Iraq Negative Permanent Occupation Negative



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WNDI 2010

Butler/Johnson Iraq

Iraq Negative


***Permanent Occupation Negative***

**Generic Democracy Good**

Demo-Promo Solves: War




Democracy promotion solves famine and war, key to sustainability.

Phar Kim Beng, “Should the US Plug Democracy in Asia,” THE STRAITS TIMES (Singapore), January 14, 2000 LN.

The spread of democracy can enhance US national interests in four major ways. Firstly, by encouraging other nations to democratise, the political conditions of otherwise repressive republics would improve. The pressure and attraction for others to enter America illegally would thus be reduced significantly. Secondly, as more countries democratise, that is by instituting multi-party electoral competition, the prospect of governments launching wars against one another would decline exponentially. This is because the decision to go to war would not be made by any one man or party at the helm, but would be subject to the purview and discretion of the public. Given the greater degree of public accountability, it would be correspondingly difficult for any government to justify the launching of an open war against the US or other nations. Democratic peace would, therefore, prevail across the world, much to the US' interests. Thirdly, democracy is also conducive to economic growth. A World Survey of Economic Freedom for 1995 to 1996, found that the countries rated "free" generated 81 per cent of the world's output even though they had only 17 per cent of the world's population. In another study by The Heritage Foundation, it was found that countries classified as "free" had annual 1980-1993 real per capita Gross Domestic Product (GDP) growth rates of 2.88 per cent. In "mostly-free" countries, the rate was 0.97 per cent; in "mostly-not-free" ones, minus 0.32 per cent; and in "repressed" countries, minus 1.44 per cent. Fourthly, the US should spread democracy because the citizens of democracies do not suffer from famines. Most of the countries that have experienced severe famines in recent decades have been among the world's least democratic: the Soviet Union (Ukraine in the early 1930s), China, Ethiopia, Somalia, Cambodia and Sudan. Throughout history, famines have occurred in many different types of countries, but never in a democracy. Democracies do not experience famines for reasons of greater transparency and accountability. To the extent that the incidence of famine continues to fall, massive cross-border human emigration would cease, too. Global and regional security would thus be enhanced, by which the US would no doubt stand to gain due to its extensive political and economic interests abroad.
Democracy promotion solves occupation: (1) fosters peace; (2) leads to development/good governance

Minxin Pei, Senior Associate, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, “Implementing the Institutions of Democracy,” INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL ON WORLD PEACE v. 19 n. 4, December 2002, p. 3+.



The international community's support for democracies in developing countries is based on many considerations. For instance, geopolitics played a role in the West's support for democracies in certain parts of the world during the Cold War when supporting democracy was compatible with the West's strategy of containing the Soviet Union. Unfortunately, the same set of strategic concerns also led the West to a policy of inconsistency in the support of democracies. In the post-Cold War era, supporting democracies has gained greater importance as the collapse of the Soviet Union removed the Soviet threat and allowed the West to focus greater efforts on democratic promotion. Two theories underlie the West's strategy of democratic promotion. First, the establishment of democracies around the world is considered conducive to world peace because liberal democracies do not wage war with each other. Second, democracies are thought to have the more effective political institutions for economic development and good governance.


Demo-Promo Solves: War



THE PROMOTION OF AMERICAN STYLE CONSTITUTIONAL DEMOCRACY IS ESSENTIAL FOR LASTING PEACE AND STABILITY

Susan S. Gibson, Lt. Colonel, JAG, The Misplaced Reliance On Free And Fair Elections In Nation Building: The Role Of Constitutional Democracy And The Rule Of Law,” HOUSTON JOURNAL OF INTERNATIONAL LAW v. 21, Fall 1998, LN.


Democracy: Just as there are many definitions of peacekeeping, there are also many definitions of democracy. n18 A "democratically elected" government is all that many people require for democracy. n19 For them, the modern view of democracy is satisfied once elections are held. n20 However, further inquiry into the subject will often elicit other requirements for true democracy--requirements such as the rule of law, protection of individual and human rights, protection of minority rights, separation of governmental powers, checks and balances of power, and protection of private property rights. n21 As Anthony  [*8]  Lake recognized in a 1993 address to the School of Advanced International Studies: "Our strategy must view democracy broadly--it must envision a system that includes not only elections but also such features as an independent judiciary and protections of human rights." n22 In his first Annual Report, Secretary General Kofi Annan includes many of the same elements when he defines what he calls "good governance": Good governance comprises the rule of law, effective state institutions, transparency and accountability in the management of public affairs, respect for human rights, and the meaningful participation of all citizens in the political processes of their countries and in decisions affecting their lives. n23 Clearly, something more than elections are required before a country can be said to have a democratic government--rather than merely having a democratically-elected government.
It is "constitutional democracy" that has the power to bring lasting peace and stability, as opposed to the "elective despotism" that can come from mere free and fair elections
. n24 The importance of the distinction between elective democracy and constitutional democracy cannot be overstated. "The former stresses the process by which people freely choose their representatives, who, in turn, enact whatever laws they deem necessary on behalf of the people; while the latter, suspicious of the process, sets limits on what the people, through their representatives, may do." n25 The term democracy, as used in this paper, refers to a constitutional democracy that is designed "not only to guard the society against the oppression of its rulers, but to guard one part of the society against the injustice of the other part." n26 It is a democracy based on fundamental human rights,  [*9]  sound governmental structures that control the powers of those who govern, and the rule of law. n27. II. The Evidence for Democracies and Free-Market Economies. The focus on the importance of constitutional democracies and free-market economies is more than American arrogance about the superiority of our system of government. Ours is not the only democratic, free-market nation, nor is our Constitution or exact form of government capable of being exported wholesale to every nation in the world. n28 The evidence for democracies and free-market economies is based on the growing realization, supported by empirical research, that democracies foster peace, that free-market economies bring prosperity, and that both encourage individual freedom and the protection of human rights.

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