Introduction Welcome to the Center for Civil and Human Rights What to Expect on your Field Trip Map Teaching Activities and Project Ideas



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The Center for Civil and Human Rights

Teacher’s Guide for Grades 9-12

Introduction……………………………………………………………………………2

Welcome to the Center for Civil and Human Rights…………………………..2

What to Expect on your Field Trip……………………………………………….3

Map………………………………………………………………………………….4



Teaching Activities and Project Ideas

  1. Rosa Parks and the Montgomery Bus Boycott

    1. Introduction……………………………………………………….5

    2. Primary Sources………………………………………………….7

    3. Teaching Activities……………………………………………….8

  2. The Lynching of Emmett Till and Cold War Politics

    1. Introduction……………………………………………………….21

    2. Primary Sources………………………………………………….22

    3. Teaching Activities……………………………………………….23

Additional Resources

Secondary Sources……………………………………………………………….45

Online Resources………………………………………………………………….46

Photo Analysis Worksheet ……………………………………………………….48

Written Document Analysis Worksheet…………………………………………50

Curriculum Correlations……………………………………………………………..51

Introduction


Welcome to the Center for Civil and Human Rights

The Center for Civil and Human Rights (The Center) is the product of The National Center for Civil and Human Rights, Inc. Located in the heart of Atlanta, The Center is an engaging cultural attraction that connects the legacy of the American Civil Rights Movement to today’s Global Human Rights Movements.

Through sharing accounts of courage and struggle around the world, The Center encourages students to gain a deeper understanding of the role they can play in helping to protect the rights of all people. Powerful imagery, compelling artifacts, and poignant storytelling will inspire an ongoing dialogue about civil and human rights in your classroom, school and community.
The Center offers students a unique opportunity to learn more about the social issues that are already important to them as well as others that they may not think about as often, such as internet freedom or their “ethical footprint.” The historical context of the Civil Rights Movement provides visiting classes with a framework to reflect on how they can act — both individually and as a group — on behalf of others. In fact, the mission of The Center is “to empower

people to take the protection of every human’s rights personally.” By showing your students these key events of the past, you can better prepare them for what they will face in the future.




photo of the building















What to Expect on your Field Trip


Tips for Planning Your Field Trip



Hours

The Center for Civil and Human Rights is open Tuesday-Saturday 10 a.m. to 5 p.m and Sunday 12 a.m to 5p.m., although group tours can be booked as early as 8:30 a.m.


Group Sales

For information about Group Sales and to

schedule your field trip to The Center,

contact a representative at 678.999.8966 or

visit www.civilandhumanrights.org/tours.

Please be advised that your reservation is

not complete until you have a confirmation

from us and we have approved your method

of payment. In order to qualify for group or school pricing—a group is defined as a minimum of ten paying visitors—you must have a confirmed reservation at least two weeks in advance of your visit. Groups receive one complimentary chaperone admission for every ten paid visitors. High school tours are facilitated by our exhibit interpreters and last approximately 90 minutes.
Location

The Center is located in downtown Atlanta

next to the World of CocaCola and the

Georgia Aquarium on Pemberton

Place®. The physical address is 100 Ivan

Allen Jr. Blvd., Atlanta, GA 30313-1807.

Buses should enter at the Ivan Allen

Boulevard Plaza level entrance for student

drop-off and pick-up. Buses and any vehicles larger than 7’ H x 8’ W x 16’ L will qualify as oversized and cannot park in the

Pemberton Place® garage. The fee for the

Georgia World Congress Center bus

marshalling yard is $25 per vehicle per day.


Accessibility and Security

The Center is accessible to people with disabilities and meets ADA requirements. Upon arrival, all students, teachers, and chaperones will be required to pass through a security checkpoint with a metal detector. All bags are subject to search. Please leave large backpacks, tote bags, oversized purses, and bulky coats on the bus. Any questions should be directed to your group sales representative.


Food and Drink

Food and drink are NOT permitted in the galleries or atrium areas. This includes lunches and snacks, personal water bottles, chewing gum, candy and lozenges.

There are a variety of places to eat at a range of price points within walking distance, including Pemberton Café outside of the World of Coca-Cola.
Photography Policies

Photography is not permitted in the Voice to the Voiceless gallery featuring The Morehouse College Martin Luther King, Jr., Collection. The use of flash is prohibited in all galleries at all times. Please be sure your students and chaperones adhere to these guidelines.








