Introduction to Anthropology, Psychology and Sociology



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Introduction to Anthropology, Psychology and Sociology:

Exam Overview - January, 2015

Chapter 1 - Introducing the Social Sciences

The 3 social sciences: psychology, sociology, anthropology

Research methods: hypothesis, experiments (experimental vs. control group), independent vs. dependent variable, case study, longitudinal study

use of animals

The ‘Marshmallow test’






Chapter 2 - Anthropology, Human Beings and Culture

physical vs. cultural anthropology

patriarchal vs. matriarchal culture; patrilineal vs. matrilineal culture

bipedalism (define)

homo sapien (define)

participant observation (define)

enthnocentrism vs. cultural relativism

‘rite of passage’ (define)

Jane Goodall

Charles Darwin: theory of evolution

Louis and Mary Leaky: their discovery

Chapter 3 - Psychology and Human Mental Processes

sensation and perception (definitions)

Helen Keller

Hippocrates

E.S.P.: types (e.g. telepathy)

Learning: Classical Conditioning (UCS, CS, UCR, CR, extinction, generalization, experiments of Pavlov and Watson); Operant Conditioning (positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, punishment)

Memory: Sensory, Short-term, Long-term

Sleep and Dreams: types of sleep disorders; consequences of sleep deprivation


Chapter 4 - Motivation and Emotion

Branches of psychology: Psychoanalytic, Behavioural, Cognitive, etc.

Freud: psychoanalysis, id, ego, superego, defense mechanisms (rationalization, repression, etc.), dreams, hypnosis, free association
Chapter 5 - Mental Health and Illness

Psychology in history: exorcisms, trephining, phrenology

Stress: eustress, stressors, fight or flight, impact on body, Type A vs. Type B personality

Psychological disorders: anxiety disorders (e.g. phobias, obsessive compulsive disorder) and therapies



(e.g. flooding), mood disorders (e.g. depression, bipolar disorder), schizophrenia, substance abuse/dependence, dissociative identity disorder

Drug categories (e.g. stimulants)

Placebo effect (define)
Chapter 6 - Sociology, Socialization and Personality

nature vs. nurture

birth order theory

isolates and feral children

Abuse: types; cycle of violence

gender socialization

social institution (define)

agent of socialization (define)

extrovert vs. introvert

‘tabula rasa’

Erik Erikson (adolescent stage)

Charles Horton Cooley’s ‘looking glass self’


Chapter 7 - The Family: A Primary Group

Types of families: blended, extended, nuclear, etc.

Types of marriages: arranged, free-choice

Teen dating violence and domestic abuse; media and violence toward women

Issues to discuss prior to marriage
Chapter 8 - Groups, Cliques and Social Behaviour

conformity experiments: Asch ‘line’; Zimbardo ‘prison’; Milgram ‘shock’

primary vs. secondary groups

norms, roles, sanctions

cliques

leadership styles: authoritarian, democratic, laissez-faire


Chapter 10 - Crowds, Mass Behaviour and Social Movements

crowds (see related information in note about issues such as the bystander effect, diffusion of responsibility, social proof, mobs, riots, etc.)

mass behaviour

deindividuation

gossip

mass hysteria and ‘War of the Worlds’


Chapter 11 - Culture and Discrimination

culture

assimilation; multiculturalism

segregation

prejudice and theories about its causes (social learning, psychological theories)

scapegoat

discrimination (and types - systemic, racism, ageism, sexism, etc.)

stereotypes

genocide

Jane Elliot and her classroom exercise


Chapter 15 - Deviance and Social Control

deviance (and theories about its causes: biological, sociological; psychological)

informal and formal social control

punishment and its goals (e.g. retribution, rehabilitation, deterrence)



dealing with youth crime
Chapter 17 - Culture and Communication
media - studies regarding impact of violent media on viewers (i.e. children)



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