations are used to develop deeper understanding, then translation should be scaffolded. Therefore:

When designing PowerPoint presentations to support face-to-face instruction, eliminate all unneeded and confusing detail in graphics and text. Only include graphics, text, and sounds directly relevant to the goals of instruction. Never include text that mirrors spoken explanation provided by the instructor. Provide a spoken narrative to accompany animations or illustrations, not a text-based narrative. Always present corresponding animation and narration at the same time. Use headings and outlines as cues to direct the learner's cognitive processing of the essential material. When using explanatory text with images, always collocate text with the part of the image it refers to. Where possible, incorporate multiple representations and provide verbal or text-based scaffolding to guide trainees' translation between representations. ♦♦ Patterns needed to complete this pattern include: PRODUCING PHOTOGRAPHS FOR MULTIMEDIA LEARNING, GRAPHIC REPRESENTATIONS FOR MULTIMEDIA LEARNING, and SELF-EXPLANATION PROMPTS IN MULTIMEDIA LEARNING.



Ainsworth, S. (1999). The functions of multiple representations. Computers & Education, 33(2-3), 131-152. doi: http://

Mayer, R. E. (2005). Principles for Reducing Extraneous Processing in Multimedia Learning: Coherence, Signalling,






Redundancy,Spatial Contiguityand Temporal Cotiguity Principles. In R. E. Mayar (Ed.), The Cambridge Handbook of Multimedia Learning (pp. 183-200). New York, NY, USA: Cambridge University Press.

Mayer, R. E. (2010). Multimedia Learning: Are we Asldng the Right Questions? Educational Phsychologist, 32(1), 1-19.

Schnotz, W. (2005). An Integrated Model of Text and Picture Comprehension. In R. E. Mayer (Ed.), The Cambridge Handbook of Multimedia Learning (pp. 49-69). New York, NY, USA: Cambridge University Press.

Van der Meij, J., & de Jong, T. (2011). The effects of directive self-explanation propmts to support active processing of multiple representations in a simulation-based learning environment. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning 27,411-423.


Alexander, C, Ishikawa, S., Silverstein, M., Jacobson, M., Fiksdahl-King, I., & Angel, S. (1977). A Pattern Language: Towns, Buildings, Construction (Alexander, C, Ishikawa, S., Silverstein, M., Jacobson, M., FUcsdahl-King, I. & Angel, S. (1977) A pattern language: towns, buildings, construction, New York, Oxford University Press, ed.). New York, NY, USA: Oxford University Press.

Argyris, C, & Schon, D. A. (1996). Organisational Learning 11: Theory, Method and Practice. Reading, Massachusetts, USA: Addison-Welsley Publishing Company.

Bennett, S., Maton, K, & Kervin, L. (2008). The 'digital natives' debate: A critical review of the evidence. British Journal of Educational Technology, 39(5), 775-786. doi: 10.HH/j.1467-8535.2007.00793.x

Buchanan, R. (1992). Wicked Problems in Design Thinldng. Design Lssues, 8(2), 5-21. doi: 10.2307/1511637

Defence, D. o. (2006). Australian Defence Force Publication 7.0.2- The Defence Training Model. Canberra, ACT, Australia: Defence Publishing Service.

Gibbons, A., & Rogers, P. (2009). The Architecture of Instructional Theory. In C. M. Reigeluth & A. A. Carr-Chellman (Eds.), Instructional Design Theories and Models. Volum 3: Building a Common Knowledge Base. New York: Routledge.








Goodyear, P. (2004,5-8 December). Patterns, pattern languages and educational design. Paper presented at the Beyond the comfort zone: Proceedings of the 21st ASCILITE Conference, Perth.

Greenhow, C, Robelia, B., & Hughes, J. E. (2009). Learning, Teaching, and Scholarship in a Digital Age: Web 2.0 and Classroom Research: What Path Should We Take Now? Educational Researcher, 38(4), 246-259. doi: 10.3102/0013189x09336671

Jacobson, M. J. (2004). From Human-Computer Interactions to Science of Learning Based Designs: Learning Principles for the 21st Century

McAndrew, P., Goodyear, P., & Dalziel, J. (2013). Patterns, Designs and Activities: Unifying Descriptions of Learning Structures.

