Introduction II Knowledge Enrichment Lecture notes



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Question 5

Suggested answers and reference for assessment

(a)

Two major areas of Oxfam’s work in the 1970s

Major areas of Oxfam’s work:

  • Raising funds to relieve the impact of natural disasters (Clue: “tapping the sources of public generosity”)

  • To evaluate the needs of the developing countries (Clue: “assessing the needs of the developing world”)




[2+2 marks]

[1+1 mark]
[1+1 mark]

(b)

Whether Oxfam worked in the same areas in the 1990s as it did

L1 General answer without due reference to the Source

L2 Well explained answer with due reference to the Source
Whether Oxfam worked in the same areas in the 1990s (Both Yes and No are acceptable as long as proper clues and elaboration are given.):

  • Yes (i.e. continued fundraising for relief work), with the following clues:

    • “During the 1990s, Oxfam supplied humanitarian aid to affected civilians…”

    • “An Oxfam International advocacy office opened in Washington DC to lobby … the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund…”

  • No (i.e. shifted to promote peace and denounce war by lobbying certain countries), with the following clues:

    • “international lobbying and campaigning aimed at the UN, the Organization of African Unity, and power governments, in an effort to build a lasting peace”

Own knowledge:

  • (For “Yes” above) Natural disasters happened even more frequently than several decades ago, so Oxfam had to continuously perform the roles of fundraiser and humanitarian aid provider.

  • (For “No” above) Racial/Regional/International conflicts arose even more frequently after the 1970s, e.g. those in the Middle East and Africa, thus leading to the worsening situation of insufficient resources in some regions/countries. This caused Oxfam to take a more fundamental strategy to minimize war possibilities instead of ceaselessly provide humanitarian aid.




[4 marks]

[max. 2]

[max. 4]

(c)

The majority of international efforts in resolving global problems of population and resources were just the same as those undertaken by Oxfam during the period 1970s-1990s.” Do you agree?

L1 Rough answer attempting to summarize the Sources, without showing one’s own stance regarding the statement

L2 Lopsided answer, unable to identify international efforts different from those of Oxfam

L3 Comprehensive answer, able to recognize other types of international efforts apart from Oxfam
Similarity between Oxfam and other international efforts:

  • (Source L) raising fund for humanitarian services to alleviate the impact of disasters (e.g. International Red Cross)

  • (Source M) lobbying for international peace (e.g. MSF)


Difference between Oxfam and other international efforts:

  • Oxfam did not pay particular attention to children’s well-being, but UNICEF did.

  • World Vision conducted special community projects to build self-contained communities with sufficient medical, health, educational and occupational services in developing countries, while Oxfam focused merely on medicine and disaster relief.




[7 marks]

[max. 2]
[max. 4]
[max. 7]



6. Study Sources N and O.

SOURCE N

The following extract is adapted from a book published in 1999 on non-governmental organizations.




Environmental INGOs are defined as those international associations that 1) have members from at least three countries and 2) are focused primarily on some aspect of nature. In the sample made of twenty INGOs, there were 13 country representations in 1911. In 1945, there were 73 and in 1972, there were 237. By, 1990, the total number had risen to 543. This mundane fact is related to a much more profound process: the environment became increasingly magnetic in a world culture between 1911 and 1990, inspiring ever more INGOs and attracting ever more widespread adherence.

Source: D. Frank, A. Hironaka, J. Meyer, E. Schofer and N. Tuma, ‘The Rationalization and Organization of Nature in World Culture’ in J. Boli and G. Thomas, ed., Constructing World Culture: International Nongovernmental Organizations since 1875 (California: Stanford University Press, 1999), pp.83, 85.


SOURCE O

The following extract is adapted from a book published in 2008 on non-governmental organizations.




ENGOs (environmental NGOs) coordinated their participation in the Kyoto Protocol negotiations under the umbrella of the Climate Action Network (CAN). CAN was formed in 1989 for environmental organizations interested in the problem of climate change and today has more than 280 members.
Many observers point to the ability of the ENGOs to coordinate their activities and speak with one voice as central to their influence on the Kyoto Protocol negotiations. Without such coordination, statements made by any one group would have been viewed as representing narrow interests rather than the broader interests of the environmental community.

Source: M. Betsill and E. Corell, ed., NGO Diplomacy: The Influence of Nongovernmental Organizations in International Environmental Negotiations (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 2008), pp.46, 63.