Teaching Activities and Project Ideas

Rosa Parks and the Montgomery Bus Boycott


Introduction

By 1955 the contours of the emerging civil rights movement had begun to take shape as the

Brown v. Board of Education case showed that laws could change and bring about an end to unjust traditions. Events in Alabama would confirm the power of grassroots activism. The target would be the segregated bus system of the state capital of Montgomery, where African Americans were the majority of riders but were only allowed to sit in the back—and only if white riders did not need the seats. Two women, in particular, would bravely refuse to follow the city’s rules of segregation, but with very different results.

Claudette Colvin

In March 1955 Claudette Colvin, a 15-year-old high school student, was arrested for refusing to give up her seat to a white passenger. She recalled her inspiration in refusing—"It just so happens they picked me at the wrong time—it was Negro History Month, and I was filled up like a computer.” Colvin screamed “it is my constitutional right” as she was pulled from the bus in handcuffs. Although her arrest would be included in the eventual Supreme Court case, Browder

v. Gayle, her youthfulness, strong will, and a later out-of-wedlock pregnancy caused disapproval and fear that her personal details might overshadow the case itself. Colvin served as a star witness in the case that would end bus discrimination but faced hostility from many sources in Montgomery and in 1958 was forced to leave for New York.

Rosa Parks

Rosa Parks’ public image contrasted sharply with Colvin’s—Parks was 42 and employed as a seamstress. Additionally, Parks was active in the local NAACP chapter and had recently attended the Highlander Folk School for training in equality and activism. On December 1, 1955, Rosa Parks refused to give up her seat on a segregated bus, and her individual act of conscience became a call for action. She was arrested and quickly emerged as the face of the protest against segregation, her picture and story garnering wide coverage in national newspapers. Her gentle demeanor, impeccable reputation, and connections to the activist community meant she had credibility within the community and with the press. Jo Ann Gibson Robinson, E. D. Nixon, Rev. Ralph Abernathy and Rev. Martin Luther King, Jr., created an organization called the Montgomery Improvement Association (MIA) immediately following the arrest of Rosa Parks, to orchestrate a boycott of the Montgomery City Lines, Inc.

Since Parks had been a member of the NAACP since 1943 and since she was well-known in the Montgomery African-American community, E. D. Nixon, Rev. Ralph Abernathy and Rev. Martin Luther King felt enough people would rally to support a boycott or other protest. The Montgomery Improvement Association would become the organization that would orchestrate most boycott activities during the Montgomery Bus Boycott. About 5,000 attendees at the first meeting on December 5th support a non-violent approach to protest. They decided to ask not for an end to segregation, but for improved conditions for African-American bus riders.

“My mother told me to be quiet about what I did,” Ms. Colvin recalled. “She told me: ‘Let Rosa be the one. White people aren’t going to bother Rosa—her skin is lighter than yours and they like her.’” In the public’s mind, Rosa Parks became what Colvin could not become—an example of a law gone too far.

The Browder v. Gayle case is renowned for its relation to the 1955 bus boycott in Montgomery, a pivotal event in the Civil Rights Movement. Although not a party to the case, Rosa Parks' arrest record and fingerprints are exhibits to the case. The plaintiffs in this case were Claudette Colvin, Aurelia Browder, Mary Louise Smith, and Susie McDonald, all of whom had been either arrested for refusing to give up their seats to white passengers on Montgomery busses, or harmed by being forced to comply with segregation codes. In fact, all of them were arrested in 1955, the same year that Rosa Parks suffered the same fate. In this case, the three-judge panel ruled Montgomery segregation codes unconstitutional due to their violation of the due process and equal protection clauses of the 14th Amendment. The U.S. Supreme Court later affirmed the District Court's judgment.

The Montgomery Improvement Association filed Browder’s case because it would be able to skip being heard in the local courts. Rosa Parks’ case would have had to go through local courts first, where the case might have stayed pending for years. By filing directly with the District Courts, they would also be able to achieve an injunction against the segregation law at the same time.

