Introduction Nelleke Bak

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Fig. 2























Fig. 3 Caregiver Behaviour Profiles






Amount of responsiveness


Physical involvement


Verbal involvement


Teaching behaviour


Control of activities


Positive statements


Negative statements


Play interaction

What is shown in Fig. 3 are scores for the different caregiver behaviours assessed. A score of 5 on each behaviour would indicate good caregiver involvement. The highest score in this group was with regard to Verbal Involvement, while Play Interaction was the lowest.

Objective 3: Gather quantitative data on knowledge of developmental milestones.
Objective 4: Establish quantitative data on the knowledge mothers have on the link between stimulation through play and development.
As explained earlier under Short term goal 2, the approach to development changed slightly in focus. This was because during the initial attempts to address objectives 3 and 4, the researchers realised that placing emphasis on reaching developmental milestones at specific chronological ages may not be helpful to the caregivers involved in this research. This was also confirmed in our consultation with Mush Perrins (expert child development consultant). Findings related to Objective 1 indicated marked developmental delay in Group XX1. It is unlikely that these children will ever function at the developmental levels of their peers in terms of gross and fine motor skills. The researchers felt that it would be more empowering to focus on the progression of development regardless of chronological age, towards the effective interaction of the child with the environment. The caregivers were asked about their knowledge of developmental stimulation during groups. It emerged that little was known about how to stimulate a child for the achievement of specific milestones like rolling, crawling and standing.
Objective 5: Capture qualitative data on the understanding of the concept of play, and its link to health.
Caregivers’ view of play: This information was collected on seven of the 12 caregivers in Group X1. Most caregivers felt that play in a child’s life is very important and a necessity. 42% of the caregivers felt that a child should play at any time and the other 42% felt that a child should play only at certain times. 16% of the caregivers felt that it is not important that a child has time to play.
What is needed for play? When eliciting information on the caregivers’ understanding of what a child needs to play, toys seemed to emerge quite strongly. 71% felt that toys are only bought from the shop, and 14% of them felt that toys can be anything found in the home. The other 15% felt that toys are bought from the shop and that they can also be anything from outside.
57% of caregivers reported that their children needed space to be able to play, and 43% reported that the children need toys to play. None of the caregivers saw themselves as enablers of play, or as having a role in their children’s play. Most of the children were reported to be playing with other children, and those who have toys were using toys bought from the shop. 14% of the caregivers reported that their children play with anything that is available in the home environment.
Should a child play when sick? 28% of the caregivers felt that a child should play even if s/he is sick so as to encourage blood circulation that will in turn provide warmth for the body. Playing was also seen by these caregivers as indicating when the child is really sick. 72% of the caregivers felt that a child should not be allowed to play when s/he is sick. Some of the reasons given were that the child should be looked after and protected, and must not go outside. Some of the comments are; ‘S/he will get too sick and restless’; ‘S/he has no right to play because I want him to recover’; ‘I have to protect him from the cold’.
Objective 6: Explore determinants of playfulness in caregiver-child interaction as informed by living circumstances, for Group X1.
Demographic data relating to 9 out of the 12 participants in Group X1 were collected. Focus groups were also conducted with this group. These were both done to establish factors that may explain determinants of playfulness.
Caregivers: The ages of the caregivers range between 28 and 73 years. Of the caregivers interviewed, 11% had never been to school. The educational level of the other caregivers ranged from standard 4 to standard 10. 78% of the caregivers are biological mothers of the children, while 22% are grandmothers. All the caregivers were unemployed at the time of collecting data. In the case of 42% of all the caregivers who are the biological mothers, the children who are involved in the research are their first-born. A scale for depression was administered on 7 of the caregivers. 86% reported to have been depressed at some point, soon after hearing about their HIV status. Their responses did not indicate the presence of depression at the time of data collection.
Children: The ages of the children ranged from 12 months to six years. 44% of the children were attending a crèche at the time, albeit irregularly for most of them. 56% stayed at home during the day. All the children were reported as playing with other children at home.
Home situations: 77% of the children’s homes had a space to play, whereas 23% of them did not have such a space.

