Introduction II Knowledge Enrichment Lecture notes



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SOURCE H

The following is adapted from British Prime Minister Tony Blair’s speech to the North Atlantic Assembly entitled ‘Europe’s Defense Capability’ (November 13, 1998).




Europe has always been the weaker of the twin pillars of the Alliance both in its ability to decide rapidly and its capability to put these decisions into action… Europe’s foreign policy voice in the world is unacceptably muted and ineffective, given our economic weight and strategic interests… We must change this… by ensuring that the EU can speak with a single authoritative voice on key international issues of the day, and can intervene effectively where necessary. Europe needs to develop the ability to act alone in circumstances where, for whatever reasons, the US is not able or does not wish to participate.

Source: G. Rosenthal, ‘National Security and Defense Implications of the European Union,’ in D. Kotlowski (ed.), The European Union: From Jean Monet to the Euro (Ohio: Ohio University Press, 2000), p.196.

SOURCE H

The following is adapted from British Prime Minister Tony Blair’s speech to the North Atlantic Assembly entitled ‘Europe’s Defense Capability’ (November 13, 1998).




Europe has always been the weaker of the twin pillars of the Alliance both in its ability to decide rapidly and its capability to put these decisions into actionEurope’s foreign policy voice in the world is unacceptably muted and ineffective, given our economic weight and strategic interests… We must change this… by ensuring that the EU can speak with a single authoritative voice on key international issues of the day, and can intervene effectively where necessary. Europe needs to develop the ability to act alone in circumstances where, for whatever reasons, the US is not able or does not wish to participate.

Source: G. Rosenthal, ‘National Security and Defense Implications of the European Union,’ in D. Kotlowski (ed.), The European Union: From Jean Monet to the Euro (Ohio: Ohio University Press, 2000), p.196.

Key:

RED = existing position of Europe in the world up to 1998

YELLOW = Europe’s influence in international affairs till 1998

GREEN = speaker’s expectations of EU in 1998

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Extended Learning Activity 1




Genetically modified foods (GM foods) – a good solution to be considered?

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Historical context:

While some scientists found that DNAs can be transferred from one organism to another in as early as 1946, the first transgenic plant was produced in 1983. Since then, scientists have undertaken numerous researches in food genetic engineering. The early 1990s witnessed several breakthroughs in producing food crops resistant to pests and diseases, delay ripening process or to increase yields. Since then, genetically modified food (GM food) has been seen as one the major solutions to the limited global supply of food, despite the public health worries it might bring to mankind.



Objectives:

After this learning activity, students should be able to:



  • cite the motives of adopting (and not adopting) genetically modified food as a solution to the global problem of food shortage, and

  • point out whether it is possible for the United Nations to help reach a satisfactory solution of problems of food shortage.

When to use this learning activity:

  • After teaching the role of the United Nations in solving problems of population and resources

  • Before assessing the achievements and limitations of the United Nations’ efforts

How to use this learning activity:

  1. Students divide themselves into groups of 4, taking up the following roles and goals respectively:

  • A: Head of the government of developing country (Country X) suffering from serious food shortage

  • B: Chief Executive Officer of an international enterprise producing and selling GM food

  • C: Director-General of the World Health Organization of the United Nations

  • D: Legal representative of food shortage victims in Country X

  1. Students read Sources D and E. Each student has to define one’s own major concern(s), objective(s), task(s), and feasible strategy/strategies with reference to Sources D and E and using one’s own knowledge.

  2. 1st round of discussion (7 minutes): Every discussion group should consist of roles A, B, C and D. Every member strives to maximize one’s own grip on the major concern(s), objective(s), etc. set in Step 2 above, and avoid/minimize the compromise of one’s own principles.

  3. 2nd round of discussion (7 minutes): Students form “expert groups”, i.e. Groups A, B, C and D. Every expert group examines:

  • The strategies used to securing a firm grip on one’s role-related principles

  • The difficulties met in the course of negotiation

  • Possible tactics that could guarantee a higher chance of securing established principles and avoiding/minimizing compromises with other parties

  • Whether it is possible to reach a win-win situation for all parties

  1. 3rd round of discussion (7 minutes): Students go back to their original groups of four, and re-negotiate with the new tactics discussed in the expert groups.

  2. After all 3 rounds of discussion, the teacher invites some students to share to the whole class on the following questions:

  • What are the major reasons for adopting (and not adopting) GM food as a solution to problems of food shortage?

  • What have been the major obstacles that hindered the reaching of a win-win situation for all?

  • Is it possible for the United Nations to help solve the problem of food shortage satisfactorily?



SOURCE I

The following is extracted from an article on “Genetically Modified Foods” published in April 2000.




Malnutrition is common in third world countries where impoverished peoples rely on a single crop such as rice for the main staple of their diet. However, rice does not contain adequate amounts of all necessary nutrients to prevent malnutrition. If rice could be genetically engineered to contain additional vitamins and minerals, nutrient deficiencies could be alleviated. For example, blindness due to vitamin A deficiency is a common problem in third world countries.

Source: “Genetically Modified Food – Harmful or Helpful? – ProQuest website” (http://www.csa.com/discoveryguides/gmfood/overview.php) (Accessed on 11 August 2014)


SOURCE J

The following is adapted from an article about NGO Cautions Country on Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs).