From the outset, women were integral to the success of the civil rights movement. The success of the Montgomery bus boycott was not just a product of Rosa Parks’ bold refusal to relinquish her seat. It would have been nearly impossible without a network of women activists and organizers. Two years prior to Parks’ arrest, the Women’s Political Council (WPC), an organization of African American women activists, had begun discussing the possibility of a bus boycott. Jo Ann Robinson, the WPC president, met with city officials during 1953 and 1954, pressing them to adopt reforms that would keep segregation in place but no longer require that black passengers surrender their seats to whites.

When they received word that Rosa Parks had been arrested the WPC sprang into action.

Robinson, an English professor at nearby Alabama State College for Negroes (now Alabama State University), copied thousands of flyers urging African Americans to boycott buses on the day of Parks’ trial. WPC members canvassed Montgomery’s African American community to spread the word. The one-day boycott proved so successful that the Montgomery Improvement Association (MIA) was formed to direct the movement to change the bus laws.

A simple demand that blacks be able to keep their seats evolved into a battle to end segregated buses altogether. The boycott lasted nearly a year, with a U.S. Supreme Court decision finally ruling the Alabama laws unconstitutional. The victory made Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., the young president of the MIA, a household name.




Primary Source Documents: Rosa Parks and the Montgomery Bus Boycott




  1. Police Report on the Arrest of Rosa Parks, 12/1/1955, Record Group 21: Records of the District Courts of the U. S., 1685-2009, National Archives and Records Administration.



  1. Photograph of Rosa Parks Being Fingerprinted During Arrest, 12/1/1955, Record Group 21: Records of the District Courts of the U. S., 1685-2009, National Archives and Records Administration.



  1. Flyer, “Negroes Most Urgent Needs,” by the Montgomery Improvement Association, Courtesy, Inez Jessie Baskin Papers, Alabama Department of Archives & History, Montgomery, AL.



  1. Booking Photo of JoAnn Gibson Robinson, No.7042



  1. Newspaper Article, “5,000 At Meeting Outline Boycott; Bullet Clips Bus,” by Joe Azbell, Montgomery Advertiser, December 6, 1955. Alabama Department of Archives and History Public Information Subject Files – General File, Bus Boycott, SG6945, folder 305b.




  1. Judgment, Aurelia S. Browder et al. v. W.A. Gayle et al., No. 1147, 6/19/1956, Record Group 21: Records of the District Courts of the U. S., 1685-2009, National Archives and Records Administration.



  1. Exhibit “A,” Attached to Exhibit C, Diagram of the Bus Showing where Rosa Parks was Seated on December 1, 1955, Record Group 21: Records of the District Courts of the U. S., 1685-2009, National Archives and Records Administration.



  1. Photos of Claudette Colvin. Colvin in a portrait taken in November 2009 (left) and as a child around 1953, by Nicole Bengiveno, The New York Times, and The Montgomery Advertiser, via Melanie Kroupa Books/ Farrar, Straus & Giroux, respectively.


  1. Memo, Integrated Bus Suggestions from MIA, 19 December 1956, Inez Jessie Baskin Papers, Alabama Department of Archives and History, Montgomery, Alabama.




Teaching Activities: Rosa Parks and the Montgomery Bus Boycott




1. K-W-L Introductory Assessment Activity. The story of Rosa Parks and her refusal to give up her seat on a segregated Montgomery, Alabama, bus is one that most American schoolchildren are exposed to fairly early in their primary school years. That will be a plus to you as you teach this history, but also a minus because, unfortunately, much of the “history” that we learn about Mrs. Parks and the Montgomery Bus Boycott is suffused as much with misinformation and platitudes as it is with actual facts.

Begin by drawing three columns on your board, labeling the columns as “Know,” “Want to Know,” and “Learned.” Solicit answers from your students regarding what they know about Rosa Parks. Write down whatever answers you get, regardless of whether or not their answers are correct. Ask them specifically, “What do you know about Rosa Parks?” Hopefully, some of your students will already know that Rosa Parks’ history is intertwined with the Montgomery Bus Boycott, and will mention the boycott by name; but if not, that’s fodder for the rest of the lesson. Once you’ve exhausted all answers to what they know, proceed to solicit what they want to know. Of course, you’ll complete the “Learned” column at the conclusion of the activity, as a quick assessment.



