Introduction to Human Geography



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Introduction to Human Geography
1. The South American country with the highest average daily calorie consumption per capita is

a) Argentina

b) Peru

c) Brazil



d) Chile
2. Most of the one billion malnourished people in the world:

a) have little power

b) have little money

c) are women or children

d) all of the above
3. Two countries with very high percentages of arable land are:

a) the United States and South Africa.

b) Colombia and Togo.

c) Rwanda and Poland

d) Russia and India.
4. Much of Kenya’s income comes from:

a) oil


b) coffee and tea production

c) iron ore

d) tourism
5. _____% of Kenya’s land is arable.

a) 72


b) 48

c) 23


d) 8
6. The set of processes that are increasing interactions, deepening relationships and heightening interdependence regardless of national boundaries are called __________

processes.

a) spatial

b) nationalizing

c) ecological

d) globalization


7. Human geographers focus

a) on how people make places.

b) on how we organize space a society.

c) on how we interact with each other in places and across space.

d) all of the above
8. The branch of geography that focuses upon natural landforms, climate, soils and

vegetation of the Earth is:

a) cultural geography

b) human geography

c) physical geography

d) biogeography

9. The importance of the spatial approach that geographers use in their studies is that

it shows:

a) the arrangement and organization of things on the surface to the Earth

b) the history of an area

c) human activity only

d) the political impact of boundaries


10. Cholera is an ancient disease with its source area in:

a) China


b) India

c) Afghanistan

d) Indonesia
11. By the time the last great cholera pandemic began in 1865, people knew to take

precautions against _____ and ended the great waves of cholera.

a) traveling in groups

b) contaminated water

c) eating canned food

d) improper disposal of garbage


12. In 1990, an outbreak of cholera killing over 10,000 people occurred in:

a) the Western Hemisphere

b) Africa

c) West Asia

d) Bangladesh
13. Cholera vaccines exist, but the problem is that:

a) they are too expensive

b) they have serious side effects

c) many people refuse to take them

d) they do not remain effective for longer than about 6 months
14. Which geographical theme would involve the study of the impact of the drainage of

part of the Florida Everglades?

a) human-environment

b) movement

c) place

d) location


15. _________________ refers to the infusing of a locality with meaning and emotion.

a) Regionalization

b) Human-environment interaction

c) Sense of place

d) Location theory
16. The degree of direct linkage between one particular location and other locations in

a transport network is referred to as:

a) spatial interaction

b) movement

c) landscape

d) connectivity


17. Geographer Carl O. Sauer is most closely connected with:

a) natural landscape

b) cultural landscape

c) regional geography

d) location theory
18. In their study on students’ perceptions of place, Gould and White found that

a) students would prefer to live near the Rocky Mountains.

b) students would prefer to live in Utah over California.

c) students have no place preferences.

d) students have a strong bias for their home region.
19. The cultural landscape of Dar es Salaam is a composite of several different culture groups which have administered the place. British policy stimulated the development of a district of 3 to 4 story apartments reminiscent of:

a) London

b) Bombay

c) Nairobi

d) Paris
20. The coordinates of absolute location are useful mainly in determining exact:

a) distance

b) directions

c) distance and directions

d) elevations
21. The physical location of a place using the Earth latitude-longitude grid is properly

called the:

a) relative location

b) absolute location

c) referenced location

d) grid plan


22. The location of a place in relationship to other places or features around it is called:

a) absolute location

b) site

c) relative location

d) index of placeness
23. Chicago’s absolute location has not changed but its relative location changed markedly in 1959 because:

a) Lake Michigan shrank

b) O’Hare international airport opened

c) the St. Lawrence Seaway was opened

d) new railroads were completed
24. The mental map you have of places you routinely visit is a map of your:

a) neighborhood

b) inner world

c) region

d) activity spaces

25. Except for South and Southeast Asia, which ocean influences the moistest areas of the

world?

a) Pacific



b) Indian

c) Arctic

d) Atlantic
26. The concern of geography with space puts _________ at the center of its agenda.