Speaking exclusively to East African Business Week in Dar es Salaam last week, Mr. Elias Mtinda, the Agriculture and Food Security Advisor of the ActionAid Tanzania, said there is a need for the government to make its own decision without being influenced by bigger companies on decisions regarding the approval of the use of GMO food products.

Source: “Tanzania: NGO Cautions Country on GMOs – AllAfrica website” (http://allafrica.com/stories/201204301291.html) (Accessed on 11 August 2014).
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Extended Learning Activity 2




Greenpeace’s struggle against genetically modified (GM) food

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Historical context:

Greenpeace was set up by a few environmental activists in 1971 when they set sail from Vancouver, Canada to bear witness to some American underground nuclear testing in Alaska, which was home to many wildlife species. Throughout the past 4 decades, Greenpeace has always put environmental campaigns as its first priority. With its headquarters in Amsterdam, the Netherlands, Greenpeace has been widely known for its numerous actions against entrepreneurial and government behaviour that run against the Greenpeace ideals. These actions are sometimes controversial and regarded as violent.



Objectives:

After this learning activity, students should be able to:



  • understand the environmental concerns of Greenpeace, and

  • cite the factors that may hinder international attempts at solving problems of food shortage

When to use this learning activity:

  • After teaching the international cooperation led by the United Nations attempting to solve food shortage problems

  • Before assessing the achievements and limitations of international attempts at solving food shortage problems

How to use this learning activity:

  1. Students form themselves into pairs or groups of three, and read Sources K and L.

  2. Students assume the role of the spokesperson of Greenpeace. Discuss, prepare and present a 8-minute speech for a press conference after the clash with CSIRO. The speech should address the following:

      1. Why is Greenpeace concerned about the GM wheat experiment of the CSIRO?

      2. Why does Greenpeace think it was necessary to clash with CSIRO?

      3. What does Greenpeace expect the United Nations to do so as to solve the global problem of food shortage effectively without resorting to GM food?




      1. Under what circumstances would Greenpeace agree to work with the UN and/or the CSIRO to solve the global problem of food shortage?

(Note: Teachers may assign students to do some preliminary research on the Internet regarding the rationale and principles of Greenpeace, the UN’s policies on GM food, other international NGOs’ responses to the same issue, etc.)


  1. An alternative to the above arrangement is that some students assume the role of journalists and raise queries to the Greenpeace spokesperson concerning Greenpeace’s willingness to cooperation with other international NGOs and the UN in solving the food shortage problem.



SOURCE K

The following is an account of Greenpeace’s conflict with an Australian science agency.




In the early hours of a Wednesday morning two weeks ago, three Greenpeace activists made their way past the perimeter fence at Ginninderra Experiment Station in Canberra, Australia, and destroyed a crop of GM wheat using weed strimmers. A spokeswoman for Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), the national science agency which runs the station, said the damage was estimated to run A$300,000. In a statement released by Greenpeace Australia Pacific, activist Laura Kelly stated that “We had no choice but to take action to bring an end to this experiment”.

Source: “What’s next Greenpeace, burning books? – Scienceblogs website” (http://scienceblogs.com/sciencepunk/2011/07/28/in-the-early-hours-of/) (Accessed on 12 August 2014).

SOURCE L

The following is another account of Greenpeace concerning its clash with the above agency.




Greenpeace activists have taken non-violent direct action to stop Australia’s environment and food supply from being contaminated by genetically modified wheat. The GM wheat that has been released across Australia has not been proven safe. It hasn’t been tested for toxic and allergic effects. All evidence shows that GM wheat cannot be contained; it will contaminate our food supply and the environment.

Source: “Q & A on GM Wheat trial action – Greenpeace website” (http://www.greenpeace.org/australia/en/what-we-do/Food/resources/FAQs/Q--A-on-GM-Wheat-trial-action/) (Accessed on 12 August 2014)

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Extended Learning Activity 3




Developed countries’ financial aid for developing countries

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Historical context:

Since the establishment of the United Nations in 1945, a number of UN agencies and funds have been set up to provide financial and material aid to developing and underdeveloped countries suffering from the problem of poverty. Such UN agencies include the International Monetary Fund (IMF, 1945) and the World Bank (1945), the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO, 1945), the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF, 1946), the United Nations World Food Programme (UNWFP, 1961), the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA, 1969), and the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD, 1977). These agencies provide financial aid to countries in need on either ad hoc or regular basis. The generous but sometimes misused funds provided by the UN have been subject to public concern and criticism.



Objectives:

After this learning activity, students should be able to:



  • cite the roles and various tasks of the UN in the relief of global poverty problems, and

  • identify difficulties and challenges met by the UN in doing so

When to use this learning activity:

  • After teaching the global pattern of poverty problems

  • Before proceeding to the roles played by the UN in solving these problems

How to use this learning activity:

  1. Students, either in groups or in pairs, read Sources M and N.

  2. Students identify the various problems reflected in the Sources regarding the distribution of relief funds for countries suffering from poverty.

  3. From the website of the United Nations, each group of students selects a particular UN agency (e.g. the UN World Food Programme) whose work is related to the problem of poverty.



