Iolani School History Standards for Grade 11 United States (4/3/08) Era 8 The Great Depression and World War II (1929-1945) Standard 1

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Iolani School History Standards for Grade 11

United States


Era 8

The Great Depression and World War II (1929-1945)

Standard 1
The causes of the Great Depression and how it affected American society
Standard 2
How the New Deal addressed the Great Depression, transformed American federalism, and initiated the welfare state
Standard 3
The causes and course of World War II, the character of the war at home and abroad, and its reshaping of the U.S. role in world affairs 


Participants of this era are still alive, and their common memories of cataclysmic events--from the Crash of 1929 through World War II--are still common points of reference today. Our closeness to this era should help students see how today’s problems and choices are connected to the past. Knowledge of history is the precondition of political intelligence, setting the stage for current questions about government’s role and rule, foreign policy, the continuing search for core values, and the ongoing imperative to extend the founding principles to all Americans. 

The Great Depression and the New Deal deserve careful attention for four reasons. First, Americans in the 1930s endured--and conquered--the greatest economic crisis in American history. Second, the Depression wrought deep changes in people’s attitudes toward government’s responsibilities. Third, organized labor acquired new rights. Fourth, the New Deal set in place legislation that reshaped modern American capitalism. 

In its effects on the lives of Americans, the Great Depression was one of the great shaping experiences of American history, ranking with the American Revolution, the Civil War, and the second industrial revolution. More than Progressivism, the Great Depression brought about changes in the regulatory power of the federal government. It also enlarged government’s role in superimposing relief measures on the capitalist system, bringing the United States into a mild form of welfare state capitalism, such as had appeared earlier in industrial European nations. This era provides students with ample opportunities to test their analytic skills as they assay Franklin Roosevelt’s leadership, the many alternative formulas for ending the Great Depression, and the ways in which the New Deal affected women, racial minorities, labor, children, and other groups. 

World War II also commands careful attention. Although it was not the bloodiest in American history, the war solidified the nation’s role as a global power and ushered in social changes that established reform agendas that would preoccupy public discourse in the United States for the remainder of the 20th century. The role of the United States in World War II was epochal for its defense of democracy in the face of totalitarian aggression. More than ever before, Americans fought abroad, not only winning the war but bringing a new cosmopolitanism home with them. As before, the war was an engine of social and cultural change. In this war, Americans of diverse backgrounds lived and fought together, fostering American identity and building notions of a common future. Similarly, on the home front, public education and the mass media promoted nationalism and the blending of cultural backgrounds. Yet students should learn about the denial of the civil liberties of interned Japanese Americans and the irony of racial minorities fighting for democratic principles overseas that they were still denied at home as well as in military service itself. 

Students will need to assess carefully the course of the war, the collapse of the Grand Alliance, and its unsettling effects on the postwar period. Also, they should evaluate the social effects of war on the homefront, such as internal migration to war production centers, the massive influx of women into previously male job roles, and the attempts of African Americans and others to obtain desegregation of the armed forces and end discriminatory hiring. 


The causes of the Great Depression and how it affected American society. 

Standard 1A
The student understands the causes of the crash of 1929 and the Great Depression. 

Grade Level

Therefore, the student is able to


Assess the economic policies of the Harding and Coolidge administrations and their impact on wealth distribution, investment, and taxes. [Analyze multiple causation
Republicans rebuild tariff protection 675

1922 begins period of unprecedented prosperity 676

Automobile stimulates economy 676

Post war depression hits farm sector 679

Over production 679

Welfare capitalism 681

Harding scandals 681

“The business of America is business” 681


Analyze the causes and consequences of the stock market crash of 1929. [Compare competing historical narratives
Early prosperity in Hoover’s times 700

Risky ventures and quick profit 700

Liberty bonds show potential 701

Stockbrokers make hard sell 701

The rich are awash in cash 701

Risky margin buying 701

“Shear the sheep” 702

Government requires little company disclosure 702

Underlying weaknesses in economy 703


Evaluate the causes of the Great Depression. [Analyze multiple causation
The stock market crash did not cause the Great Depression 705