Mor, Y, & Winters, N. (2007). Design approaches in technology-enhanced learning. Interactive Learning Environments, 25(1), 61-75. doi: 10.1080/10494820601044236

Morrison, G. R. (2010). Designing Effective Instruction (3 ed.). New York, NY, USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

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Reigeluth, C. M., & Carr-Chellman, A. A. (Eds.). (2009). Instructional-Design Theories and Models Volume 3: Building a Common Knowledge Base

New York: Routledge.

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Journal of the Australian Naval Institute

Issue 153


General de Gaulle, The Dakar Affair and the Role of HMAS Australia


Volume I of de Gaulle's war memoirs is entitled The Call to Honour. For him the call to honour was nothing less than the redemption of the honour of France which had dishonoured herself by her capitulation in June 1940. Furthermore, he believed that the liberation of France could not be left solely to Britain and America whom he sometime referred to rather condescendingly as the Anglo Saxons. He fervently believed that a French army of liberation needed to be raised under his command on French territory. By French territory he meant France's colonies in Africa.

When this unknown, 49-year old brigadier first thought of an expedition against Dakar is unclear; however, it was within 30 days of the French surrender on 22 June. Since "The Free French,' the name that he gave to all those who rallied to his cause, had almost no warships, de Gaulle approached Churchill about an expedition backed by the Royal Navy.

Churchill had focused his attention on Dakar early in July after the battleship Richelieu had steamed there from Brest. Completed in April 1940 Richelieu was the pride of the French Navy and was indeed one of the finest battleships in the world. Her main armament was eight 15" guns in two forward turrets. The secondary armament of fifteen 6" guns in five turrets was itself formidable. As protection from enemy shells and bombs she had a sixteen-inch belt of steel on both sides of the ship. Her deck armour combining her upper and lower deck was eight inches.

On 7 and 8 July 1940 the British made a determined effort to disable the Richelieu. In the first action Royal Marines with blackened faces in a small craft were able to slip into Dakar

harbour and explode a depth charge near her. The ship was not seriously damaged. The next day torpedo aircraft from HMS Hermes attacked her. One torpedo struck near her stern. At least one propeller was destroyed and would need to be replaced before Richelieu could put to sea.

Neither this attack nor the much larger operation against I French naval units at Oran on 3 July was carried out with de Gaulle's foreknowledge. He was aggrieved at the loss of life at Oran where over 1,000 French sailors perished. Privately he criticized Churchill on the grounds that there was no real risk that the French Fleet would end up in the hands of the Germans. In hindsight it appears far-fetched that the Richelieu at far off Dakar was within reach of German airborne forces much less of ground forces.

On 7 July one of HMS Hermes' escorts was HMAS Australia. She was one of two heavy cruisers in the young Australian Navy; the other being her sister ship HMAS Canberra. Australia was laid down by John Brown & Co. Ltd, Clydebank, in 1925. She was completed in April 1928. Her main armament was eight 8" guns in four turrets, two forward and two aft. She had never fired her main guns in anger until the naval engagement at Dakar over 23-25 September 1940.

Churchill seems to have been reluctant to approve a major engagement with the Richelieu in light of the casualties inflicted on the French Navy at Oran; however, his fertile mind soon devised a plan that would give de Gaulle both Dakar and the Richelieu with little or no blood spilled.

In his memoir de Gaulle writes about

their key meeting at 10 Downing Street

on 6 August.

"Then Mr. Churchill, colouring his eloquence with the most picturesque tints, set to work to paint for me the following picture:

"Dakar wakes up one morning, sad and uncertain. But behold, by the light of the rising sun, its inhabitants perceive the sea, to a great distance, covered with ships. An immense fleet! A hundred war or transport vessels! These approach slowly, addressing messages of friendship by radio to the town, to the navy, to the garrison. Some of them are flying the tricolour. The others are sailing under the British, Dutch, Polish or Belgian colours. From this Allied Force there breaks away an inoffensive small ship bearing the white flag of parlay. Renters the port and disembarks the envoys of General de Gaulle. These are brought to the Governor. Their job is to convince him that if he lets you land the Allied fleet retires, and that nothing remains but to settle, between him and you, the terms of his cooperation. On the contrary, if he wants to fight, he has every
World War II wire photo of French leader Charles De Gaulle leading a Paris victory march celebrating the Allied Invasion, which forced the Vichy government to flee (Public domain)

Journal of the Australian Naval Institute

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