  1. Students assume the role of the financial director of the United Nations in charge of providing financial aids to developing countries with significant poverty problems. Students have to write a proposal on the new allocation of poverty relief funds. When writing the proposal, students have to consider the following questions:

  1. How should raised funds meet the financial needs of countries troubled by poverty?

  2. How should various relief-related tasks be prioritized?

  3. How should the UN supervise and ensure the proper use of funds?

  4. What difficulties and challenges regarding the actual relief of poverty problems can be foreseen?

  5. What further remedies can be pursued in such cases?

SOURCE M

The following is a cartoon appeared in a Tanzanian newspaper in July 2006.


Source: Creative Commons license (http://www.pambazuka.net/images/articles/500/hakima_abbas/gado_aid_cow.jpg (Accessed on 12 August 2014).

SOURCE N

The following is a Kenyan cartoon.


Source: Creative Commons license http://www.pambazuka.net/images/articles/500/hakima_abbas/gado_ngo_cashcow.jpg (Accessed on 12 August 2014).

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Extended Learning Activity 4




Médecins Sans Frontières

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Historical context:

Medecins Sans Frontieres (MSF), i.e. Doctors Without Borders, was set up in France in 1971 by 13 founding doctors and journalists, and about 300 volunteers. MSF's core belief is that people of all genders, races, religions, creeds and political affiliations should be entitled to healthcare beyond any kind of boundary. Its earliest missions were sent to Nicaragua (1972), Honduras (1974) and Cambodia (1975). Since 1980, MSF has opened 28 national offices. In 1999, MSF received the Nobel Peace Prize in recognition of its medical services. Nowadays, it employs over 30,000 people worldwide. Ever since its beginning, it has treated more than 100 million patients.



Objectives:

After this learning activity, students should be able to:



  • identify MSF’s pledge to maintain its financial and operational independence; and

  • assess to what extent MSF was truly an independent non-governmental organization (NGO).

When to use this learning activity

  • After giving students an overview of international NGOs involved in global development of medicine and public health;

  • Before proceeding to UN agencies’ involvement in global development of science and technology

How to use this learning activity:

1. Students form themselves into groups of 4 and read Sources O and P.

2. 1st round of discussion:

What kind of "independence" does the MSF value? Why does MSF see “independence” as an important basis of its work?

Ans.: It refers to financial and operational independence. It is important because the MSF has to deliver medical help to all races and social groups without any bias or favouritism, thus building its trustworthiness and authority in its service domain.


  1. Based on Sources O and P, students browse the corporate information of the MSF on its website (http://www.msf.org.hk), and collect evidence for/against the following statements:

  • “MSF's financial dependence on donations and operational dependence on volunteers' help makes it not fully independent.”

  • “MSF has been successful in operating its medical services up to 2000.”

  • “MSF's medical work among the countries in need has been sufficient and satisfactory.”


Source O

The following text is adapted from the website of Médecins Sans Frontières (Doctors Without Borders, MSF).




To uphold MSF’s independence so that we can be seen to offer assistance to populations in danger without discrimination and irrespective of race, religion, sex, creed or political affiliations, the great majority of MSF's funding for projects comes from donations from the public. MSF ensures that 80% or more of all funds raised are used for supporting relief operations. The rest goes towards covering administration and fundraising expenses. In 2011, 89% of the funds raised by MSF-HK were used to support relief operations in the frontline.

Source: "How we use donations - Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) website" (http://www.msf-seasia.org/5508) (Accessed on 13 August 2014)
Source P

The following text is adapted from the website of Medecins Sans Frontieres (Doctors Without Borders, MSF).




One-off Donation

Medical needs are great, and MSF has a unique opportunity to make a difference. With your support, we can continue to independently and impartially provide emergency medical assistance to people affected by armed conflict and natural disasters, and to marginalised people who find themselves excluded from healthcare.

Please support MSF now! With just a little, we can save more lives.


Source: "One-off donation - Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) website" (https://ssl.msf.hk/donate/en/oneoff) (Accessed on 13 August 2014).
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Extended Learning Activity 5




Greenpeace’s mission on environmental protection

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Historical context:

Before WWII, the world had adopted no restriction to the access of the seas. In 1945, American President Harry Truman challenged this principle by extending American jurisdiction over all natural resources on the continental shelf of the U.S. From 1946 onwards, countries, such as Argentina, Chile, Egypt, Ethiopia, Saudi Arabia and Indonesia followed suit. Over the decades, oceanic activities such as offshore oil extraction and deep-water fishing have repeatedly caused international concerns. In 1973, the Third United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea was convened, leading to the signing of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea in 1982 and its eventual coming into effect in 1994. The UNCLOS recognized the oceans as a global resource for which all countries share responsibility.



Objectives:

After this learning activity, students should be able to:



  • cite examples on how human activities have threatened the marine environment, and

  • identify how the marine environment can be safeguarded by the United Nations

When to use this learning activity:

  • After introducing different kinds of environmental problems

  • Before teaching how the United Nations has responded to environmental problems

How to use this learning activity:

  1. Students get into groups of 4, and read Source Q to find out the following information:

      1. Which international treaty was signed to safeguard the marine environment?

Ans.: The United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS).

      1. When did this treaty enter into force?

Ans.: In the year 1994.