Actual outcomes

  1. Appreciation of play as beneficial to both caregivers and their children, regardless of sickness.

  2. I learnt that your own body as a parent becomes relieved and you feel like a child and you don’t have worries’.

  3. It is nice that the child plays so that he can show his level of intelligence’.

  4. Support and learning for the caregivers.

  5. Today my soul is free’.

  6. I learnt that when you are with other people, you become happy’.

  7. Caregivers have also learnt that a child does not necessarily need bought toys to play. During the toy-making workshops they creatively made their toys and came up with their own ideas. The caregivers will carry this skill to the entrepreneurship project that is being planned.

  8. Strong working relationships exist between the researchers and the Red Cross Society, Masincedane Clinic and the Full Gospel Welfare Support Group staff members. The researchers continue to learn new strategies for networking with the community.

  9. Identification of a member from the Red Cross Society support group to be a research team member.

(Analysis of quantitative data is still in progress.)
Expected outcomes

  1. Caregivers will begin to view themselves as enablers of play.

  2. An improved developmental profile amongst the children.

  3. Improved playfulness in the children.

  4. Improved caregiver-child interaction.

  5. Caregivers will gain information with regard to the progression of important developmental milestones.

  6. They will also learn how to stimulate the acquisition of specific developmental milestones.

  7. They will also learn about the nutritional needs of children at different developmental stages.

  8. They will gain information with regard to making playthings out of available resources.

  9. The caregivers that are participating in the project will be role models for other parents in the community and might be resourceful in educating them about the importance of mother-child interaction and play.

  10. Mutual learning: the researchers and the caregivers will learn from each other.

  11. Through networking, this research project will help other projects that are working with adults living with HIV but who have not directly considered children.


  1. The caregivers’ attendance has been inconsistent, making it difficult for the researchers to have a uniform number when collecting data at the different stages of the project. Some of the participants were the victims of the floods in Cape Town. Sometimes either the caregiver or the child would be experiencing health problems and thus would not be able to participate. At times the caregiver would get a one-day casual job on the day that was assigned for research.

  2. The researchers are currently faced with the challenge of finding a suitable venue at the Masincedane Clinic. The participants and staff members do not want the project to happen somewhere else, as they feel it is a development opportunity for them as members of the Masincedane Clinic. There is no room that is big enough to accommodate the participants (especially if the theme is play, which requires that those involved be free to move about). There is a space at the back of the clinic that is big enough, but it needs a screen that would make it an enclosed space.

  3. Gaining access to the participants was time-consuming, as this meant that the full-time researcher would have to take time building relationships with the support group members before they could trust and willingly participate. The researchers are working with young caregivers who are living in poverty. The workshops take a whole day and participants have to go home and look for something to eat for the day. This meant that researchers had to be more sensitive and identify a strategy to ensure that the participants take something home after the workshop. Researchers provide food parcels that consist of fresh vegetables bought from the market in the community. Participants value this, as they see it as relevant to their health needs. This was also negotiated with the participants, since some expectations were aroused as a result of similar actions by other NGOs working with people living with HIV/AIDS in the communities.

What did we learn from the process so far?

  1. The important issues surrounding community entry: one needs to build a trusting relationship with the people that one is going to work with before doing the actual work, and this is a process.

  2. HIV/AIDS is a very sensitive topic despite the education that is being done in the communities. People are still being judged negatively by their families once they disclose, and as a result most of them do not want the researchers to visit them in their homes. They prefer to bring the children to the Nyanga clinic. This sometimes means waiting in vain when appointments are not honoured by the caregivers. This requires patience and understanding on the part of the researcher. Sometimes the rainy weather does not allow them to take the children (whose health is already compromised) out of their homes. This causes further delays in the process.

  3. With regard to confidentiality, one needs to demonstrate consistent professional behaviour including reliability, responsibility, and showing respect to all participants.

  4. The initial resistance that was shown by the caregivers could have been as a result of cited previous experience with researchers who left them feeling vulnerable and unsure of how the research project would benefit them. This confirmed the researchers’ view that the participants needed to be fully informed and have access to the researchers for issues to be clarified as they arise throughout the research process.

  5. Working with young mothers who are breadwinners is quite challenging, as the process is never uniform or continuous.

  6. Working in a community that is faced by poverty has been an eye-opener for researchers as this highlights the main problem faced by South Africa. These caregivers are also struggling with their children’s lives or their own lives, for instance struggling to form or maintain relationships with partners who do not understand the HIV/AIDS concept. This always requires that researchers be flexible and empathetic, and accommodate the different issues that the caregivers want to discuss. These would be issues related to their children’s physical health problems or problems with their partners.