2. Document Analysis & Interpretation. Duplicate and distribute the featured primary source documents, along with their corresponding Document Analysis Worksheets (written documents; photographs). Divide the students into groups accordingly, directing each group to analyze and discuss their documents as they complete their worksheets, in preparation for a discussion on the history of Rosa Parks’ arrest, and the Montgomery Bus Boycott.

3. Vocabulary Development. Ask students to note any words in the documents whose meanings they aren’t absolutely sure of, such as: … adduced, boisterous, coerced, commensurate, complexion, deplorable, nationality, and reconciliation. Advise your students against assuming that they know what a word means if they aren’t 100% sure. For example:

Ask a student to look up the word "nationality" in a dictionary and read the definition aloud to the class. Direct the students to read again what was written on the police report for Rosa Parks’ nationality. Ask them to compare the dictionary definition with the answer written on the police report. How do they differ? Ask students to discuss the difference between the official view of black citizens of Montgomery, Alabama, at the time of Rosa Parks’ arrest. Conclude this activity with a discussion of why they think information about race and nationality are collected on these and other forms.



4. Chronological Thinking Activity. In this activity, students will analyze the documents you’ve given them as they try to piece together a chronological narrative history of the Montgomery Bus Boycott movement as it unfolded from the evening of Rosa Parks’ arrest, on December 1, 1955, until the successful overturning of segregated transportation, reflected in the cautionary memo issued by the Montgomery Improvement Association, dated December 19, 1956.

Project Ideas: Rosa Parks and the Montgomery Bus Boycott




Write and perform a one-act play based on information in the documents and the

suggested readings. Assign students the roles of Claudette Colvin, Rosa Parks, JoAnn

Robinson, E.D. Nixon, or Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Direct students to one of the websites

listed in the supplementary Online Lesson Resources document that accompanies this

lesson, to create an ‘cast of characters’ for the play, and to gather additional

biographical information. Videotape the best performances and make them available for

other classes to view.

Give students a choice of writing interior monologues for Parks, Colvin, Robinson, the bus

driver, a white passenger, or one of the police officer involved in the bus arrests of 1955,

describing his or her thoughts and feelings during the arrest.

Find out more about more about the life of Rosa Parks and try to determine what motivated

her actions on the bus, and what the consequences were for her and others. Then write a



brief essay on some aspect of this subject.

Research the lives of other people, both famous and obscure, involved in the civil rights

movement of the 1950s-60s, and choose one person for a report in written or oral form.

Online Activity. Direct students to the website, The Montgomery Bus Boycott: They Changed

the World (http://www.montgomeryboycott.com/). Ask them to be sure to make notes of

other people who played a role in the Boycott who are not featured in the documents that

accompany this lesson. Have the students write brief biographies of each person involved.







Primary Source 1 A



Primary Source 1 B






Primary Source 2









Primary Source 4






Primary Source 6



Primary Source 7



Primary Source 8

Primary Source 8




The Lynching of Emmett Till and Cold War Politics


Introduction

Between the 1880s and the 1940s, thousands of African Americans were lynched. The murder of 14-year-old Emmett Till became a national symbol of the physical abuses African Americans experienced in the South.

In August 1955, Emmett Till boarded a train from his hometown in Chicago to visit his uncle, Moses Wright, in Money, Mississippi. There are conflicting accounts, but some witnesses reported that, while buying soft drinks, Emmett Till might have whistled at, flirted with, or touched the hand of Carolyn Bryant, the white cashier and wife of the store owner at Bryant’s Grocery Store.

On August 28, 1955, at approximately 2:30 am, Roy Bryant and his half-brother J.W. Milam kidnapped Emmett Till from Moses Wright's home. Emmett Till was beaten, dragged to the bank of the nearby Tallahatchie River, shot in the head, and tied with barbed wire to a large metal fan. His body was then shoved into the water.

On August 31, 1955, Emmett Till’s decomposed corpse was pulled out of the river.

In Chicago, Emmett Till’s mother, Mamie Till Bradley, made the decision to have an open casket at the funeral. Jet Magazine and The Chicago Defender published graphic photos of Emmett Till’s body in the coffin. The trial of Bryant and Milam began on September 19, 1955, and was judged by an all-white, male jury.

Emmett Till’s uncle, Moses Wright, positively identified Bryant and Milam as the kidnappers. The jury found both men innocent after only 67 minutes of deliberation. Wright and another black man who testified were smuggled out of Mississippi to Chicago for their safety.