      1. What was the main point of this treaty?

Ans.: It recognized the oceans as a truly global resource, and all nations have a shared responsibility for its maintenance.

      1. How was the general condition of the marine environment up to 2004?

Ans.: The oceans are severely threatened by human activities such as overfishing and pollution. The ocean ecosystems, fish populations and deep-sea biodiversity might disappear in the future.

  1. With the help of computers/tablets connected to the Internet, students search a particular event during the period 1994-2000 related to the threatening/deterioration of the marine environment due to human activities. Students skim through the event and narrate that event briefly to the whole class.

  2. As the second round of information search, students look for information concerning how the United Nations responded to / dealt with that particular event, i.e. press conference, public speech, reports, meetings, sanctions, etc. Students may also check whether the UN made use of the UNCLOS when responding to / dealing with those events, and explain why the UN did / did not do so.



SOURCE Q

The following is an extract from a Greenpeace speech entitled ‘Statement to the United Nations General Assembly: On Behalf of the Deep Sea Conservation Coalition.’




Today (November 16th, 2004) marks the tenth anniversary of the entry into force of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS). This groundbreaking treaty took a major step towards international recognition of our oceans as a truly global resource, for which all nations have a shared responsibility. Ten years on, however, our oceans are in crisis, threatened by human activities such as overfishing, pollution and climate change. It is abundantly clear that unless States deal comprehensively with the current threats to marine life, we will face a future devoid of vibrant ocean ecosystems, thriving fish populations and deep-sea biodiversity.

Source: "Statement to the United Nations General Assembly on behalf of the Deep Sea Conservation Coalition - Save the High Seas website" (http://www.savethehighseas.org/publicdocs/UNGA_GP_short.pdf) (Accessed on 13 August 2014)


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Extended Learning Activity 1




Burden of history and Sino-Japanese disputes

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Historical context:

In the 1960s and 1970s, some Japanese started to advocate that Japan should admit its war crimes and shoulder the war responsibilities. Meanwhile, some right-wing Japanese nationalists attempted to weaken the narration of Japanese imperialism in Asia inside History textbooks. In 1982 and 1986 respectively, the Japanese Ministry of Education approved History textbooks that substantially misrepresented the impact of Japanese militarism on Asian countries. At least 200 Japanese historians protested against such approval of textbooks, and the publishing, legal, political and educational sectors involved in the heated debate. The Chinese authorities and civilians expressed their discontent with the response of the Japanese government, despite some minor attempts of the Japanese government at rectifying the History textbooks. Renewed right-wing attempts at misrepresenting Japanese militarism in History textbooks took place in 2001 and 2005, and both occasions further strained Sino-Japanese relations.



Objectives:

After this learning activity, students should be able to:



  • cite the sensitive issues that strained Sino-Japanese relations in recent years, and

  • identify different parties’ views towards these issues.

When to use this learning activity:

This learning activity, related to Sino-Japanese relations, can be used in both the chapter on China and that on Japan.



China:

  • After teaching the modernization of China in Reform and Opening Up period (1978-2000)

  • Before teaching the impact of the Reform and Opening Up on Sino-Japanese relations (i.e. as a lead-in to Sino-Japanese relations)

Japan:

  • After teaching the post-WWII political and social development of Japan

  • Before teaching the changes and development of Japan’s political, economic and cultural relationships with her Asian neighbours (i.e. as a lead-in to Sino-Japanese relations)

How to use this learning activity:

  1. Students divide themselves into small groups in which they collaborate in reading, deconstructing and conducting inquiry learning on Sources R and S.

  2. Students raise questions among themselves so as to extract information and interpret viewpoints from the Sources. Sample questions and answers are as follows:

  1. How were Sino-Japanese relations made worse?

Ans.: When the Japanese government approved controversial history textbooks (Source R). / When Japanese politicians visited the controversial Yasukuni Shrine (Source S).By downplaying Japanese occupation of Asian countries in the early 20th century (Source R). / By paying homage to Japanese war criminals despite China's protests. (Source S).

  1. How did the Chinese respond to the Japanese actions?

Ans.: By heavily criticizing history textbooks approved by the Japanese government (Source R). / By warning the Japanese government about its own promises and its duty to deal with historical controversies responsibly (Source S).

  1. What did the Chinese want the Japanese to do in order to repair the Sino-Japanese relations?

Ans.: To disapprove the misrepresented history textbooks (Source R). / To recognize Japan's war guilt (Source R). / To stop visiting the Yasukuni Shine (Source S). / To shoulder more responsibility for the historical controversies (Source S).

  1. Afterwards, by using the following questions, teachers can guide students into realizing the limited help offered by the Sources in terms of a comprehensive understanding of the controversies in Sino-Japanese relations:

  1. Do Sources R and S reflect the Japanese views about the approval of the history textbooks and the visit to the Yasukuni Shrine? No.

  2. Do Sources R and S reflect the reasons/motives of the Japanese government and politicians in taking the controversial actions? No.

  3. Do Sources R and S present any response from the Japanese government to the criticisms by the press and the Chinese authorities? No.

  4. Where can we find information about the Japanese views about and reasons/motives of their own actions?

Ans.: From newspapers, the Japanese government's declarations, analyses by Sino-Japanese relations experts, etc.