Consequences of market’s decline 703

Serious structural problems 703

Distribution of income 703

Businesses don’t reinvest profits 704

Farm weakness, overproduction 704

German reparations 704, 710

No government insurance 704-705


Explain the global context of the depression and the reasons for the worldwide economic collapse. [Evaluate major debates among historians
Fragile world economy 704


Explore the reasons for the deepening crisis of the Great Depression and evaluate the Hoover administration’s responses. [Formulate a position or course of action on an issue
Hoover encourages 705

Federal Reserve System 705

Smoot-Hawley Tariff 705

Hoover lacks power 705

National Credit Corp. 705

Hoover’s committees 706

Hoover and the drought 706

Standard 1B
The student understands how American life changed during the 1930s. 

Grade Level

Therefore, the student is able to


Explain the effects of the Great Depression and the Dust Bowl on American farm owners, tenants, and sharecroppers. [Analyze multiple causation
Savings disappear 706

Impacts on African Americans 707-707

Effects on women 707

Farmers and Agricultural marketing Act 707

Hispanics deported 708

Hoovervilles 708


Analyze the impact of the Great Depression on industry and workers and explain the response of local and state officials in combating the resulting economic and social crises. [Analyze multiple causation
Bank failures 705

Businesses closing 705

Investment and corporate profit declining 705

Unemployment 706

States and cities incapable 706

Distress on the farm 707


Analyze the impact of the Great Depression on the American family and on ethnic and racial minorities. [Consider multiple perspectives
Savings disappear 706

Selling apples 706

Blacks 706

American Indians 707

Women 707


Explain the cultural life of the Depression years in art, literature, and music and evaluate the government’s role in promoting artistic expression. [Draw upon visual, literary, and musical sources
Impact of radio 708

Hollywood 709

Jazz 709


How the New Deal addressed the Great Depression, transformed American federalism, and initiated the welfare state. 

Standard 2A
The student understands the New Deal and the presidency of Franklin D. Roosevelt.

Grade Level

Therefore, the student is able to


Contrast the background and leadership abilities of Franklin D. Roosevelt with those of Herbert Hoover. [Assess the importance of the individual in history
Hoover – mining business, Secretary of Commerce 699

“the Boy Wonder” 699

The Clash of Philosophies, Hoover and Roosevelt 712

Roosevelt: wealthy, New Yorker, state senator, Assistant Secretary of the Navy 713


Analyze the links between the early New Deal and Progressivism. [Compare and contrast differing sets of ideas
Progressivism and a larger role for government in economy 628-629

Republicans move away from Progressivism 626

Hoover, “two philosophies of government” 716

Roosevelt reforms capitalism 730

Roosevelt gives federal support 731


Contrast the first and second New Deals and evaluate the success and failures of the relief, recovery, and reform measures associated with each. [Compare and contrast differing sets of ideas

NRA is key 735

1935, people still in trouble 740

Criticism 740

Work relief 740

CCC 740

WPA 740

Social Security 740-741

Wagner Act 741-42

An end to reform, 1937-38, 752

Key New Deal Programs and Legislation 753


Analyze the factors contributing to the forging of the Roosevelt coalition in 1936 and explain its electoral significance in subsequent years. [Examine the influence of ideas
Common people and privileged people 746

Class differences 746

New majority coalition 746


Analyze the involvement of minorities and women in the New Deal and its impact upon them. [Assess the importance of the individual in history
Frances Perkins 740

Blacks historically Republican 746

Massive switch to Democratic 747

Eleanor Roosevelt 747

“black cabinet” 747

Blacks move to northern cities 746


Explain renewed efforts to protect the environment during the Great Depression and evaluate their success in places such as the Dust Bowl and the Tennessee Valley. [Analyze cause-and-effect relationships]
FDR interested in conservation 732

TVA 732-33

Serious environmental damage in TV 733

Farm belt weather disasters 733

Migrating to California 733

Standard 2B
The student understands the impact of the New Deal on workers and the labor movement. 