Bryant and Milam published their confessions in LOOK magazine on January 24, 1956, but were never retried due to the judicial standard of “double jeopardy.” Many civil rights activists pointed to Emmett Till’s murder as a catalyst for their involvement.

The primary source documents that accompany this lesson are from the holdings of the Dwight D. Eisenhower Presidential Library and Museum and they shed light on the flow of information about Emmett Till’s murder and the ensuing case. Initially, denying that there was any cause for federal intervention in the case, the U. S. Department of Justice continued to receive information from interested parties on the ground in Mississippi (as well as from other places around the country) that would suggest that there was, indeed, cause for federal intervention during the murder trial.

While a few historians have made the connection between the role of the United States’ foreign policy priorities with regard to the Cold War and how that impacted federal reaction to domestic civil rights issues, a chronological review of the documents here makes it clear that J. Edgar Hoover and the Department of Justice refused to acknowledge the legitimacy of the case, choosing instead to officially attribute the publicity of Emmett Till’s murder and trial to the work of the Communist Party.











Primary Source Documents: Emmett Till




  1. Telegram, Chicago Defender to DDE re: Emmett Till case, September 1, 1955 [DDE's Records as President, Alphabetical File, Box 3113, Emmett Till]



  1. Reply to Chicago Defender from J. William Barba, September 2, 1955 [DDE's Records as President, Alphabetical File, Box 3113, Emmett Till]



  1. Telegram, Mamie Bradley (mother of Emmett Till) to DDE, September 2, 1955 [DDE's Records as President, Alphabetical File, Box 3113, Emmett Till]




  1. Letter, J. Edgar Hoover to Dillon Anderson, September 6, 1955 [White House Office of the Special Assistant for National Security Affairs, FBI Series, Box 3, FBI T-Z (1)]



  1. Night letter, Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters, AFL to Attorney General Brownell,

September 28, 1955 [DDE's Records as President, Alphabetical File, Box 3113, Emmett Till]

  1. Memorandum from National Administrative Committee of the Communist Party to all CP

District Boards and Party Committees re: Emmett Louis Till Lynching, September 29,

1955 [White House Office of the Special Assistant for National Security Affairs, FBI Series,

Box 3, FBI T-Z (1)]



  1. Letter, W. Beverly Carter, Publisher of Pittsburgh Courier, to E. Frederic Morrow, Admin.

Officer for Special Projects, Eisenhower Administration, September 29, 1955 [DDE's Records

as President, Alphabetical File, Box 3113, Emmett Till]



  1. Memorandum for the Record, E. Frederick Morrow, Administrative Officer Special

Projects Group, Eisenhower Administration, re: Emmett Till, November 22, 1955 [E.

Frederic Morrow Records, Box 10, Civil Rights Official Memoranda, 1956-55]




  1. Memorandum, Maxwell Rabb, Cabinet Secretary, to James Hagerty, White House Press

Secretary, Eisenhower Administration, re: Mamie Bradley and the CP USA, October 23,

1955 [DDE's Records as President, Alphabetical File, Box 3113, Emmett Till]

Teaching Activities: The Lynching of Emmett Till and Cold War Politics




  1. K-W-L Introductory Assessment Activity. Begin by drawing three columns on your board, labeling the columns as “Know,” “Want to Know,” and “Learned.” Solicit answers from your students regarding what they know about Emmett Till. Write down whatever answers you get, regardless of whether or not their answers are correct. Ask them specifically, “What do you know about Emmett Till?” Once you’ve exhausted all answers to what they know, proceed to solicit what they want to know. Of course, you’ll complete the “Learned” column at the conclusion of the activity, as a quick assessment.



  1. Document Analysis & Interpretation. Duplicate and distribute the featured primary source documents, along with the corresponding Document Analysis Worksheet. Divide the students into groups accordingly, directing each group to analyze and discuss their documents as they complete their worksheets, in preparation for a discussion on the lynching of Emmett Till.



  1. Chronological Thinking Activity. In this activity, students will create the historical context for the documents they analyzed in activity #2, above, by creating a timeline for the nine primary source documents comprising this lesson. The parameters of the timeline should be as follows:

    1. Create a timeline consisting of 3 columns, 10 rows.

    2. Make the first row a header column, consisting of: Date, Description, Document (the last column is where they will insert images of the documents; advise them that they are to resize the images so that the table is not unwieldy).