a) patterns

b) distance

c) scale


d) places
27. A good example of a formal region would be a:

a) region surrounding a manufacturing complex

b) city and its surrounding region

c) region of similar language

d) region showing the migration to a central location
28. A good example of a functional region would be:

a) a city and its surrounding region

b) region where everyone speaks French

c) region where farming practices are the same

d) region of a similar climate
29. The cultural geographer Wilbur Zelinsky approached the task of defining and

delimiting the perceptual regions of the United States and southern Canada by

analyzing:

a) results from thousands of personal interviews

b) results of census data

c) contents of hundreds of telephone directories of metropolitan areas

d) data of social workers
30. Of the 12 major perceptual regions of the United States and southern Canada

identified by Zelinsky, the one that is unlike any of the others is:

a) Southwest

b) New England

c) Middle Atlantic

d) the South


31. The concept of culture is closely identified with:

a) archaeology

b) anthropology

c) sociology

d) psychology
32. Cultural geographers identify a single element of normal practice (e.g. cattle herding)

as:


a) a culture trait

b) a cultural peculiarity

c) a culture region

d) a cultural heritage


33. A cultural complex is defined as:

a) a single trait spread over a geographic region

b) a discrete combination of traits, for example Masaai cattle herding

c) several groups sharing the same trait

d) several groups occupying the same region
34. The spread of ideas, cultural traits, knowledge and skills from their place of origin to

other areas where they are adopted is called:

a) diffusion

b) adjustment

c) spreading

d) cultural invasion


35. Hagerstrand emphasized that culture hearths should be viewed in the context of

______ as well as space.

a) time

b) location



c) innovations

d) population


36. The greater the distance from the hearth the less likely an innovation will be adopted.

This is referred to as:

a) inverse innovation rule

b) adoption avoidance

c) distance decay

d) cultural repulsion


37. The lack of penetration of alcoholic beverages in Islamic regions illustrates the effect

of ______________________ on cultural diffusion.

a) cultural taste

b) poor transport systems

c) cultural barriers

d) psychological barriers


38. The diffusion of the idea of the hamburger to India but with a vegetable patty instead

of the religiously prohibited beef is an example of:

a) cultural mimicry

b) cultural barrier

c) stimulus diffusion

d) independent invention


39. Which of the following is not an example of a form of expansion diffusion?

a) hierarchical

b) stimulus

c) contagions

d) independent invention (ancient agricultural hearths)
40. The spread of disease where nearly all adjacent individuals are affected is an

example of:

a) relocation diffusion

b) independent infection

c) contagious diffusion

d) stimulus diffusion


41. The diffusion of Birkenstock shoes or of new styles of music tend to be examples of:

a) independent adoption

b) contagious diffusion

c) hierarchical diffusion

d) stimulus invention
42. Which form of diffusion cannot be transmitted by media (television, internet, radio)?

a) relocation diffusion

b) hierarchical diffusion

c) stimulus diffusion

d) expansion diffusion
43. Nineteenth Century American English contains words that are Dutch, Native American, Spanish, French and German. Most of this growth of the language was the product of:

a) multi-cultural curriculum in the schools

b) international broadcast media

c) a fashion for including exotic words

d) relocation diffusion of various groups
44. The notion that cultural factors are the product of environmental conditions (e.g. the ancient Greek idea that Europeans were fierce and brutish because of the cold climate), is an example of:

a) environmental prejudice

b) modern environmental psychology

c) environmental determinism

d) environmental possibilism
45. The study of human cultures and their ability to adapt and exist within a particular

physical environment is called:

a) possibilism

b) cultural ecology

c) culture history

d) cultural determinism

Essay

58. Discuss the problems that “geographic illiteracy” can present to a country such as the United States in the Twenty-First Century. Give examples of the need for geographic knowledge in diverse areas such as international politics, domestic politics, economics, and popular culture.


Ans:
59. Discuss the difference between absolute and relative location. What is the absolute location of your college or university? How would you describe the relative location of the town or city where your college is located?
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60. Discuss mental geography from two personal perspectives: the mental map of your activity spaces and the map of your preferred place of residence in the United States.


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61. Describe the use of spatial analysis in the discovery of the cause of cholera. Give one or two examples of the spatial aspects of diseases which are commonly in the news (e.g. AIDS, flu, etc.).


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62. What is a functional region and how does it differ from a formal region? Discuss the functional region associated with a nearby metropolitan center—describe movement, communication and interaction between the metro area and its surrounding region.


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63. Briefly describe the difference between expansion and relocation diffusion. Give several example of each.


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64. The South region of the United States, it is argued, persists as a region which is different from other U.S. regions. Identify some of the material and nonmaterial cultural attribute associated with this region. Discuss possible boundaries of the region and what you would use to establish the boundaries. In your opinion, is the South becoming more or less like the rest of the country? Give evidence for your opinion.


Ans:


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