  7. Researchers have also learnt that people will always make use of available resources. This was noticed because the participants are always playing an active role during the focus group interviews or attending workshops. This was evident with the Masincedane Clinic group members who were always earlier than their scheduled time. This was also evident with the members from the Full Gospel Support Group, who were always punctual and would invite other members to come and join the group. The participants also volunteered to help during the workshop. They always want to learn more about their children and this was indicated by the questions asked. Those who were not able to attend always sent reports. Some caregivers would come wanting to know about the future of their children, and there would be questions like, ‘Sisi, what do you think will happen to my child, do you think she’s going to be fine?’

  8. Researchers have also learnt that despite the unavailability of resources, caregivers work hard to create opportunities for their children. One caregiver said, ‘I’m teaching here, I don’t have money to take him to the crèche, so I have my own crèche at home’. This was about a two-year old who is learning to dress himself independently. Even though he is struggling to do it, the mother encourages him to be independent.

A qualitative study of parents’ views on HIV/AIDS

and sexuality education in primary schools

(work-in-progress report)

K. van Schalkwyk

Research aims

To explore parents’ views on HIV/AIDS and sexuality education in primary schools. More specifically, to answer the questions:

  1. What role do parents think primary schools should play in HIV/AIDS and sexuality education?

  2. What HIV/AIDS/sexuality topics should be taught in primary schools?

  3. What do parents think about learners living with HIV/AIDS attending primary schools?

  4. What factors do parents think might enhance school-based HIV/AIDS and sexuality education?


According to recent estimates, between 50 and 65% of 15 year-old children may die within 30 years, and more than four million children may be orphaned and become dropouts because of HIV/AIDS. HIV/AIDS and sexuality education has therefore become a compulsory part of South Africa’s life skills school curriculum, especially within the primary school curriculum since 1999 (Sanders, cited in Archimedes, 2001: 42). With decentralisation of power to communities, parents have become accountable for monitoring the behaviour of children and providing proper information and support structures at home (South African Schools Act, 1996, revised in 1999). Research does however paint a bleak picture of illiterate and unavailable, unapproachable, unsupportive and ignorant parents, especially concerning the issue of sexuality – in a time when rape and child abuse are widespread in South Africa (Kelly, 2000; LoveLife, 2001, Walker, 2001).

HIV-positive learners and AIDS orphans attending schools have already faced rejection, stigmatisation and other problems caused by ignorant parents. Research by Donovan (1998) has shown that a minority group with influence in high places can influence legislation – abstinence-only groups in the US managed to influence policy in 19 states. Kelly (2000a) and Minister Kader Asmal have stated that there is a need to develop strategies that will enable the implementation of effective interventions within school communities, thus preventing at-risk behaviours amongst young children while they are still innocent, since more than half of primary school children become dropouts in high school. The Minister also said that parents should be included and informed on all aspects of the HIV/AIDS and sexuality curriculum (Educators’ Voice, 2001). Research also indicates that teachers fear conflict and a lack of support from parents concerning HIV/AIDS and sexuality education, thus inhibiting teachers from properly educating children (Kelly, 2000b). Although research indicates that parental participation and support are crucial for programme implementation, there is no research published on parents and school-based HIV/AIDS/sexuality education in South Africa.

Preliminary literature search

  1. School-based HIV/AIDS/sexuality education,

  2. The status of HIV/AIDS/sexuality education in South Africa,

  3. The need for HIV/AIDS/sexuality education,

  4. Policies affecting HIV/AIDS/sexuality education,

  5. The role of parents in HIV/AIDS and sexuality education, and

  6. Parents’ views on school-based HIV/AIDS/sexuality education South Africa, and in the USA and Australia.

This study attempts to explore the views of parents in general, as well as the implications of those views for HIV/AIDS and sexuality education in primary schools.


A qualitative methodology was thought most appropriate for exploring sensitive issues in depth. A semi-structured, in-depth interview method was used and guided by questions structured to explore parents’ views on the most prominent issues as set out under the aims of the study, with specific reference to parents of primary schools. The validity and reliability of the interviews are supported by taped-recorded versions, transcribed verbatim and typed by the researcher. The consent of parents agreeing to avail themselves for confirmation increased the validity and reliability of the research material.