    3. Students should use the information about each document from their Document Analysis Worksheets to create a brief summary “Description” of each document to be placed in the middle column.

    4. For an example of what the finished product should look like, see the sample Emmett Till timeline.



  1. Online Extension Activity. Direct students to the website, Timeline: The Murder of Emmett Till, from PBS American Experience, here:

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/till/timeline/index.html.

Direct students to read the events on the timeline in light of the primary source documents from their own timelines. It is important to have them read the events from both timelines in chronological order. Once they have done so, have them answer the following questions:



    1. Was Mamie Till still married to Louis Till when he was drafted by the army to serve during World War II?

    2. How much time transpired between the kidnapping of Emmett Till from his uncle’s house and his mother’s telegram to the Eisenhower White House regarding the kidnapping and murder of her son?

    3. What role did the press play in spreading the news of Till’s murder?

    4. What role did the image of Emmett Till in his coffin play in the reporting of his murder?


  1. Online Extension Activity #2. Instruct your student to review the history of the Emmett Till lynching and trial found here: Famous Trials: Emmett Till Murder (Bryant and Milam) Trial, 1955:

http://law2.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/till/tillhome.html


Project Ideas: The Lynching of Emmett Till and Cold War Politics

Write and perform a one-act play. Use the information from the website (http://law2.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/till/tillhome.html) to create a ‘cast of characters’ for the play and to gather additional biographical information.


Primary Source 1




Primary Source 2




Primary Source 3










Primary Source 4




Primary Source 5













Primary Source 6






Primary Source 7








Primary Source 8




Primary Source 9



Timeline: The Lynching of Emmett Till & Cold War Politics


DATE

DESCRIPTION

DOCUMENT



1 Sept 1955



Chicago Defender (Sengstacke) to DDE re: Emmett Till case

“A Chicago boy, Emmett Louis Till 14 was kidnapped and lynched in Mississippi this week, would you let us know if your office has plans to take any action with reference to this shocking act of lawlessness.”






2 Sept 1955



Reply to Chicago Defender from J. William Barba

J. William Barbra, the Assistant to the Special Counsel to President Eisenhower, replies to John Sengstacke, Publisher, the Chicago Defender, telling him that the DOJ so far sees no basis for federal intervention in the Till murder but, in the event that that changes, they will let him know.






2 Sept 1955



Mamie E. Bradley (mother of Emmett Till) to DDE

“I the mother of Emmett Louis Till am pleading that you personally see that justice is meted out to all persons involved in the beastly lynching of my son in Money Miss. Awaiting a direct reply from you.”






6 Sept 1955

J. Edgar Hoover to Dillon Anderson [3 pgs]

Hoover informs Special Assistant to the President Dillon Anderson that members of the Communist Party in Chicago, were going to launch a campaign protesting Emmett Till’s murder. They planned to print and distribute flyers, send out letters and telegrams, etc. Hoover’s informant is obviously highly placed in the CP USA Chicago, as evidenced by the details of the CP and the NAACP’s plans to criticize the Eisenhower administration over their lack of involvement in prosecuting Till’s case.






28 Sept 1955

Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters, AFL to Attorney General Brownell

A.P. Randolph urges an FBI investigation into the whereabouts of two “negroes” – Leroy Collins and Henry Lee Loggins - mentioned during the Till trials who seemed to have gone missing. Also informs Brownell of a Brotherhood-sponsored rally at Williams Institutional C.M.E. Church attended by various labor, civic, and religious groups. He informs Brownell that a resolution drafted as a result of that meeting is forthcoming.





29 Sept 1955
Memorandum from National Administrative Committee of the Communist Party to all CP District Boards and Party Committees re: Emmett Louis Till Lynching [4 pgs]

Memo goes into great detail about possible organizing activities that the CP could be doing in relation the Till murder. Gives a very brief but accurate summary of the politics of terror of the South as it relates to “Negro” history. Proposes protest activities designed to force the Eisenhower Administration to intervene in the case.