Grade Level

Therefore, the student is able to


Explain how New Deal legislation and policies affected American workers and the labor movement. [Analyze cause-and-effect relationships
Child labor 736

FDR not strong organized labor supporter 741

John L. Lewis 741

Wagner Act 741-42

AFL and CIO 742

FDR and the “sit down” 750

NLRB 741-42, 751


Explain the re-emergence of labor militancy and the struggle between craft and industrial unions. [Compare and contrast differing sets of ideas
AFL and CIO 742

Labor’s “civil war” 742


Evaluate labor union positions on minority and women workers. [Consider multiple perspectives


Explain the impact of the New Deal on nonunion workers. [Formulate a position or course of action on an issue
FERA didn’t discriminate 731

Standard 2C
The student understands opposition to the New Deal, the alternative programs of its detractors, and the legacy of the New Deal. 

Grade Level

Therefore, the student is able to


Identify the leading opponents of New Deal policies and assess their arguments. [Compare and contrast differing sets of ideas and values
Huey P. Long 738-39

Father Coughlin 739-40

Francis Townsend 740


Explain the reasoning of the Supreme Court decisions on early New Deal legislation and evaluate the Roosevelt administration’s response. [Compare and contrast differing sets of ideas
Supreme Court reverses New Deal Programs 750

FDR tries to pack the court 750

SC changes course 750


Evaluate the significance and legacy of the New Deal. [Evaluate the implementation of a decision
New Deal alters politics, assists the poor, government size increases, restores hope, did not end Depression 753


The causes and course of World War II, the character of the war at home and abroad, and its reshaping of the U.S. role in world affairs. 

Standard 3A

The student understands the international background of World War II. 

Grade Level

Therefore, the student is able to


Analyze the factors contributing to the rise of fascism, national socialism, and communism in the interwar period. [Analyze multiple causation
Japan: nationalism, Manchuria, withdraws from League 710

USSR communists “collectivize” society 742

Germany and Italy, race hatred and expansion 742

National Socialist Party 742

Weimar government 742-3

Mussolini, father of Fascism 745


Explain the breakdown of the Versailles settlement and League of Nations in the 1930s. [Challenge arguments of historical inevitability
Germans unable to pay reparations 693

Germany and Depression 711-12

Germans want revenge 711


Analyze hemispheric relations in the 1930s, as exemplified by the Good Neighbor Policy. [Draw upon data in historical maps
FDR interested in Latin America. 737

Good Neighbor Policy 737

Mexican nationalization


Analyze the reasons for American isolationist sentiment in the interwar period and its effects on international relations and diplomacy. [Analyze cause-and-effect relationships
Isolationism after WWI 671

The Neutrality Acts 744

Avoiding entanglements 745


Evaluate American responses to German, Italian, and Japanese aggression in Europe, Africa, and Asia from 1935 to 1941. [Formulate a position or course of action on an issue
Stimson Doctrine 711

The Neutrality Acts 745

Abraham Lincoln Brigade 751

Third neutrality bill, 1937 751

Lend-Lease 759-60

FDR embargos strategic materials to Japan 760

FDR freezes Japanese assets 760

US declares war 761


Analyze the reasons for the growing tensions with Japan in East Asia culminating with the bombing of Pearl Harbor. [Marshal evidence of antecedent circumstances
Naval conference 1927 709-10

London Treaty 1930 710

Manchuria 710

League of Nations 711

Japanese strategic interests in Asia 760-61

Pearl Harbor 760

Standard 3B
The student understands World War II and how the Allies prevailed. 