  1. Students can be required to conduct a mini-research based on the 4 questions above, and give presentations of 5 minutes each on their findings in the next lesson.

SOURCE R

The following is an extract from a news article in Britain on 6 April 2005.




The Japanese government's approval of a set of controversial history textbooks has reignited bitter disputes over the region's past in the South Korean and Chinese press…The China Daily agrees it is a "political provocation", worrying the books downplay Japanese occupation of Asian countries in the first half of the 20th century. Chinese dailies pull no punches in slating the history textbooks as well as the government that approved them.

Source: Japan textbook angers Chinese, Korean press - BBC News website (http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/4416593.stm) (Accessed on 15 August 2014)


SOURCE S

The following is adapted from a news report in the U.S.A. on 17 October 2012.




The head of Japan's major opposition party and favorite to become the nation's next prime minister, Shinzo Abe, visited a controversial shrine Wednesday in a move likely to ratchet up already heightened tensions with China.

Past visits by Japanese prime ministers and other political leaders to Yasukuni Shrine, where 14 of Japan's Class-A war criminals are enshrined with thousands of Japanese soldiers, have ignited a firestorm of controversy with China as well as North Korea and South Korea.

Responding to a question about the visit, Chinese Foreign Ministry spokesman Hong Lei said Wednesday that Japan should abide by its promises and handle controversial issues responsibly, the state-run Xinhua news service reported.


Source: Shrine visit could inflame tensions between Japan, China (http://edition.cnn.com/2012/10/17/world/asia/japan-china-shrine-visit) (Accessed on 15 August 2014).
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Extended Learning Activity 2




Sino-Japanese relations in reciprocity

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Historical context:

Though Japan and the People’s Republic of China had been enemies during the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937-45) and the early years of the People’s Republic of China (PRC) (1950s), the two nations maintained unofficial relations, i.e. bilateral trade, since the signing of the First Sino-Japanese Non-official Trade Agreement in 1952. With some ups and downs in between, this relationship was enhanced and consolidated by the Sino-Japanese Long-term Trade Memorandum in 1962. Sino-Japanese relations were finally formalized in 1972 when the Japanese government recognized the government of the PRC as the legitimate representative of China. In 1978, the Sino-Japanese Treaty of Peace and Friendship was ratified. Since 1978, Japan and the PRC were both diplomatically and economically linked up with each other. The ever-growing trade between the two countries substantially expanded the scope of contact and mutual influence, thus increasing both cooperation and clashes.



Objectives:

After this learning activity, students should be able to:



  • identify the positive and negative elements in the bilateral relationship between two nations, and

  • assess the usefulness of a textual source in reflecting historical facts.

When to use this learning activity:

  • After teaching Japan’s relations with her Asian neighbours

  • Before moving on to any other topics


How to use this learning activity:

  1. Students get into pairs or groups and read Source T.

  2. Students identify the positive and negative elements affecting the Sino-Japanese relations as shown in Source T.




Positive elements

Negative elements

  • rising export trade

  • exchange in technology

  • investment on each other's market

  • decreasing Chinese demand for Japanese products

  • Chinese enterprises finding alternative products from non-Japanese suppliers

  • trade competition from other countries

  • emergence of right-wing politics

  1. Students discuss the following question:

  1. What other elements are not yet shown in Source T?

Ans.: The Japanese war crimes controversy (e.g. comfort women); the history textbook controversy; the Diaoyu Islands sovereignty disputes; Japan's military/diplomatic links with the U.S., etc.

ii. How would you judge the usefulness of Source T in reflecting the factors affecting Sino-Japanese relations since 1978? Explain why you think so.

□ A. Source T is largely useful and comprehensive in reflecting the factors affecting Sino-Japanese relations.

□ B. Source T is largely insufficient in reflecting the factors affecting Sino-Japanese relations.



SOURCE T

The following is an extract from an article featured in a news website on 9 January 2013.



“The spats have become increasingly costly as Japan’s dependence on China as an export market has risen,” said Tony Nash, a Singapore-based managing director at IHS Inc., which provides research and analytics for industries including financial companies. “Nationalism around the issue has resulted in lower demand for Japanese products in China and even Chinese firms sourcing products from Korean suppliers.”

“As Japan’s politics turn decisively to the right, more and frequent spats between Japan and China are expected,” said Liu Li-Gang, chief economist for Greater China at Australia and New Zealand Banking Group Ltd. who used to work for the World Bank. “Both economies will lose in the end. Japan will lose a big market, and China will not be able to leverage on Japan’s technology and investment for growth.”



Source: China-Japan Dispute Takes Rising Toll on Top Asian Economies - Bloomberg website (http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2013-01-08/china-japan-dispute-takes-rising-toll-of-asia-s-top-economies.html) (Accessed on 15 August 2014).

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Extended Learning Activity 3




Impact of the end of Cold War on ASEAN

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Historical context:

The establishment of ASEAN in 1967 was landmark in the history of Southeast Asia as it signaled the Southeast Asian nations' recognition of and dedication to regional cooperation. They pledged to solve territorial, political and regional conflicts by peaceful negotiation. Yet, certain issues arose to challenge the nations' solidarity, sometimes even to produce distrust between each other and shake the foundation of regional cooperation. Such issues include the waning of communist threat from Vietnam, the decreasing popularity of communism and communist revolutions, as well as the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991. These developments have gradually altered the focus and concerns of the ASEAN member states, thus also changing their relations, alignments, diplomatic approaches and, ultimately, their willingness to pursue further cooperation.