Interviews were conducted at the homes of a convenient sample of 10 (coloured) parents across the Sarepta (Kuilsriver) area. Parents were randomly selected and equally distributed according to gender and literacy level. Parents of learners between Grades 1 and 8 were used to get a representative sample of parents’ views. The unavailability of parents caused the rescheduling of some the interviews. Most parents did not make use of their right to privacy, confidentiality and anonymity after the interview. The aim of the research was to explore the range of different responses parents might have.
Qualitative analytical methods were drawn from literature studies. Mapping and coding techniques as well as conceptual explanations were combined to categorise the different responses of the transcripts and focus these on the aims of the research. Codes and themes with similar responses were combined to minimise and focus the responses (Bowling, 1997; Fiese and Bickham, 1998; Miles and Huberman, 1994, cited in Walker, 2001).
Research results (analysis and discussion still in progress)
Selected key findings are reported here. As stated by Walker (2001:135), a comprehensive analysis of all the findings will be presented in the full report. The findings indicate that although parents approve of the integration of HIV/AIDS/ sexuality education for their primary school children, they have their own views, concerns and recommendations on different issues. It is important to note that most parents were not aware of the integration of a compulsory HIV/AIDS/sexuality curriculum into the Life Skills programme of the Life Orientation learning area in primary schools, and that they understood sexuality education in terms of sex education. Their knowledge of HIV/AIDS was restricted to blood and sex as modes of transmission. This knowledge was predominantly gained via television and newspapers. Parents perceived themselves as the primary educators in the sexual development of children, with the low literacy level parents more willing to share that responsibility with schools. Results also included parents’ views on the following:
HIV/AIDS/sexuality education issues influencing parents’ views: Parents were unanimously in favour of integrating HIV/AIDS/sexuality education into the school curriculum because of fear that their children will be affected.
Definitely! … Definitely, because … it’s basically like a bomb waiting to go off, and if you don’t make children aware of it at an early stage, by the time the bomb goes of, it will be too late. (4:M-H – See Appendix 1: Abbreviation codes)

Some parents abdicated their responsibility for sexuality and HIV/AIDS education by supporting the school.

I think it is a good thing because many times it can’t be taught at home because parents are busy working. … They won’t know how to cope with it, so they should start from an early age. (6:F-H)
Most parents preferred fully-trained teachers who are equipped to educate children on sensitive issues of sexuality because of reasons relating to confidentiality, fear of exposing children to improper knowledge and the failure of curriculum 2005.

Some teachers aren’t adequately informed on what OBE (Outcomes-based Education) is all about, but the state forced them to apply OBE. … The same way with sexuality education, some of them don’t even know what it is, but they are teaching the children. They can confuse them. (4:M-H)

Parents also reported that primary school HIV/AIDS/sexuality topics and strategies should be age-appropriate with specific reference to knowledge of the modes of transmission, drug abuse and abstinence. Topics like sex, condom use and distribution were avoided.

what HIV/AIDS is… and how you get HIV/AIDS. (4:M-H)

I don’t think they must tell the child this is a condom. (6:F-H)

Drugs are also important. …It can lead to … (7:F-L)

I would rather say that a child should abstain from sex, … (1:M-H)
The majority of parents with a low literacy level were supportive of the promotion of a combined sex and abstinence education approach. Their views were mostly influenced by their personal experiences and environmental circumstances.

If you want to have sex, I will take you to Sister Mildred for an injection (2:M-L).

They would if you say they must only abstain, than they will want to know why. … or they will start experimenting with it. … it’s like … As soon as they give them the condom; they will want to try it out. (8:F-L)
The majority of parents supported the presence of HIV-positive learners and teachers in their respective primary schools. Most parents with a low literacy level were, however, concerned about or opposed to the disclosure of HIV-positive victims because of the safety aspect.

Many children are … used to teasing, which might hurt the HIV victim and the parents. (7:M-L)

Most high-literacy parents approved of the disclosure of HIV positive victims because they are still worried about the chances of accidental infection during sports or fighting.

I don’t even know how many HIV-positive children are in that school … and children do play rough, … my children are HIV-positive, and I won’t even know how they contracted it. (4:M-H)

Some parents were also concerned about exposing learners to content and material that they are not ready for, or that might lead to early experimentation with sexual activities.