(a)

How did the international awareness of environmental issues change over the whole 20th century? Support your answer with relevant clues from Source N. (1+2 marks)


(b)

What was the international consensus regarding the international efforts in handling environmental issues in the 1990s? Explain your answer with reference to Source O. (4 marks)


(c)

What are the usefulness and limitations of Sources N and O in reflecting the different kinds of work undertaken by the international community to handle environmental issues? Explain your answer with reference to Sources N and O and using your own knowledge. (6 marks)



Question 6

Suggested answers and reference for assessment

(a)

How international awareness of environmental issues changed

  • The international awareness of environmental issues rapidly increased throughout the 20th century.

  • Clues:

    • The number of country representations of environmental INGOs increased sharply from 13 in 1911 to 543 in 1990, which is a 40-fold increase over less than a century.




[1+2 marks]

[1 mark]
[2 marks]



(b)

International consensus regarding the international efforts in handling environmental issues

L1 General answer without due reference to the Source

L2 Well-explained answer with due reference to the Source
International consensus:

  • ENGOs generally realized the need to pool together their efforts, and work towards their environmental goals in solidarity

  • Clues, e.g.:

    • “to coordinate their activities and speak with one voice…”

    • “Without such coordination, statements made by any one group would have been viewed as representing narrow interests…”



Own knowledge:

  • Rapid globalization and ever-strengthening commercial and industrial concerns near the end of the 20th century has often put environmental concerns aside or compromised them. Therefore, ENGOs realized the need to stand together to strive for their environmental cause against commercial forces.




[4 marks]
[max. 2]

[max. 4]

(c)

Usefulness and limitations of Sources N and O in reflecting different kinds of work undertaken by the international community to handle environmental issues

L1 Lopsided answer focusing on either usefulness or limitations

L2 Comprehensive answer covering both usefulness and limitations
Usefulness, e.g.:

  • (Source N) ENGOs coordinated their efforts across different countries to secure the achievement of their environmental goals.

  • (Source O) ENGOs took part in the negotiations of the Kyoto Protocol and formed the umbrella organization of Climate Action Network (CAN) to coordinate related issues.


Limitations, e.g.:

Sources N and O do not reflect the following kinds of environmental work:



  • The preservation of wildlife and nature (e.g. World Wide Fund for Nature)

  • The demonstration against overfishing, deforestation, commercial whaling, etc. (e.g. Greenpeace)

  • The education of the public on environmental issues (e.g. Friends of the Earth)




[6 marks]
[max. 3]

[max. 6]


7. Study Sources P, Q and R.

SOURCE P

The following extract is adapted from a book published in 1991 on the impact of Greenpeace in the world.




…Greenpeace has a policy of complete independence from political parties, business interests and other outside organizations. The environment concerns everybody, and the problems that we face now cannot be solved by this party or that party alone.

Source: P. Hurley, The Greenpeace Effect (London: Macmillan Publishers Ltd., 1991), p.3.


SOURCE Q

The following extract is adapted from a book published in 1991 on the impact of Greenpeace in the world.




[In 1972], Greenpeace sailed another tiny boat into Mururoa Atoll in the Pacific Ocean because that was the place where the French government was testing nuclear weapons in the atmosphere… the Greenpeace protesters were attacked by French military personnel, although they offered no physical resistance. World opinion expressed shock and anger at the actions of the French authorities, and in 1974 the French government signed a treaty which banned all atmospheric nuclear testing.

Source: P. Hurley, The Greenpeace Effect (London: Macmillan Publishers Ltd., 1991), pp.4-5.


SOURCE R

The following extract is adapted from a book published in 1991 on the impact of Greenpeace in the world.




Greenpeace continues to record and monitor the levels of acid rain in our environment and insists that we must all take action to cut the levels of pollution caused by cars and industries. Cars must be fitted with ‘catalytic converters’ to reduce the amount of nitrogen oxide which is emitted into the air. Power stations should not emit the huge quantities of sulphur into the atmosphere that they still do today in many places. There are ways of reducing sulphur emissions by 90% with existing technology. Governments should make sure that we stop wasting energy. Conserving energy would mean less acid rain. Less acid rain would make the world a healthier place to live in.

Source: P. Hurley, The Greenpeace Effect (London: Macmillan Publishers Ltd., 1991), p.17.