Grade Level

Therefore, the student is able to


Explain the major turning points of the war and contrast military campaigns in the European and Pacific theaters. [Draw upon data in historical maps
El Alamein 771

Stalingrad 771

Normandy 773

Battle of Midway 776

Battle of Coral Sea

The Atomic Bomb 780


Analyze Hitler’s “final solution” and the Allies’ responses to the Holocaust and war crimes. [Interrogate historical data
Kristallnacht 752

Bombing Death Camps 775

State Dept anti-Semitic 752, 773-776

FDR apathetic 776

War Refugee Board 776


 Evaluate the wartime aims and strategies hammered out at conferences among the Allied powers. [Hypothesize the influence of the past
Atlantic Charter 760

Casablanca 771

Tehran 771 -772

The Yalta Accords 778-79

Declaration for a Liberated Europe 779

Russians promise to enter Japanese war 778


Evaluate the decision to employ nuclear weapons against Japan and assess later controversies over the decision. [Evaluate major debates among historians
The Atomic bomb 780

Nazis had been at work on it 780

Manhattan Project 780

Some scientists urge not to use it 780

Truman feels it will save lives 780

Japanese leaders couldn’t bring themselves to surrender until two dropped 790


Explain the financial, material, and human costs of the war and analyze its economic consequences for the Allies and the Axis powers. [Utilize visual and quantitative data
WWII ended the Great Depression 782

WPB 763

GNP doubles 763

Racial segregation remained in place 782, 766-77

Double V Campaign 766-77

Opened opportunities for women and minorities 782

Rosie the Riveter 765

GI Bill 786

Post war inflation 786

Post war strikes 786-87

Marshall Plan 791-92


Describe military experiences and explain how they fostered American identity and interactions among people of diverse backgrounds. [Utilize literary sources including oral testimony


Explain the purposes and organization of the United Nations. [Marshal evidence of antecedent circumstances
Carries forward ideas of Woodrow Wilson 571

Three leaders bless formation 778

Standard 3C
The student understands the effects of World War II at home. 

Grade Level

Therefore, the student is able to


Explain how the United States mobilized its economic and military resources during World War II. [Utilize visual and quantitative data
War Production Board 763

Anti-Trust laws suspended 763

Nations total production rises 70% 763

Revenue Act of 1942 764

War bonds 764

Making Do 764


Explore how the war fostered cultural exchange and interaction while promoting nationalism and American identity. [Analyze cause-and-effect relationships
“US must lead now or take a back seat in history.” 785


Evaluate how minorities organized to gain access to wartime jobs and how they confronted discrimination. [Formulate a position or course of action on an issue] 
Black “March on Washington” 766

Executive Order 8802 766


Migration to North and West 766

Big changes for black working women 767

Detroit riots

Mexican Americans 767

“zooters” 767-68

500,000 blacks in uniform 768

92nd Infantry 768

NAACP increases 768

CORE founded 768


Evaluate the internment of Japanese Americans during the war and assess the implication for civil liberties. [Evaluate the implementation of a decision
Enemy alien designation not lifted for Japanese Americans before war 769

J. Edgar Hoover sees no threat by J. Americans 769

San Francisco Examiner 769

Nisei 769

Executive Order 9066 769
Executive Order 9102 770

Hirabayashi vs United States 770

Congress awards reparations 770


Analyze the effects of World War II on gender roles and the American family. [Compare and contrast differing sets of ideas
Instant changes for women in defense jobs 765

“Rosie the Riveter” 765

Wage discrimination 765

Most women pushed back at end of war 766

Bay boom 787

Concept of mothering 788

Female college graduates falls after war 789


Evaluate the war’s impact on science, medicine, and technology, especially in nuclear physics, weaponry, synthetic fibers, and television. [Utilize quantitative data
The atomic bomb 780-81

Television 686, 818

Anti-submarine warfare, sonar, depth charges radar, attack planes 771


Evaluate how Americans viewed their achievements and global responsibilities at war’s end. [Interrogate historical data
Cautious optimism 782

Henry Luce--- “full measure of our influence.” 785

American Century 785

Concern about America resolve 785

NEXT:    Era 9 Postwar United States (1945-1970s) 

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