Yes! … We should let sleeping dogs lie where children are concerned. However, one must also face the reality that these things are happening amongst children. … (5:M-L)
Some parents expressed concerns about neglecting the equally important aspects of a child’s academic development.

As long as they don’t concentrate on it too much, because there is a lot of other aspects in life that’s got to be covered. (6:F-H)
The majority of parents admitted to having experienced a lack of confidence in successfully educating and monitoring the sexual development of their children because of a fear of embarrassment and a lack of skills to openly communicate, thus resulting in accidental or one-sided communication on sexuality issues.

Just when she asks me a question, or when I feel we are sitting and watching a movie. … (6:F-H)

He is in my daughters’ class, and I told him that I would warn her against his son. (2:M-L)

Factors which parents feel might enhance effective HIV/AIDS/sexuality education: Most parents felt that they should become more knowledgeable, skilled, open-minded and involved in the development of the school and their children because they are role models.

So that where the teacher cannot fill the gap, I can. So, I try to assist the teacher by monitoring my child at home. (4:M-H)

... In this day and age the parent must speak openly about HIV/AIDS and the sexual development and transformation. (1:M-H)
Parents therefore felt that school-based sexuality education stimulates and encourages communication between parents and children. Many parents stated that their own lack of sexuality education has caused them to make a lot of regrettable mistakes. Most parents also commented on the help that schools could provide by sexually educating children and minimising their workload:

Just inform me, or keep me in on parts of what they are doing, and how they intend on doing … through letters, parent meetings, … I’ve got a hectic programme. So depending on how I can fit it in. (4:M-H)
Mothers seemed more willing or available to attend training sessions and workshops, or become involved in programmes that schools might offer:

Maybe they can train me, or some of us. There are a lot of housewives. Maybe they can send us away, … and we can come back and implement into the school again. … We can have a function at school. (8:F-L)
Most of these parents have shaped their views around those prevalent in the media. Knowing that a large majority of parents did not understand the concept sexuality is an indication of the sort of interventions needed.
Most parents expressed a need to be acknowledged, assisted and informed by the school on sensitive issues like HIV/AIDS and sexuality, despite the fact that they claimed not to mind the implementation of programmes without their consent. Developing interventions to reach especially fathers will be beneficial to both the school and parents.

Preliminary discussion and conclusion

Parents in this study confirmed previous studies indicating that the sexuality issue has moved beyond the need for sexuality/HIV/AIDS education to an emphasis on determining what topics, content and strategies should be taught, by whom, at what venue and time, and in what learning area or subject (Kelly, 2000). Parents in this study confirmed that the controversy is around sex-related topics like condom use and distribution. The majority of parents also favoured an open and holistic approach to sexuality education (similar to Australia), aimed at developing the child in the context of the community and family (LoveLife, 2001).
Confirming research from the USA and Australia, mothers were found to be the dominant source of information for both boys and girls. There were no significant differences between the responses of mothers and fathers or literacy levels, except for the fact that the fathers in this study were more receptive to the idea of condom use and distribution than mothers, thus contradicting research indicating the opposite. Parents with a low literacy level were more open to controversial topics, as was reflected in responses influenced by personal experiences, environmental circumstances and a lack of time to spend with children (LoveLife, 2001).
Key factors that influenced parents’ views in this study corresponded with those noted by other researchers like Walker (2001): claiming that they feared over-exposing children to inappropriate topics and accidental HIV infection, had feelings of inadequacy as regards talking openly about sexuality issues, and a lack of knowledge and skills. Mostly illiterate parents admitted to having a need for continuous support, information and training. The majority of parents agreed with research indicating that they should become open-minded and approachable to children (Berne et al, 2000).
Parents need help in how to handle the challenges of HIV/AIDS within families and school communities. Continuous empowerment of parents with proper skills and knowledge is necessary (Heystek and Louw, 1999). Future HIV/AIDS/sexuality interventions should include developing strategies that will allow the inclusion of all parents by doing a needs analysis survey that will save time and money. Further research should cover a broader spectrum of parents, especially within the black community. Surveys and focus group research strategies are also needed if South Africa wants to utilise education effectively as a research tool in preventing HIV/AIDS.


Berne, L. 2000. ‘A qualitative assessment of Australian parents’ perceptions of sexuality education and communication’, in Journal of Sex Education and Therapy, 25: 161-168.