Objectives:

After this learning activity, students should be able to:



  • identify and explain historical events that affected the development of international cooperation in ASEAN, and

  • arrange such events coherently using a timeline and coloured boxes.

When to use this learning activity:

  • After teaching the establishment of ASEAN in 1967

  • Before going into various factors affecting the development of international cooperation among ASEAN members

How to use this learning activity:

Source U is an academic text and may not be easy for students to comprehend. Teachers are, therefore, suggested to select the proper task from below according to students’ ability.



Approach 1: For students with higher reading and organizational ability

1. Students work in pairs or groups, and read Source U on their own.

2. Students find answers from Source U to the following questions:

SOURCE U

The following is adapted from an article on ASEAN which appeared in a book first published in 2004.




There are, however, a number of structural and issue-specific challenges that confront ASEAN as well. Structurally, at the international level, the dissipation of bipolarity and the collapse of the Soviet Union as previously constituted removed the anti-communist ideological glue that informed and led to convergent foreign and defense policies. The resulting decompression effect has been a reordered agenda in terms of external threat perceptions, defense strategies and arms acquisitions. For example, the Soviet Union and its perceived proxy Vietnam are no longer the threats to regional security. Similarly, the disbandment of communist insurgency movements in Malaysia and Thailand has significantly altered threat perceptions and defense doctrines.

Source: ‘ASEAN: A Community Stalled?’ in Jim Rolfe, ed., The Asia-Pacific: A Region in Transition (Honolulu: Asia-Pacific Centre for Security Studies, 2004), pp.116-132.


  1. What historical events/developments are mentioned in Source U? (Also, when did these developments take place?)

Ans.: The waning of communist threat from Vietnam (1980s-90s), the decreasing popularity of communism and communist revolutions in SE Asian countries (1980s-90s), the collapse of the Soviet Union (1991).

  1. How was/were the pattern(s) of ASEAN politics before these historical events/developments took place?

Ans.: “Anti-communist ideological glue that informed and led to convergent foreign and defense policies”, i.e. With a strong sense of solidarity and communism as common enemy, all ASEAN member states took the same diplomatic and military stance against communism.

  1. How did those historical events change the pattern(s) of ASEAN politics?

Ans.: “A reordered agenda in terms of external threat perceptions, defense strategies and arms acquisitions”, i.e. ASEAN members started to have different perceived enemies, adopt different national defense strategies, and find their own ways of building up their armaments.

3. Students use a timeline (maybe also some boxes and symbols if appropriate) to link up the events, developments and changing patterns mentioned above to demonstrate the continuities and changes in ASEAN politics.




Decreasing popularity of communism and communist revolutions




Waning of communist threat from Vietnam




Different perceived enemies




Strong sense of solidarity in ASEAN




Different national defense strategies and armament acquisitions

Anti-communist ideology and stance




Similar foreign and defense policies

1980


1990
1991: Dissolution of the USSR

1975: End of Vietnam War




Approach 2: For students with lower reading ability

Students work in pairs or groups, and read Source U with visual prompts and guiding questions.

Students answer the questions in the margin boxes.



  • What historical events/developments are mentioned in Source W? When did they take place?

    • Communist revolutionary groups in Malaysia and Thailand were disbanded.

    • Collapse of the Soviet Union (Year: 1991)

    How was the original pattern of ASEAN politics?

    • All ASEAN countries were anti-communist.

    • They shared similar foreign and defense policies

    How did those historical events change the pattern(s) of ASEAN politics?

    • ASEAN members no longer saw the Soviet Union and Vietnam as enemies.

    • They started to have different enemies.

    • They started to adopt different national defense strategies

    • They started to find their own ways of building up armaments.


SOURCE U

The following is adapted from an article on ASEAN which appeared in a book first published in 2004.




There are, however, a number of structural and issue-specific challenges that confront ASEAN as well. Structurally, at the international level, the dissipation of bipolarity and the collapse of the Soviet Union as previously constituted removed the anti-communist ideological glue that informed and led to convergent foreign and defense policies. The resulting decompression effect has been a reordered agenda in terms of external threat perceptions, defense strategies and arms acquisitions. For example, the Soviet Union and its perceived proxy Vietnam are no longer the threats to regional security. Similarly, the disbandment of communist insurgency movements in Malaysia and Thailand has significantly altered threat perceptions and defense doctrines.

Source: ‘ASEAN: A Community Stalled?’ in Jim Rolfe, ed., The Asia-Pacific: A Region in Transition (Honolulu: Asia-Pacific Centre for Security Studies, 2004), pp.116-132.

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Extended Learning Activity 4




Has the ASEAN lived up to its members’ expectations?

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Historical context:

The South China Sea covers a very large area off the southern coast of China and between the Southeast Asian countries. Over the post-war decades as well as after the national independence of various Southeast Asian countries, there have been a certain number of diplomatic efforts in clarifying the sovereignty of some islands, parts of the sea and the natural resources associated with these territories. However, due to the rapid industrialization of the People’s Republic of China and the Southeast Asian countries, as well as the global need for fuel and energy, the natural resources in the South China Sea have become the target of rivalries among all surrounding countries. While some politicians demanded forceful actions from their governments to proclaim sovereignty, others suggested that the ASEAN should assume its role as an arbitrator.