29 Sept 1955

W. Beverly Carter, Publisher of Pittsburgh Courier, to E. Frederic Morrow, Admin. Officer for Special Projects, Eisenhower Administration [2 pgs]

Bev Carter informs Morrow that her paper has been receiving hundreds of letters from people all around the country regarding the Till case. She is concerned that “not one denunciatory statement has been issued from anyone high in the Federal government.” She mentions Leroy Collins, the black man who allegedly washed Emmett Till’s blood out of the Chevy pick-up truck used by Till’s killers to haul his body to the river, who had been locked in a Charleston, MS, and suggests that, if true, that would be enough of a reason for Federal intervention.





22 Nov 1955

Memorandum for the Record, E. Frederick Morrow, Administrative Officer Special Projects Group, Eisenhower Administration, re: Emmett Till [3 pgs]

Morrow is bringing the president up to speed on the mood around the country, especially among Black people, regarding the Till case, and is trying to convince Eisenhower that a statement from high up in the administration would go far toward easing the violent tensions around the country. He reminds Eisenhower that previous presidents, both Democratic and Republican, have sat down with ‘Negro leaders’ in the past to discuss racial issues.






23 Oct 1956

Maxwell Rabb, Cabinet Secretary, to James Hagerty, White House Press Secretary, Eisenhower Administration, re: Mamie Bradley and the CP USA Rabb explains to Hagerty that the Administration never directly responded to Mamie Bradley’s wire message at the suggestion of the Department of Justice and the FBI, who had come to the conclusion that rather than her truly being concerned at the brutal lynching of her son, she was merely being used as a pawn by the Communist Party USA in order to make her cause “the means of making the race question a burning issue.” He then mentions some other personal issues regarding her husband, and reaffirms that for these reasons they didn’t respond to her.




Additional Resources

Secondary Sources

Rosa Parks and the Montgomery Bus Boycott


Kohl, Herbert. “The Politics of Children’s Literature: What’s Wrong with the Rosa Parks

Myth,” from Putting The Movement Back Into Civil Rights Teaching: A Resource Guide For K12 Classrooms, pp. 25-31, Ed. by Deborah Menkart, Alana D. Murray, and Jenice L. View.

Parks, Rosa, with Jim Haskins. Rosa Parks: My Story. New York: Puffin Books, 1992.

Robinson, Jo Ann Gibson. The Montgomery Bus Boycott and the Women Who Started It: The Memoir of Jo Ann Gibson Robinson. Knoxville, Tenn.: University of Tennessee Press, 1987.

Williams, Donnie, and Wayne Greenhaw. The Thunder of Angels: The Montgomery Bus Boycott and the People Who Broke the Back of Jim Crow. Chicago: Lawrence Hill Books, 2006.




The Lynching of Emmett Till and Cold War Politics


Till-Mobley, Mamie. Death of Innocence: The Story of the Hate Crime That Changed America. One World/Ballantine: 2004.

Borstelmann, Thomas. The Cold War and the Color Line. Harvard UP: 2003.

Dudziak, Mary L. Cold War Civil Rights: Race and the Image of American Democracy (Politics and Society in Twentieth-Century America). Princeton UP: 2011.

Online Resources

Rosa Parks and the Montgomery Bus Boycott


The Montgomery Bus Boycott: They Changed the World:

http://www.montgomeryboycott.com

Explore: Rosa Parks, from the Black Culture Connection Online, by PBS:

http://www.pbs.org/black-culture/explore/rosa-parks/#.U_tfl8U7t8E

Before Rosa Parks, There Was Claudette Colvin. National Public Radio (NPR) Weekend Sunday online interview/story, by Margot Adler:

http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyld=101719889

The Montgomery Boycott and the Women Who Started It: The Memoir of JoAnn Gibson Robinson, National Humanities Center Resource Toolbox [pdf]

http://nationalhumanitiescenter.org/pds/maai3/protest/text5/robinsonbusboycott.pdf

Teaching the Montgomery Bus Boycott, from Putting the Movement Back Into Civil Rights Teaching:

http://civilrightsteaching.org/about/in-the-news/teaching-themontgomery-bus-boycott-50-years-later/


The Lynching of Emmett Till and Cold War Politics


Famous Trials: Emmett Till Murder (Bryant and Milam) Trial, 1955:

http://law2.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/till/tillhome.html

The Dwight D. Eisenhower Presidential Library, Civil Rights: The Emmett Till Case. http://eisenhower.archives.gov/research/online_documents/civil_rights_emmett_till_case.

html


Timeline: The Murder of Emmett Till, PBS American Experience.