Department of Education. 2000. Government Gazette (1999, notice No 20372): National policy on HIV/AIDS for learners and educators in public schools, and educators in Further Education and Training institutions. Pretoria: USAID.

Donovan, P. 1998. ‘School-based sexuality education: The issues and challenges’, in Family Planning Perspectives, 30: 188-194.

Hammersley, M. 2000. ‘The relevance of qualitative research’, in Oxford Review of Education, 26: 393-402.

Heystek, J. and Louw, E. 1999. ‘Parental participation in school activities: Is it sufficient?’ in South African Journal of Education, 19: 21-26.

Kelly, K. 2000a. Communication for Action: A Contextual Evaluation of Youth Responses to HIV/AIDS. Sentinel Monitoring and Evaluation Project, Beyond Awareness Campaign, Department of Health.

Kelly, M. 2000b. Fundamentals of Education Planning: Planning for Education in the Context of HIV/AIDS. Paris: UNESCO.

LoveLife. 2001. Impending Catastrophe Revisited: An Update on the HIV/AIDS Epidemic in South Africa. Parklands: Henry Kaiser Foundation.

Walker, J. 2001. ‘A qualitative study of parents’ experiences of providing sex education for their children: The implications for health education’, in Health Education Journal, 60: 133-144.

Appendix 1

Abbreviation codes

1-10: number of parent

F Female

M Male

L Low literacy level

H High literacy level

Appendix 2
Description of primary school parents


Age of parent

Gender of parent

Literacy level

Age of learner

Gender of learner





University degree

9 & 13






Grade 10 – Salesman







Technicon diploma

8, 8 & 14






Grade 7 – Driver and preacher

8 &13






Grade 9 – Driver







Technicon diploma







Grade 9 – Home executive

14 & 7






Grade 10 – Home executive

15 & 13






Grade 8 – Shop assistant







Grade 8 – Home executive




The development of HIV/AIDS posters

for professional health care workers
S. Yasin-Harnekar

(University of the Western Cape)

Media as a resource in its various forms is a powerful communication tool. In regions with limited resources, posters can be used as an effective educational medium. To be effective, a poster must define its target audience and have a message appropriate to the medium (Coulson, Goldstein and Ntuli, 1998). The UWC Faculty of Dentistry as a World Health Organisation Collaborating Centre for Oral Health was commissioned to design posters depicting oral lesions associated with HIV/AIDS.
The aim of this project was to develop a set of posters to educate professional health care workers in the African region about the management of oral lesions associated with HIV/AIDS. The four objectives were:

  1. to enable professional health care workers to identify and manage oral lesions;

  2. to enable professional health care workers to refer patients where indicated;

  3. to raise awareness of the oral lesions associated with HIV/AIDS; and

  4. to raise awareness of the role of the professional health care worker in promoting the well-being of the HIV/AIDS patient.


A task team prepared an appropriate message and a mock layout. A series of six posters were planned: one of the head and neck examination; three to depict oral lesions; one of general clinical signs and one dealing with overall health care. A process of continuous qualitative assessment was undertaken by various staff members to ensure that a clear message was communicated, and that appropriate photographs were used. Quality testing and evaluation involved presenting the poster series to a group of professional health care workers and young adults. The former group responded more positively to the posters than did the younger adults. They felt that the information was appropriate and the layout acceptable. The ‘final’ product was translated into French and Portuguese. A graphic artist was consulted from the outset of the poster development.

This project shows that with consultation, planning, participation and quality assurance, posters can be developed as an appropriate educational tool for professional health care workers.

1 This paper has been reduced from its original length - Editor

2 Extract taken from one of the posters in the 18 April 2001 demonstration against pharmaceutical companies in Johannesburg.

3 MTCT, stands for mother-to-child transmission, one of the ways in which HIV can be transmitted. It is also known as vertical transmission.

th Editor’s adjustment

4 Jolene Skordis is a postgraduate student at the University of Cape Town. Jolene’s work was supervised by Nicoli Natrass, Professor of Economics.

5 AZT is taken after 34 weeks, not 36 weeks because it was discovered that most South African women deliver their babies two weeks earlier and the reasons are not known at the moment.

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of M. Psych (Clinical) in the Department of Psychology, University of the Western Cape

2 Editor’s adjustment

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