(a)

Identify the major principle of the work of Greenpeace, as reflected in Source P. Support your answer with one clue from Source P. (1+1 mark)


(b)

What are the main environmental concerns of Greenpeace, as shown in Sources Q and R? Explain your answer with reference to Sources Q and R. (4 marks)


(c)

“Non-governmental organizations (NGOs) have been more active than national governments in making efforts to safeguard the global environment in the late 20th century.” Comment on the validity of this statement with reference to Sources Q and R and using your own knowledge. (7 marks)


Question 7

Suggested answers and reference for assessment

(a)

Major principle of the work of Greenpeace
Major principle:

  • Refusing to associate itself with political, commercial or other forces when pursuing its goals


Clue:

  • “policy of complete independence from political parties, business interests and other outside organizations”




[1+1 mark]
[1 mark]


[1 mark]

(b)

Major environmental concerns of Greenpeace

L1 Unable to paraphrase the Sources, and lopsided discussion about either Source Q or Source R

L2 Able to paraphrase the Sources, and comprehensive discussion about both Source Q and Source R
Major environmental concern in Source Q:

  • The ceasing of and ban on nuclear weapon testing in the atmosphere

  • Clue: “the French government was testing nuclear weapons in the atmosphere … the Greenpeace protesters were attacked…”


Major environmental concern in Source R:

  • The reduction of the various pollutants and chemical emissions that cause acid rain

  • Clue: “Greenpeace continues to record and monitor the levels of acid rain in our environment and insists that we must all take action to …”



[4 marks]

[max. 2]
[max. 4]

(c)

Non-governmental organizations (NGOs) have been more active than national governments in making efforts to safeguard the global environment in the late 20th century.” Comment on the validity of this statement.

L1 Rough answer, unable to present one’s own stance, merely attempting to elaborate the Sources

L2 Lopsided answer arguing for merely one side of the statement, able to present one’s own stance but without sufficient justification

L3 Comprehensive answer considering both sides of the statement, and able to justify one’s own stance
For the argument:

  • (Source Q) Greenpeace was well ahead of the French government in discouraging nuclear weapon testing in the atmosphere. While the French government compromised atmospheric and environmental safety by conducting nuclear weapon testing, Greenpeace took action against it. Finally, such testing was banned upon huge pressure from various pressure groups and ENGOs.

  • (own knowledge) Other ENGOs such as Friends of the Earth and World Wide Fund for Nature are far more active than national governments in educating the public on wildlife and nature preservation.


Against the argument:

  • (Source R) Greenpeace had less control than national governments over environment-related policies, such as legally acceptable levels of car emission, power stations’ sulphur emission, policies of anti-wastage, etc. Greenpeace and similar ENGOs can be seen as being in a more passive status on such policies issues.

  • (own knowledge) In countries such as Germany, governments are often the leaders of ENGOs and environment-related political parties in formulating green policies concerning electricity, nuclear power plants, environmental conservation, recycling of domestic and industrial wastes, etc.




[7 marks]

[max. 2]
[max. 4]
[max. 7]

1. Study Sources A and B.

SOURCE A

The following is adapted from a book on the foreign policy of the People’s Republic of China after 1976.



Major changes have taken place in China’s domestic politics and foreign policy since 1976. In 1978, the Chinese government concluded a Sino-Japanese peace and friendship treaty that included an anti-hegemonic clause. That same year, China and the U.S. established formal diplomatic relations and in the joint communiqué, both sides reaffirmed the principle of anti-hegemony.

Source: J. Cheng, ‘The Evolution of China’s Foreign Policy in the Post Mao Era: From Anti-Hegemony to Modernization Diplomacy’ in J. Cheng, ed., China: Modernization in the 1980s (Hong Kong: The Chinese University of Hong Kong, 1989), p.161.

SOURCE B

The following text is an extract from the Treaty of Peace and Friendship between Japan and the People’s Republic of China signed in 1978.



The Contracting Parties shall develop lasting relations of peace and friendship between the two countries on the basis of mutual respect for the principles of sovereignty and territorial integrity, mutual non-aggression, non-intervention in each other's internal affairs, mutual benefit, and peaceful coexistence.

In accordance with the aforementioned principles and the principles of the Charter of the United Nations, the Contracting Parties affirm that, in their mutual relations, they will use peaceful means to settle all disputes and will refrain from the use of force or the threats of the use thereof.



Source: Created by editing the text ( Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan) (http://www.mofa.go.jp/region/asia-paci/china/treaty78.html) (Accessed on 14 July 2014).


(a)

What was the leading principle of the diplomacy of the People’s Republic of China after 1976, as reflected in Source A? Identify one clue from Source A to support your answer. (1+1 mark)


(b)

Did the signing of the Treaty of Peace and Friendship in 1978 between the People’s Republic of China and Japan reflect the principle you identified in part (a)? Explain your answer with reference to Source B. (4 marks)


(c)

Do Sources A and B adequately reflect the diplomatic relations between the People’s Republic of China and her Asian neighbours during the period 1976-2000? Explain your answer with reference to Sources A and B, and using your own knowledge. (7 marks)
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