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/till/timeline/index.html



January 24, 1956: Emmett Till Murderers Make Magazine Confession, from ‘This Day In History,’ by the History Channel:

http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/emmetttill-murderers-make-magazine-confession










Photo Analysis Worksheet




Step 1. Observation

A.

Study the photograph for 2 minutes. Form an overall impression of the photograph and then examine individual items. Next, divide the photo into quadrants and study each section to see what new details become visible.





B.

Use the chart below to list people, objects, and activities in the photograph.




People

Objects

Activities








































































Step 2.Inference

Based on what you have observed above, list three things you might infer from this photograph.


1.
2.
3.




Step 3. Questions



A.

B.

What questions does this photograph raise in your mind?

Where could you find answers to them?




Designed and developed by the

Education Staff, National Archives and Records Administration,

Written Document Analysis Worksheet







1.

TYPE OF DOCUMENT

(Check one):


Newspaper




Map


Advertisement






Letter

Telegram

Congressional Record




Patent

Press Release

Census Report




Memorandum

Report

Other


2.

UNIQUE PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE DOCUMENT (Check one or more):

Interesting Letterhead Notations

Handwritten "RECEIVED" stamp

Typed Other

Seals


3.

DATE(S) OF DOCUMENT:

4.

AUTHOR (OR CREATOR) OF THE DOCUMENT:

POSITION (TITLE):

5.

FOR WHAT AUDIENCE WAS THE DOCUMENT WRITTEN?


Designed and developed by the

Education Staff, National Archives and Records Administration

Curriculum Correlations


Rosa Parks and the Montgomery Bus Boycott
This lesson correlates to the Common Core Georgia Performance Standards:

Literacy Standards for Reading in History/Social Studies (RH) Grade 9 - 10:





    • L9-10RH1: Cite Specific textual evidence to support analysis of primary and secondary sources, attending to such features as the date and origin of the information.

    • L9-10RH2: Determine the central ideas or information of a primary or secondary source; provide an accurate summary of how key events or ideas develop over the course of the text.

    • L9-10RH3: Analyze in detail a series of events described in a text; determine whether earlier events caused later ones or simply preceded them.

Literacy Standards for Reading in History/Social Studies (RH) Grade 11 - 12:





    • L11-12RH1: Cite Specific textual evidence to support analysis of primary and secondary sources, connecting insights gained from specific details to an understanding of the text as a whole.

    • L11-12RH2: Determine the central ideas or information of a primary or secondary source; provide an accurate summary that makes clear the relationship among the key details and ideas.

    • L11-12RH3: Evaluate various explanations for actions or events and determine which explanation best accords with textual evidence, acknowledging where the text leaves matters uncertain.

This lesson correlates to the National History Standards:



    • Era 9 -Postwar United States (1945-early 1970s)



  • Standard 4A -Demonstrate understanding of the Second Reconstruction and its advancement of civil rights.


This lesson correlates to the National Standards for Civics and Government:



    • Standard V.B.4. -Evaluate, take, and defend positions on the relationships among personal, political, and economic rights.





The Lynching of Emmett Till and Cold War Politics


This lesson correlates to the Common Core Georgia Performance Standards:
Literacy Standards for Reading in History/Social Studies (RH) Grade 9 - 10:



    • L9-10RH1: Cite Specific textual evidence to support analysis of primary and secondary sources, attending to such features as the date and origin of the information.

  • L9-10RH2: Determine the central ideas or information of a primary or secondary source; provide an accurate summary of how key events or ideas develop over the course of the text.

    • L9-10RH3: Analyze in detail a series of events described in a text; determine whether earlier events caused later ones or simply preceded them.

Literacy Standards for Reading in History/Social Studies (RH) Grade 11 - 12:





    • L11-12RH1: Cite Specific textual evidence to support analysis of primary and secondary sources, connecting insights gained from specific details to an understanding of the text as a whole.

    • L11-12RH2: Determine the central ideas or information of a primary or secondary source; provide an accurate summary that makes clear the relationship among the key details and ideas.

    • L11-12RH3: Evaluate various explanations for actions or events and determine which explanation best accords with textual evidence, acknowledging where the text leaves matters uncertain.





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