Objective:

After this learning activity, students should be able to:



  • interpret cartoonists’ views about and attitudes towards regional conflicts in Asia

When to conduct this learning activity:

How to conduct this learning activity:

  1. Students get into pairs or groups.

  2. Students read and compare Sources V and W, and answer the following questions:

Step 1 - Identifying facts and relevant information

  1. What common kind of conflict do Sources V and W represent?

Ans.: Territorial conflict.

  1. Which countries do Sources V and W commonly point to?

Ans.: China and the Philippines.

  1. Which organization are Sources V and W commonly related to?

Ans.: ASEAN.

  1. What role is this organization commonly assumed to play in both cases?

Ans.: Arbitrator of territorial conflicts.
Step 2 - Interpreting views and attitudes

  1. Refer to Source V. What is the cartoonist's view about the influence exercised by the ASEAN?

(Hint: What solution does the ASEAN adopt towards the conflict? Could it effectively stop the interrupting behaviour of the Chinese fisherman?)

Ans.: The cartoonist thought that the ASEAN could not effectively resolve the South China Sea problems by simply encouraging its members to act according to the code of conduct. / The cartoonist thought that the ASEAN failed to resolve the South China Sea problems as the countries in conflict simply ignored its call for observation of the code of conduct.



  1. Refer to Source W. What is the cartoonist's view about the influence exercised by the ASEAN in the territorial conflicts between China and the Philippines?

Ans.: The cartoonist thought that the ASEAN played no role in resolving the territorial conflict as the participants of the ASEAN ministers meeting simply ran away without paying heed to the Philippines' call for addressing the territorial conflict. / The cartoonist thought that the ASEAN failed to resolve the territorial conflict in solidarity as some members ran away when the Philippines called for a resolution.

  1. Do the cartoonists of Sources V and W share the same attitude towards the influence exercised by the ASEAN in handling territorial conflicts in Asia?

Ans.: Yes, they share the same attitude.

  1. What attitude(s) do they have towards the performance of the ASEAN in common? Choose the proper adjectives below to describe their attitudes?

Positive attitudes

Negative attitudes

□ approving

 disapproving

□ trustful

 critical / skeptical

□ understanding

 antipathetic

□ sympathetic

 unsympathetic


SOURCE V

The following is a cartoon that appeared in an Asian magazine on 11 July 2012.


Source: “2012-07-11 cartoon - Asia Observer website “(http://www.asiaobserver.org/?attachment_id=8179) (Last access 19 August 2014).

SOURCE W

The following is a cartoon published in a Filipino newspaper on 4 August 2012.


Source: “Disturbing development in ASEAN - Filipino Star News website” (http://www.filipinostarnews.net/editorial/disturbing-development-in-asean.html) (Last access 19 August 2014).

The essay-type questions are designed to facilitate learning and teaching, assessment for learning and assessment of learning. Teachers may adapt the questions and answers to address the diverse needs of students.



Question 1

Trace and explain the obstacles to European economic integration from 1945-2000.
Suggested approach:

  • Students should break up the given time frame (1945-2000) into several periods. Within each period, students should firstly narrate the major obstacles to European integration and how these led to limited/extended scope of integration by the end of that particular period. Then, students should go on explaining the reasons for the obstacles mentioned. After such “tracing” and “explaining” tasks of the first period has been done, students can proceed to do the same tasks on the second, third, … periods.




  • Students may consider the following way of periodization:

    • 1945-1967 – period of initial economic cooperation and integration

    • 1967-1992 – period of further integration in diverse aspects under European Community

    • 1992-2000 – period of integration and consolidation under European Union




  • Students may consider whether and how each of the following obstacles existed in each period:

    • Fear for loss of autonomy:

        • In agreeing to certain integration policies (e.g. removing tariff barriers), European nations had to forfeit their economic, political or military authority subsequently.

    • The beginning of the Cold War (The Iron Curtain Speech):

        • The Cold War divided Europe into two camps.

        • During the first two decades, there was little conversation between the two camps.

        • The clash between the US and the USSR made it very hard for European countries to come together.

    • Economic differences:

        • E.g.: Some parts of Italy were industrialized; France had a socialist, more open view of free market concepts.

        • E.g.: Holland was in serious need of thorough reconstruction; Belgium had to stabilize her currency; Italy wanted to get rid of the remaining traces of a Fascist economy.

    • Conflicting views/self-interests over crucial issues:

        • West Germany’s future role: Expectation of a rehabilitated, strong West Germany assisting European integration vs. anti-German sentiments

        • Britain’s application for membership in EEC vs. Charles de Gaulle’s anti-British stance



Question 2

Assess the importance of national interests relative to other factors which hindered the process of European economic cooperation.
Suggested approach:

Writing the essay outline –

Before writing the essay, students should outline various factors, among which “national interests” must be included, which hindered the process of European economic cooperation. Students may consider the following factors and enlist supporting evidence accordingly:




Examples of factors

Examples of evidence

National interests

  • Determination of France (under Charles de Gaulle’s presidency until 1969) to reject British application for EEC membership, for fear that French influence in EEC would be weakened.

Geographical distance

  • EFTA members (e.g. Britain, Austria, etc.) were geographically dispersed and could not foster cooperation as effectively as EEC members did.

Ideological conflicts during the Cold War

  • Mutual distrust between the US & the USSR (which was particularly intense from 1946 to the late 1960s) made East-West trade and economic cooperation improbable.

  • The volume of trade between eastern and western European countries was maintained at a minimal level due to the Cold War, until the détente (1970s) when more East-West trade was found acceptable by both superpowers.

Wealth disparity

  • The huge wealth gap between members of the same bloc, e.g. between Greece (economically backward) and France and West Germany (most affluent on European continent), provided grounds for doubt on in-depth economic integration.

After enlisting enough evidence for each factor, students may proceed to weighing “national interests” against each “other factor”. If a student thinks that “national interests” was the most important factor among all, he needs to prove that “national interest” was more important than every “other factor”. This task may take about two to three paragraphs in order to arrive at a fair and unbiased conclusion.

Writing the essay –

Students may present their answer satisfactorily by following these steps:



  • Introduction

      • Which several factors will be examined in your essay?

      • Express clearly your stance on the issue in the question:

        • Was “national interests” the most important factor (i.e. more important than all others)?

        • Or was it of lower importance than “other factors”?

        • Or was it the least important factor among all?

  • Body (1st half): Separate accounts of causal relationship

      • How did “national interests” hinder economic cooperation?

      • How did “geographical distance” hinder economic cooperation?

      • How did “ideological conflicts during Cold War” hinder economic cooperation?

      • How did “wealth disparity” hinder economic cooperation?

  • Body (2nd half): Weighing “national interests” against “other factors”

      • Why was “national interests” more/less important than every “other factor”

      • What criterion/criteria has/have been used in these comparisons?

        • E.g. which factor was more long-lasting and had more sustained impact over the years?

        • E.g. which factor was a fundamental cause of other “factors”?

  • Conclusion

      • Reiterate your stance on the importance of “national interests” relative to “other factors” in hindering European economic cooperation.


Question 3

Choose either one of the following periods and explain in what ways it was a turning point in the development of European economic integration.

  1. The late 1960s

  2. The early 1990s



Suggested approach:

  • The late 1960s and the early 1990s are chosen as turning points in this topic because of the following reasons:

Period

Corresponding reasons

The late 1960s

  • In 1967, the ECSC, EEC and Euratom were merged to form the European Community.

  • In 1968, the customs union in western Europe was completed.

  • In 1968-69, the Common Agricultural Policy of the EC came into effect.

  • In 1969, French President Charles de Gaulle resigned.

The early 1990s

  • In 1990, Germany was re-united.

  • In 1991, the Warsaw Pact and the USSR were dissolved, and the Cold War came to an end.

  • In 1992, the Maastricht Treaty was signed by EC members.

  • In 1993, the European Union was officially established.




  • In the following sample, the year 1967 is taken as the turning point in the development of European economic integration.

  • When discussing the late 1960s as a turning point, students should elaborate on three elements:

  1. The general pattern of European economic integration from 1945 to the mid-1960s;

  2. How, and through which events, some/all previous features of economic integration were changed in the late 1960s; and

  3. The new general pattern of economic integration from the late 1960s to the late 1990s.




  • Teachers may guide students to think about the change in the development of European economic integration from the following perspectives:

  1. The widening scope of cooperation (from merely economic to social and political aspects) between member states;

  2. The formulation of common market policies (from non-existence to existence, e.g. Common Agricultural Policy, customs union, etc.)

  3. The change in attitude towards British influence (from skepticism represented by France und Charles de Gaulle to acceptance and collaboration)

  4. The widening geographical coverage of cooperation (from merely the Inner Six to other European states, e.g. original members of EFTA and former eastern European states).




  • Students may need to know that the answering approaches described below are not the most satisfactory answers:

  1. Merely contrasting the patterns of economic integration before and after the late 1960s (i.e. this is an answer to the “compare and contrast” question type); and

  2. Examining how the development in the late 1960s brought a new pattern of economic integration since the 1970s, without telling the pattern from 1945 to the mid-1960s (i.e. this is an answer to the “impact” question type).


Question 1

How successful was the United Nations in resolving problems of wealth and resources worldwide after the Second World War?
Suggested approaches:

  • A proper answer to this question should include three important elements, namely:

    • Problems of wealth and resources,

    • Solutions adopted by the UN in resolving these problems, and

    • Achievements and limitations of the UN in doing so.

Students should strike a good balance between these three elements throughout all the sections/paragraphs in this essay.

  • To present ideas systematically, students may want to choose either one of the following approaches:


Approach 1:

  • The essay begins with an introduction which states the student’s stance on the degree of successfulness of the UN in resolving global problems of wealth and resources.

  • The first part of the essay examines the achievements of the UN in handling wealth and resources problems.

  • The second part deals with the limitations of the UN in doing so.

  • The third part weighs between the achievements and the limitations of the UN, and reaches an overall judgment on the extent of the successfulness of the UN.

  • The conclusion should reinstate the student’s stance on the given question.


Introduction



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